MPLS Deployment Chapter 1 - Basic

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Tutorial about MPLS Implementation with Cisco Router, this first of two chapter discuss about What is MPLS, Network Design, P, PE, and CE Router Description, Case Study of IP MPLS Implementation, IP …

Tutorial about MPLS Implementation with Cisco Router, this first of two chapter discuss about What is MPLS, Network Design, P, PE, and CE Router Description, Case Study of IP MPLS Implementation, IP and OSPF Routing Configuration

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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • Welcome to MPLS World :),
    Pls find all tutorial series below
    Chapter 1 – Basic

    Part 1, What is MPLS
    Part 2, Network Design
    Part 3, GNS3 & VPCS Config
    Part 4, IP Configuration
    Part 5, IP Routing

    Chapter 2 – MPLS VPN Services

    Part 1, MPLS Configuration
    Part 2, VPN Services
    L2VPN
    VLL (Virtual Leased Line)
    VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Services)
    L3VPN
    VPRN (Virtual Private Routed Network)
    Part 3, Study Case VLL
    Part 4, Study Case VPLS
    Part 5, Study Case VPRN

    url chapter 1 :
    http://www.4shared.com/office/1MJffYoQ/MPLS_Deployment_Chapter_1_-_Ba.html
    url chapter 2 :
    http://www.4shared.com/office/TImWryjn/MPLS_Deployment_Chapter_2_-_Se.html
    ios (version 2691) :
    http://www.4shared.com/file/oHu_5TBO/C2691-AD.html
    GNS3 simulator :
    http://www.gns3.net/download/
    VPCS (virtual pc simulator) :
    http://sourceforge.net/projects/vpcs/
    GNS3 topology & configuration example :
    http://www.4shared.com/rar/KJCetQUT/MPLS_Topology__Config.html

    semoga bermanfaat :)
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
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  • 1. Muhammad Syarifuddin, CCNA, CCNP, NRS-1 http://id.linkedin.com/in/syarifuddin
  • 2. Chapter 1 – Basic : http://www.slideshare.net/ariefcakep/mpls-deployment-chapter-1-basic1 Chapter 2 – Services : http://www.slideshare.net/ariefcakep/mpls-deployment-chapter-2-services1 Chapter 3 – Optimization : http://www.slideshare.net/ariefcakep/mpls-deployment-chapter-3-optimization
  • 3. Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table. The labels identify virtual links (paths) between distant nodes rather than endpoints. MPLS can encapsulate packets of various network protocols. MPLS supports a range of access technologies, including T1/E1, ATM, Frame Relay, and DSL.
  • 4.  In 1996 a group from Ipsilon Networks proposed a "flow management protocol". Their "IP Switching" technology, which was defined only to work over ATM, did not achieve market dominance. Cisco Systems introduced a related proposal, not restricted to ATM transmission, called "Tag Switching". It was a Cisco proprietary proposal, and was renamed "Label Switching". It was handed over to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for open standardization. The IETF work involved proposals from other vendors, and development of a consensus protocol that combined features from several vendors' work.
  • 5. MPLS brings the following benefits to IP networks: › Improved up-time – By providing alternative network paths › Improved bandwidth utilization – By allowing for multiple traffic types to traverse the network › Reduced network congestion – By utilizing optional paths for traffic to avoid congestion › Improved end user experience – By allowing multiple Classes of Service to different types of traffic such as VOIP › Traffic engineering - the ability to set the path that traffic will take through the network and the ability to set performance characteristics for a class of traffic. › Layer 2 transport - new standards allow service providers to carry Layer 2 services including Ethernet, Frame Relay and ATM over an IP/MPLS core
  • 6.  Beside of its benefits, MPLS have several issues :  The carrier has to play a role in configuration of the overall network.  MPLS network does not offer any inherent data protection and improper implementation can open your network to vulnerabilities.  Possibilities to “peek up” end user traffic from Service Provider Network
  • 7.  Label switching through label path PE PEP P P P Label Path P router digunakan di sisi backbone, PE router digunakan di sisi ujung (edge) yang memberikan service ke CE, CE adalah end user. CE dapat berupa router, server, telco equipment (bsc, rnc, msc/mgw, bts, radio), dll. CE CE CE
