Exploring Service Design: User Experience Beyond the Screen

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A look at service design: What is is, and how it related to user experience design. Presented at Refresh Bellingham January 2010 (and again at Infocamp 2010). …

A look at service design: What is is, and how it related to user experience design. Presented at Refresh Bellingham January 2010 (and again at Infocamp 2010).

Subsections:
- Context
- What is Service Design?
- Service Design Concepts
- Service Design Practice
- User Experience Beyond the Screen
- Resources

Please note that the work contained in the slides on Concepts and Processes are a compilation of key concepts from the work of other thinkers in Service Design. The works have been attributed to their authors and are not my original work. All other slides are my thinking and work.

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  • 1. Exploring Service Design
    User Experience Beyond the Screen
    Ariel van Spronsen
    Refresh Bellingham
    1/20/2010
  • 2. 1
    Context
  • 3. The new(ish) service economy
    Services constitute about 70% of most industrialized nations’ GDP
    In the US, private sector alone accounts for nearly 70% of our GDP. Add public sector, and it’s closer to 80%
    “Services produced by private industry accounted for 67.8 percent of U.S. gross domestic product in 2006.” –US Department of State
    That’s a lot of dough.
    Context
    A Service Economy. Retrieved from http://www.america.gov/st/econ-english/2008/April/20080415222038eaifas0.9101831.html 1/18/2010
    2
  • 4. Satisfaction is based on experiences
    “Twenty years ago, when asked what people looked for when making purchases, the most common response was ‘quality of product’. In 2004 the most common answer was ‘honesty’.”
    Selling a great product isn’t enough…
    Service and support are a big deal (Comcast fail)
    An great experience can seriously outshine an ugly interface (Zappos win)
    You certainly can’t sell a crappy product and run.
    Context
    Parker, Sophia and Joe Heapy. Jouney to the Interface. Demos, July 2006.
    http://www.zappos.com/. Retrieved 1/18/2010
    3
  • 5. No product is an island
    Communities rule
    The first stop for a purchase is often a review site
    Authority and credibility often rests with user communities
    People identify with a product based on who else has it
    Many products are only as good as they are extensible
    Context
    4
  • 6. And yet…
    “…the shift to a service economy has not necessarily heralded a service revolution. Many of our interactions with organisations are characterised by profound frustration… Too often it feels like ‘producer interests’ or profit incentives matter more than how we feel.”
    Enter service design.
    Context
    Parker, Sophia and Joe Heapy. Jouney to the Interface. Demos, July 2006.
    5
  • 7. 6
    What is Service Design?
  • 8. Services I love!!!11!!
    Ikea
    The Apple store
    Paris Metro
    Owning a Volkswagen
    Zipcar
    Picnik
    What is Service Design?
    7
  • 9. Services I ha… dislike
    The DMV
    Buying a car or house
    Grocery lines
    Laundromats
    King County Metro
    The post office
    What is Service Design?
    8
  • 10. What’s the difference?
    Services we love…
    are consistent.
    are easy to use.
    match our mental models.
    provide us with the right information at the right time.
    give us escape/undo options
    appeal to our sense of what is desirable and delightful.
    Sounds a lot like a well-designed website, right?
    What is Service Design?
    Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_design 1/18/2010
    Servicedesign.org. Retrieved from http://www.servicedesign.org/glossary/service_design/ 1/18/2010
    9
  • 11. What are services?
    “Activities or events that form a service product through an interaction between the customer, any mediating technology, and representatives of the service organization.
    Performances—choreographed interactions manufactured at the point of delivery and designed to meet people’s expectations
    Processes—that that people see and experience and where they co-produce value, utility, satisfaction, and delight.”
    What is Service Design?
    Shelley Evenson, CMU. From a presentation by Shelley Evenson to Puget Sound SIGCHI, 11/14/2009.
    10
  • 12. Definitions of service design
    Wikipedia:
    “Service Design is the activity of planning and organizing people, infrastructure, communication and material components of a service, in order to improve its quality, the interaction between service provider and customers and the customer's experience”
    servicedesign.org
    “Design for experiences that reach people through many different touch-points, and that happen over time.”
    What is Service Design?
    Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_design 1/18/2010
    Servicedesign.org. Retrieved from http://www.servicedesign.org/glossary/service_design/ 1/18/2010
    11
  • 13. Is it really new?
    Yes and no.
    Not new:
    Design thinking
    User-centered design
    Management consulting
    Queue management design
    Customer service training
    Merchandising
    New:
    Addressing an overall experience problem with user-centered design thinking instead of business thinking
    What is Service Design?
    12
  • 14. What does service design address?
