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Pert+cpm

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  • 1. Project Management Fundamental What is a Project? Projects are defined as a set of interrelated activities that are directed at achieving a particular goal or objective. In all cases, project have a definitive objective starting and ending point. The out put of a project is not necessarily a physical product, such as the launch of a new consumer product, but also can be service related, such as a television play.
  • 2. Project Management Fundamental What is Project Management? Project management is defined as the process of planning and controlling the resources that make up a project, with the objective of completing the project within specified time, cost, and other cost performance parameters like quality. quality Ultimately, the project manager must establish a plan that identifies the sequence of individual activities and the assignment of resources. resources
  • 3. Project Management Techniques In general, project management techniques are used by managers to help them plan, control, direct and re-plan resources for their projects. PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method) are the Technique Method two most common project management techniques. CPM was developed by J.E. Kelly of Remington-Rand and M.R. Walker of DuPont, as a tool to assist with scheduling maintenance shut-downs of chemical plants. PERT was developed later on, for the U.S. Navy, to help manage the Polaris Missile project. Today, however, differences between the two are relatively minor, and are often used interchangeably PERT/CPM technique. Continued…
  • 4. Project Management Techniques PERT/CPM techniques display project activities in a network diagram to help managers focus their attention on the sequence of events most crucial for project completion. In order to create a network diagram, the project must include activities that not only are clearly defined, but also must be carried out in a specific order (precedence relationship). In most situations, opportunities exist to re-order, compress or extend the activities with the objectives of revising the program budget or completion date.
  • 5. The Project Management Process The project management process using a network model can be separated into four steps: 1. Define the project 2. Identify activities, precedence relationship and time elements 3. Establish critical path 4. Make adjustments i. The trade-offs between cost and completion time ii. Crashing of critical activities iii. Re-ordering the precedence relationships
  • 6. PERT/CPM Example; Mr. Bart’s Skiing Trip Activity ID Activity Name Immediate Predecessor Estimated Time (hours) A Drive to home _ 0.5 B Washing cloths A 4.0 C Packing up B 0.5 D Going to bank A 1.0 E Packing up of car C,D 0.5 F Drive to airport E 0.5 Total = 07 hours {Pessimistic + (4*Most Likely) + Optimistic}/6
  • 7. PERT Diagram; Skiing Trip B Washing cloths 4.0 h A Drive to home C Packing up 0.5 h E Packing up car 0.5 h 0.5 h D Going to bank 1.0 h {Pessimistic + (4*Most Likely) + Optimistic}/6 F Drive to airport 0.5 h
  • 8. PERT Diagram; Skiing Trip (Early Start and Early Finish Times) 0.5 4.5 B Washing cloths 0 0.5 4.0 h 5.0 C Packing up 0.5 h A Drive to home 0.5 h 4.5 5.0 5.5 E Packing up car 0.5 1.5 0.5 h 5.5 6.0 F Drive to airport 0.5 h D Going to bank 1.0 h Earliest Finish Time = Earliest Start Time + Activity Duration
  • 9. PERT Diagram; Skiing Trip (latest Start and Latest Finish Times) 0.5/0.5 4.5/4.5 B Washing cloths 0/0 0.5/0.5 4.5/4.5 C Packing up 4.0 h 0.5 h A Drive to home 0.5 h 5.0/5.0 5.0/5.0 5.5/5.5 5.5/5.5 E Packing up car 0.5/4.0 1.5/5.0 F Drive to airport 0.5 h D Going to bank 1.0 h Latest Start Time = Latest Finish Time - Activity Duration Slack or Floating Activity = (LS – ES) = (LF – EF) > 0 Critical Activity = (LS – ES) = (LF – EF) = 0 6.0/6.0 0.5 h
  • 10. PERT Diagram; Skiing Trip (latest Start and Latest Finish Times) 0.5/0.5 4.5/4.5 B Washing cloths 0/0 0.5/0.5 4.5/4.5 C Packing up 4.0 h 0.5 h A Drive to home 0.5 h 5.0/5.0 5.0/5.0 5.5/5.5 5.5/5.5 E Packing up car 0.5/4.0 1.5/5.0 F Drive to airport 0.5 h D Going to bank 1.0 h Latest Start Time = Latest Finish Time - Activity Duration Slack or Floating Activity = (LS – ES) = (LF – EF) > 0 Critical Activity = (LS – ES) = (LF – EF) = 0 6.0/6.0 0.5 h