  • 8. LABEL SWITCHING IP IP label PE PE • Label swapping networking technology that forwards packets over multiple, underlying layer 2 media. • Integrates layer 2 switching and layer 3 routing by linking the layer 2 infrastructure with layer 3 routing characteristics. PP IP label IP label IP Label Path • Layer 3 routing occurs only at the edge of the network, and layer 2 switching takes over in the MPLS core. IP Forwarding IP Forwarding CE CE
  • 9. Ethernet PPP ‘Shim’ Label(s) Label Exp. S TTL Label: Label Value, 20 bits (0-15 reserved) Exp.: Experimental, 3 bits (Class of Service) S: Bottom of Stack, 1 bit (1 = last entry in label stack) TTL: Time to Live, 8 bits Layer 2 Header (eg. PPP, 802.3) ••• Network Layer Header and Packet (eg. IP) 4 Octets MPLS ‘Shim’ Headers (1-n) 1n Label Stack Entry Format Packet-based encoding
  • 10. › Push – Push the first label on the packet or – Push a label on existing label stack – For IP packets, set the TTL value of the label to the value in the IP packet › Pop – Remove the top label from the packet – Copy the TTL value of the label to the TTL value of the IP Packet Swap (applies to LSR only)  Combination of POP and PUSH operation  Copy the TTL value from incoming label to new label after decrementing it
  • 11. •FEC = “A subset of packets that are all treated the same way by a router” •The concept of FECs provides for a great deal of flexibility and scalability •In conventional routing, a packet is assigned to a FEC at each hop (i.e. L3 look-up), in MPLS it is only done once at the network ingress. Packets are destined for different address prefixes, but can be mapped to common path LSRLSR LER LER LSP IP1 IP2 IP1 IP2 IP1 #L1 IP2 #L1 IP1 #L2 IP2 #L2 IP1 #L3 IP2 #L3 IP1 #L2 IP2 #L2 IP1 #L3 IP2 #L3 IP1 IP1
  • 12.  Label protocols in MPLS were divided in three items: ◦ LSP (Label Switched Patch)  Is static label distribution that need to be created manually in P & PE Routers. ◦ LDP (Label Distribution Protocol)  Dynamic protocol that automatically generates label path between Routers ◦ RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocols)  Provide better reroute time failure
  • 13. › All Routers are configured manually with labels › No signaling is required 1 2 3 4 5 47.1 123 Dest Label Out 47.1 123 Int In - Int Out 2 123 456 456 Dest Label In 47.1 123 Int In 3 Int Out 4 Label Out 456 Dest 47.1 4565 - Label In Int In Int Out
  • 14. ESR or Core Router ESR ESR ESR ESR ESR ESR ESR LSP Primary Path LSP Secondary Path (Non-Fate Sharing ) • Secondary Path LSPs can be: • Standby (preconfigured) • Signaled and set up upon failure of the primary LSP Hello REQ Hello ACK PATH Refresh RESV Refresh
  • 15. ESR or Core Router ESR ESR ESR ESR ESR ESR ESR LSP Primary Path LSP Secondary Path (Non-Fate Sharing ) • When Primary Path Fails • The first secondary path becomes active • Attempts are made to restore primary path (retry timer) • Software will revert back to primary when it recovers RESV ERR PATH ERR Hello REQ Hello REQ
  • 16. Difficult to quickly restore connectivity using traditional IP protocols because: Failures are not detecting quickly Takes time to compute an alternate route Takes time to signal an alternate LSP and update forwarding tables
  • 17. Protected LSP R1 R2 R3 R4 R5R6 R7 R8 R9 Protected LSP: R1>R2>R3>R4>R5 R1’s backup: R1>R6>R7>R8>R3 R2’s backup: R2>R7>R8>R4 R3’s backup: R3>R8>R9>R5 R4’s backup: R4>R9>R5
  • 18. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R8 R6 R7 R9 Protected LSP 1: R1>R2>R3>R4>R5 Protected LSP 2: R8>R2>R3>R4 Protected LSP 3: R2>R3>R4>R9 Bypass LSP Tunnel: R2>R6>R7>R4
  • 19.  One of several standardised label distribution protocol  draft-ietf-mpls-ldp-09.txt  A set of procedures and messages to distribute mappings between labels and FECs  Two LSRs which use LDP to exchange label/FEC mapping information are known as "LDP Peers"  Peers exchange LDP messages  Uses TLV encoded message structure
  • 20.  Discovery messages  Used to discover and maintain the presence of new peers  Hello packets (UDP) sent to all-routers-in-subnet multicast address  Once neighbor is discovered, the LDP session is established over TCP  Runs over UDP port number 646  Session messages  Establish, maintain and terminate LDP sessions  Runs over TCP port number 646  Advertisement messages  Create, modify, delete label mappings  Notification messages  Error signalling
  • 21. NTW NTW NTW NTWNTW NTW RTM Route x use 1.1.1.2 Form an Adjacency Form an Adjacency Form an Adjacency Maintain LDP session Maintain LDP sessionMaintain LDP session Use label 1 to reach x Use label 7 to reach x Use label 9 to reach x RTM Route x use label 1 RTM Route x use label 7 RTM Route x use label 9 1 2 3 SR-A SR-B SR-C SR-D NTW Network Link RTM = route mapping Alternative to MPLS /RSVP-TE signaling to obtain routing labels.