    “People—all the people directly or indirectly involved in the service delivery, from employees, and partners to other customers
    Product—artifacts that facilitate interaction between the customer, any mediating technology, and representatives of the service organization (often referred to as service evidence)
    Place—the settings for the service delivery—either physical or virtual, synchronous or asynchronous
    Process—procedure, mechanisms, and flow of activities by which the services are experienced over time
    Performance—transformation and interaction among people and machines (associated with both the customers and the firm) to achieve synergy in value creation and perception of quality (after Lovelock and Wright)”
    What is Service Design?
    Shelley Evenson, CMU. From a presentation by Shelley Evenson to Puget Sound SIGCHI, 11/14/2009.
    13
  • 15. 14
    Service Design Concepts
  • 16. Touchpoints
    Service experiences are a combination of tangibles and intangibles.
    Service Design Concepts
    Hugh Dubberly. 10 Service Design Principles. From a presentation to AIGA | IDSA on 8/8/2008
    15
  • 17. Touchpoints
    Service design addresses the tangible parts of the service interface to help create the intangible value.
    The tangible parts of a service interface are called touchpoints.
    “We create resources that choreograph interactions—we design the service interface so that participants VALUE their experience.”
    “Value is in the experience.”
    Service Design Concepts
    Shelley Evenson, CMU. From a presentation by Shelley Evenson to Puget Sound SIGCHI, 11/14/2009.
    Hugh Dubberly. 10 Service Design Principles. From a presentation to AIGA | IDSA on 8/8/2008
    16
  • 18. Systems
    Sets of resources composed into interfaces make up a service system
    Service Design Concepts
    Hugh Dubberly. 10 Service Design Principles. From a presentation to AIGA | IDSA on 8/8/2008
    17
  • 19. Journeys
    The service is seen as a journey through touchpoints, over time and across channels.
    Service Design Concepts
    Parker, Sophia and Joe Heapy. Jouney to the Interface. Demos, July 2006.
    18
  • 20. Experience Cycle
    The experience cycle is a framework for creating value out of a service journey
    Service Design Concepts
    Hugh Dubberly. 10 Service Design Principles. From a presentation to AIGA | IDSA on 8/8/2008
    19
  • 21. 20
    Service Design Practice
  • 22. Process Engine Service Design
    Service Design Process & Methods
    Engine Service Design. Retrieved from http://www.enginegroup.co.uk/service_design/v_page/our_process 1/18/2010
    21
  • 23. ProcessLive|Work
    Service Design Process & Methods
    LavransLøvlie, Live|Work. From a presentation by Shelley Evenson to Puget Sound SIGCHI, 11/14/2009.
    22
  • 24. ProcessEvenson|CMU
    Service Design Process & Methods
    Shelley Evenson, CMU. From a presentation by Shelley Evenson to Puget Sound SIGCHI, 11/14/2009.
    23
  • 25. Process Common Themes
    Discovery
    Research user needs
    Understand business requirements
    Define context of use
    Define Requirements
    What are we solving for?
    Strategy
    How to solve the problem
    Create and Iterate
    Design
    Prototype
    Test
    Repeat
    Service Design Process & Methods
    24
  • 26. Methods Discovery
    Observational studies
    Interviews
    Artifact walk-throughs
    Directed storytelling
    Ethnographic research
    Work-along
    Service Design Process & Methods
    25
    Self-exploration
    Service acting
    Journals/diaries
    Collaging and personal maps
    Image sorts
  • 27. Methods Discovery
    Observational studies
    Interviews
    Artifact walk-throughs
    Directed storytelling
    Ethnographic research
    Work-along (contextual inquiry)
    Service Design Process & Methods
    26
    Self-exploration
    Service acting
    Journals/diaries
    Collaging and personal maps
    Image sorts
  • 28. Methods Define Requirements
    Stakeholder map
    Customer journeys
    Touchpoint analysis
    Persona creation
    Service specification
    Service Design Process & Methods
    27
  • 29. Methods Define Requirements
    Stakeholder map
    Customer journey (user flows)
    Touchpoint analysis (task analysis)
    Persona creation
    Service specification
    Service Design Process & Methods
    28
  • 30. Methods Strategy
    Service framework
    Service ecology
    Relationship map
    Territory map
    Service Design Process & Methods
    Shelley Evenson, CMU. From a presentation by Shelley Evenson to Puget Sound SIGCHI, 11/14/2009.
    29
    Service framework
  • 31. Methods Strategy
    Service framework
    Service ecology
    Relationship map
    Territory map
    Service Design Process & Methods
    Shelley Evenson, CMU. From a presentation by Shelley Evenson to Puget Sound SIGCHI, 11/14/2009.
    30
    Service framework
  • 32. Methods Create and Iterate
    Co-design
    Storyboarding
    Service blueprint
    Prototyping
    User testing
    Service Design Process & Methods
    Jason Howell, Alankrita Prasad, Catarina Pereira, Steven Selzer, and Zhen Zen. CMU School of Design.
    31
    Service blueprint
  • 33. Methods Create and Iterate
    Co-design
    Storyboarding
    Service blueprint
    Prototyping
    User testing
    Service Design Process & Methods
    Jason Howell, Alankrita Prasad, Catarina Pereira, Steven Selzer, and Zhen Zen. CMU School of Design.