  • 22.  RSVP uses two message types for resource reservation ◦ Sender sends PATH message towards receiver indicating characteristics of the traffic  Each Router along the path makes note of the traffic type ◦ Receiver sends RESV message back towards sender  Each Router reserves the resources requested (if available) for the micro-flow ◦ Path Refresh and RESV Refresh messages are sent periodically 1 2 3 4 5 ResV: 10.10.10.1 Path Refresh Resv Conf ResV Refresh Path Tear Resv Error ResV Tear Path Error Path: 30.30.30.1 ResV: 10.10.10.1 Path: 30.30.30.1 ILER ELER
  • 23.  RSVP-TE has extensions to support operation with MPLS: ◦ Provide the mechanism to setup an explicitly routed LSP that could differ from the normal path calculated by the IGP. ◦ Perform downstream on demand label allocation, distribution, and binding among LSRs in the path, thus establishing path state in network nodes. ◦ Optionally provide resource reservations (bandwidth) along the path to meet the requirements of the traffic flow. ◦ Provide users information about the actual path traversed by the LSP. ◦ LSP preemption based on administrative policy control. ◦ Loop detection and avoidance during the initial LSP set-up and rerouting an existing LSP. ◦ Monitor and maintain the state of an explicitly routed LSP
  • 24.  RSVP Refresh Reduction ◦ PATH Refresh and RESV Refresh are sent out for each LSP ◦ Multiple messages are bundled into a single message to reduce network overhead ◦ Each bundled message contains Multiple Message- ids of the associated PATH and RESV messages for which the state needs to be refreshed
  • 25. ESR or Core Router ESR ESR ESR ESR ESR ESR ESR Primary LSP Secondary LSP Hot Standby Detour Hello REQ Hello ACK › RSVP Failure Detection › Hello Message exchanged between neighbors › Enables failure detection in milliseconds
  • 26.  Study Case, General Requirement :  Customer requested to use Cisco Router as the platform.  To keep compatibility with non-Cisco devices,routing protocol that will be used is OSPF.  Label Protocol = LDP.  Every region has different OSPF area to keep ospf calculation locally. Area 0 for backbone PR, area 1 for jakarta, area 2 for east java, and area 3 for borneo.  Ring topology will be used for P router. From jakarta1 – jakarta2 - surabaya1 - banjarmasin1 – jakarta1.  To keep redundancy, there will be 2 P router in jakarta that will serve as master & backup.
  • 27.  2 P routers in jakarta were connected to 5 PE (2 jakarta, 1 bekasi, 1 bogor, 1 tangerang), 1 P surabaya connected to 3 PE (1 surabaya, 1 malang, 1 madiun), 1 P banjarmasin connected with 1 PE in the same place.  Due to services that will be delivered from PEJKTKPI01 & PEJKTKPI02 were critical, to provide redundancy, PEJKTKPI01 have direct link to PEJKTKPI02  PRJKTKPI01, PRJKTKPI02, PEJKTKPI01, PEJKTKPI02 were placed in same room
  • 28.  East Java Area were designed to use ring topology with distribution point to P surabaya. P surabaya – PE surabaya – PE malang – PE madiun – P surabaya.  For Borneo area, there is only 1 P & 1 PE. We create 2 interface point to point for redundancy