    32
    Service blueprint
  • 34. 33
    User Experience Beyond the Screen
  • 35. Service Design in Europe
    Many consultancies. A few of them:
    Live|Work, UK
    Engine, UK
    Think Public, UK
    Zest Innovation, UK
    Radarstation, UK
    Their clients
    Public sector/environment
    Think tanks
    A fairly low percentage of commercial
    User Experience Beyond the Screen
    34
    • Plot, UK
    • 36. DesignThinkers, Netherlands
    • 37. 31Volts, Netherlands
    • 38. Transformator, Sweden
    • 39. Palmu, Finland
  • Service Design in the US
    Not too much going on here. A few premier consultancies are offering service design.
    IDEO
    Adaptive Path
    Continuum
    One agency dedicated to service design
    Frontier
    Their clients
    Almost 100% commercial
    Big companies who can afford it
    Very few public sector engagements
    User Experience Beyond the Screen
    35
  • 40. Why so little service design in the US?
    We have lots of services; we are a service economy
    People are just as frustrated with poor service here
    The value of better user experiences is clearly proven in ecommerce
    The decentralization of authority and primacy of social media to influence customers is on fire with attention from marketers
    Big players like Apple and IKEA have proven that well-designed overall experiences put them in front
    User Experience Beyond the Screen
    36
  • 41. You can do it…
    User experience and interaction designers are a natural fit for service design
    User-centered process
    Overlapping methods
    Design thinking
    User Experience Beyond the Screen
    37
  • 42. …with a little shift
    A clue to the shift: Where methods don’t overlap:
    Observational studies
    Directed storytelling
    Ethnographic research
    Self-exploration
    Service acting
    User Experience Beyond the Screen
    38
  • 47. The shift
    User Experience Beyond the Screen
    • This is stuff American companies are oftenuncomfortable with:
    • 48. Qualitative research
    • 49. Touchy-feely activities like acting
    • 50. Talking about relationships
    • 51. Unicorns and rainbows
    39
  • 52. The shift
    It’s seriously user-centered
    User-centered philosophy: When you create great experiences, conversions – long term, loyal, multi-purchase conversions – will follow.
    Business-centered philosophy: Figure out how to design this thing to make the most people convert without pissing them off.
    “Many large organisations still seek to provide service for the lowest cost and maximum profit. This, we argue, eats away at the fundamental purpose of service: to provide support and to help people live their lives to their full potential.”
    In the US, we have yet to really embrace this more “socialist” view of designing things
    User Experience Beyond the Screen
    Parker, Sophia and Joe Heapy. Jouney to the Interface. Demos, July 2006.
    40
  • 53. We’re starting to catch on
    Jet Blue’s new JFK terminal isn’t perfect, but it’s a big leap forward.
    Clear signage
    Physical and textual wayfinding signals
    Free wifi
    Queue management
    Self-service kiosks
    Yummy food
    Bright, comfortable spaces
    Outlets galore
    A mix of social space and space to rest
    User Experience Beyond the Screen
    Parker, Sophia and Joe Heapy. Jouney to the Interface. Demos, July 2006.
    41
  • 54. User Experience Beyond the Screen
    42
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/jetblue/2963861483
  • 55. User Experience Beyond the Screen
    43
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/jetblue/2963481597
  • 56. User Experience Beyond the Screen
    44
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/jetblue/2963861483
  • 57. User Experience Beyond the Screen
    45
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/jetblue/2963894475
  • 58. User Experience Beyond the Screen
    46
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/jetblue/2965157260
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/jetblue/2963400403
  • 59. A call to arms: Think outside the screen
    I want to see more of this.
    Experience designers in government
    Consulting for the public sector
    Broaden user experience design in the private sector
    If you design websites or software now, advocate for using your talents to improve contiguous service touchpoints
    Speak to budget: Your research is already uncovering user context and motivations, why not use it?
    Become the strategic lead: Coordinate your efforts with other producers/agencies (print, branding, interior design, merchandisers, etc.)
    User Experience Beyond the Screen
    47
  • 60. Thank you
    Ariel van Spronsen
    www.arielv.net
    arielv@gmail.com
    48
  • 61. 49
    Resources
  • 62. Websites!
    Definitions
    http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/About-Design/Design-Disciplines/Service-design-by-Bill-Hollins
    http://www.service-design-network.org/content/definition-service-design
    Methods/tools
    http://www.servicedesigntools.org/
    Principles of Service Design
    http://www.scribd.com/doc/18541440/10-Principles-of-Service-Design-Dubberly
    Blogs
    http://www.choosenick.com/
    http://www.servicedesignhub.com.au
    http://designforservice.wordpress.com
    Case studies
    http://www.enginegroup.co.uk/projects/
    http://www.livework.co.uk/our-work/
    Resources
    50