  • 29. Loopback IP is used to stabilize OSPF, BGP, MPLS LDP, and many router processes Device Ip Loopback PRJKTKPI01 10.0.0.1/32 PRJKTKPI02 10.0.0.2/32 PEJKTKPI01 10.0.0.3/32 PEJKTKPI02 10.0.0.4/32 PEBTNTGR01 10.0.0.5/32 PEJBRBKS01 10.0.0.6/32 PEJBRBGR01 10.0.0.7/32 PRJTMSBY01 10.0.0.8/32 PEJTMSBY01 10.0.0.9/32 PEJTBMLG01 10.0.0.10/32 PEJTMMDN01 10.0.0.11/32 PRKALBJM01 10.0.0.12/32 PEKALBJM01 10.0.0.13/32 Loopback IP Design
  • 30. Area 3 Kalimantan Area 2 Jatim Area 1 Jakarta Area 0 CORE 10.10.10.1/30 10.10.10.2/30 10.10.10.5/30 10.10.10.6/30 10.10.10.9/30 10.10.10.10/30 10.10.10.13/30 10.10.10.14/30 PRJKTKPI02 10.0.0.2/32 PRJKTKPI01 10.0.0.1/32 PEBTNTGR01 10.0.0.5/32 PEJBRBGR01 10.0.0.7/32 PEJBRBKS01 10.0.0.6/32 PRJTMSBY01 10.0.0.8/32 PEJTMSBY01 10.0.0.9/32 PEJTMMDN01 10.0.0.11/32 PEJTMMLG01 10.0.0.10/32 10.10.20.2/30 10.10.20.1/30 10.10.20.6/30 10.10.20.5/30 10.10.20.10/30 10.10.20.9/30 10.10.20.14/3010.10.20.13/30 10.10.20.18/30 10.10.20.17/30 10.10.20.21/30 10.10.20.22/30 10.10.30.2/30 10.10.30.1/30 10.10.30.6/30 10.10.30.5/30 10.10.30.13/30 10.10.30.14/30 10.10.30.9/30 10.10.30.10/30 10.10.40.1/30 10.10.40.2/30 Tangerang Jakarta Bogor Bekasi Jakarta Jakarta Jakarta Banjarmasin Banjarmasin Surabaya Surabaya Madiun Malang Design by : Muhammad SyarifuddinRevision : 4 Project : MPLS Core Network PEJKTKPI01 10.0.0.3/32 PEJKTKPI02 10.0.0.4/32 10.10.20.26/30 10.10.20.25/30 PRKALBJM01 10.0.0.12/32 PEKALBJM01 10.0.0.13/32 10.10.40.5/30 10.10.40.6/30
  • 31. Area 0 CORE 10.10.10.1/30 10.10.10.2/30 10.10.10.5/30 10.10.10.6/30 10.10.10.9/30 10.10.10.10/30 10.10.10.13/30 10.10.10.14/30 PRJKTKPI02 10.0.0.2/32 PRJKTKPI01 10.0.0.1/32 PRJTMSBY01 10.0.0.8/32 PRKALBJM01 10.0.0.12/32 Jakarta Jakarta Banjarmasin Surabaya
  • 32. Area 1 Jakarta 10.10.10.1/30 10.10.10.2/30 PRJKTKPI02 10.0.0.2/32 PRJKTKPI01 10.0.0.1/32 PEBTNTGR01 10.0.0.5/32 PEJBRBGR01 10.0.0.7/32 PEJBRBKS01 10.0.0.6/32 10.10.20.2/30 10.10.20.1/30 10.10.20.6/30 10.10.20.5/30 10.10.20.10/30 10.10.20.9/30 10.10.20.14/3010.10.20.13/30 10.10.20.18/30 10.10.20.17/30 10.10.20.21/30 10.10.20.22/30 Tangerang Jakarta Bogor Bekasi Jakarta Jakarta Jakarta PEJKTKPI01 10.0.0.3/32 PEJKTKPI02 10.0.0.4/32 10.10.20.26/30 10.10.20.25/30
  • 33. Area 2 JatimPRJTMSBY01 10.0.0.8/32 PEJTMSBY01 10.0.0.9/32 PEJTMMDN01 10.0.0.11/32 PEJTMMLG01 10.0.0.10/32 10.10.30.2/30 10.10.30.1/30 10.10.30.6/30 10.10.30.5/30 10.10.30.13/30 10.10.30.14/30 10.10.30.9/30 10.10.30.10/30 Surabaya Surabaya Madiun Malang
  • 34. Area 3 Kalimantan 10.10.40.1/30 10.10.40.2/30 Banjarmasin Banjarmasin PRKALBJM01 10.0.0.12/32 PEKALBJM01 10.0.0.13/32 10.10.40.5/30 10.10.40.6/30
  • 35. PRJKTKPI01 Loopback0 10.0.0.1/32 Fa1/0 To PRJKTKPI02 Fa1/0 10.10.10.1/30 PRJKTKPI02 Fa1/0 10.10.10.2/30 Fa1/1 To PRKALBJM01 Fa1/3 10.10.10.14/30 PRKALBJM01 Fa1/3 10.10.10.13/30 Fa1/2 To PEJKTKPI01 Fa1/1 10.10.20.1/30 PEJKTKPI01 Fa1/1 10.10.20.2/30 Fa1/3 To PEBTNTGR01 Fa1/0 10.10.20.5/30 PEBTNTGR01 Fa1/0 10.10.20.6/30 PRJKTKPI02 Loopback0 10.0.0.2/32 Fa1/0 To PRJKTKPI01 Fa1/0 10.10.10.2/30 PRJKTKPI01 Fa1/0 10.10.10.1/30 Fa1/1 To PRJTMSBY01 Fa1/3 10.10.10.5/30 PRJTMSBY01 Fa1/3 10.10.10.6/30 Fa1/2 To PEJKTKPI02 Fa1/1 10.10.20.22/30 PEJKTKPI02 Fa1/1 10.10.20.21/30 Fa1/3 To PEJBRBKS01 Fa1/0 10.10.20.18/30 PEJBRBKS01 Fa1/0 10.10.20.17/30 PEJKTKPI01 Loopback0 10.0.0.3/32 Fa1/0 To PEJKTKPI02 Fa1/0 10.10.20.25/30 PEJKTKPI02 Fa1/0 10.10.20.26/30 Fa1/1 To PRJKTKPI01 Fa1/2 10.10.20.2/30 PRJKTKPI01 Fa1/2 10.10.20.1/30 PEJKTKPI02 Loopback0 10.0.0.4/32 Fa1/0 To PEJKTKPI01 Fa1/0 10.10.20.26/30 PEJKTKPI01 Fa1/0 10.10.20.25/30 Fa1/1 To PRJKTKPI02 Fa1/2 10.10.20.21/30 PRJKTKPI02 Fa1/2 10.10.20.22/30
  • 36. PEBTNTGR01 Loopback0 10.0.0.5/32 Fa1/0 To PRJKTKPI01 Fa1/3 10.10.20.6/30 PRJKTKPI01 Fa1/3 10.10.20.5/30 Fa1/1 To PEJBRBGR01 Fa1/1 10.10.20.9/30 PEJBRBGR01 Fa1/1 10.10.20.10/30 PEJBRBKS01 Loopback0 10.0.0.6/32 Fa1/0 To PRJKTKPI02 Fa1/3 10.10.20.17/30 PRJKTKPI02 Fa1/3 10.10.20.18/30 Fa1/1 To PEJBRBGR01 Fa1/0 10.10.20.14/30 PEJBRBGR01 Fa1/0 10.10.20.13/30 PEJBRBGR01 Loopback0 10.0.0.7/32 Fa1/0 To PEJBRBKS01 Fa1/1 10.10.20.13/30 PEJBRBKS01 Fa1/1 10.10.20.14/30 Fa1/1 To PEBTNTGR01 Fa1/1 10.10.20.10/30 PEBTNTGR01 Fa1/1 10.10.20.9/30
  • 37. Surabaya PRJTMSBY01 Loopback0 10.0.0.8/32 Fa1/0 To PRKALBJM01 Fa1/2 10.10.10.9/30 PRKALBJM01 Fa1/2 10.10.10.10/30 Fa1/1 To PRJKTKPI02 Fa1/1 10.10.10.6/30 PRJKTKPI02 Fa1/1 10.10.10.5/30 Fa1/2 To PEJTMSBY01 Fa1/0 10.10.30.1/30 PEJTMSBY01 Fa1/0 10.10.30.2/30 Fa1/3 To PEJTMMDN01 Fa1/0 10.10.30.14/30 PEJTMMDN01 Fa1/0 10.10.30.13/30 PEJTMSBY01 Loopback0 10.0.0.9/32 Fa1/0 To PRJTMSBY01 Fa1/2 10.10.30.2/30 PRJTMSBY01 Fa1/2 10.10.30.1/30 Fa1/1 To PEJTMMLG01 Fa1/0 10.10.30.5/30 PEJTMMLG01 Fa1/0 10.10.30.6/30 Malang PEJTMMLG01 Loopback0 10.0.0.10/32 Fa1/0 To PEJTMSBY01 Fa1/1 10.10.30.6/30 PEJTMSBY01 Fa1/1 10.10.30.5/30 Fa1/1 To PEJTMMDN01 Fa1/1 10.10.30.9/30 PEJTMMDN01 Fa1/1 10.10.30.10/30 Madiun PEJTMMDN01 Loopback0 10.0.0.11/32 Fa1/0 To PRJTMSBY01 Fa1/3 10.10.30.13/30 PRJTMSBY01 Fa1/3 10.10.30.14/30 Fa1/1 To PEJTMMLG01 Fa1/1 10.10.30.10/30 PEJTMMLG01 Fa1/1 10.10.30.19/30
  • 38. Banjarmasin PRKALBJM01 Loopback0 10.0.0.12/32 Fa1/0 To PRJTMSBY01 Fa1/0 10.10.10.10/30 PRJTMSBY01 Fa1/0 10.10.10.9/30 Fa1/1 To PRJKTKPI01 Fa1/1 10.10.10.13/30 PRJKTKPI01 Fa1/1 10.10.10.14/30 Fa1/2 To PEKALBJM01 Fa1/0 10.10.40.1/30 PEKALBJM01 Fa1/0 10.10.40.2/30 Fa1/3 To PEKALBJM01 Fa1/1 10.10.40.5/30 PEKALBJM01 Fa1/1 10.10.40.6/30 PEKALBJM01 Loopback0 10.0.0.13/32 Fa1/0 To PRKALBJM01 Fa1/2 10.10.40.2/30 PRKALBJM01 Fa1/2 10.10.40.1/30 Fa1/1 To PRKALBJM01 Fa1/3 10.10.40.6/30 PRKALBJM01 Fa1/3 10.10.40.5/30
  • 39.  For implementation, we will use GNS3 to simulate Cisco MPLS Router. And then we can deploy from the Simulator to Real Devices.  Step by step GNS3 Installation:  Download GNS3 windows version at www.gns3.net, choose all in one package.  Install GNS3  Attach IOS in GNS3, from menu - edit – IOS images & hypervisor.  *we will use Cisco Router 2691 version
  • 40.  Point browser to : www.gns3.net
  • 41.  Install GNS3, use default parameter and follow the installshield wizard.
  • 42.  There are 2 steps that needs to be done before you can use GNS3 :  1. Configure and test dynamips, emulation software that will run cisco IOS  2. Add IOS to the GNS3 directory
  • 43.  Usually if we use the all-in-one package, there is no need to configure dynamips, but just in case if we install the standalone package, then we can setup from menu edit - preferences
  • 44.  Second step is add IOS images to GNS3, can be accessed from Menu – Edit – IOS images and hypervisors.  Click image file, and then point it to your IOS images, set the platform, model, and RAM.
  • 45.  One of the problem when using GNS3 is, our PC/Laptop will be forced to run many routers at a time. In fact, our PC/Laptop doesn’t have resources to provide the router feature and specification. But in this case, GNS3 has provide idle-pc feature that can barely reduce processor load when running router simulation..
  • 46.  After you create GNS3 topology based on design, try to run one of the Router, by using right click, and then click Start.
  • 47.  After the router is running, the router interface color will changed to green. The next step, right click, choose Idle PC.
  • 48.  And then GNS3 will calculate the best idle-pc that fits for you. After calculation finish, choose one of the dropdown list. Choose the best value, marked by star sign (*), if no star sign exist, try one by one until you find good one. And the task manager processes will be so much reduced.
  • 49.  After you finish setup idle-pc, re-check processor utilization by opening the task- manager. Before and After
  • 50.  VPCS is virtual PC simulator that emulates pc in the GNS3, with VPCS we can save lot of resources than using router/vm-ware based virtual pc.  With VPCS, we can do standard troubleshooting like ping, and traceroute.  VPCS can be downloaded at : http://sourceforge.net/projects/vpcs/  Simple VPCS tutorial can be found at : http://rednectar.net/gns3-workbench/vpcs- tutorial/
  • 51.  After you download VPCS, put it on the d:vpcs folder to make it easy to access the file.
  • 52.  To connect VPCS to GNS3, you need to create new symbol through menu-edit-Symbol Manager
  • 53.  On the left pane, click computer, and then click right arrow, on the right top field, fill PC on the name, and choose Cloud for the type. Click Apply and OK. 1 2 3 4
  • 54.  Drag the new PC icon to the topology, right click, and choose configure
  • 55.  On the NIO UDP tab, fill the local port and remote port, leave the remote host to default 127.0.0.1, and then click add.
  • 56.  Each NIO UDP local port/remote port represent the VPCS number.  VPCS can support 9 virtual PCs to accomodate your needs  Please note below numbering :  30000 -> vpcs number 1  30001 -> vpcs number 2  30002 -> vpcs number 3  ---  30009 -> vpcs number 9
  • 57.  To connect VPCS to Router, click on add link menu in GNS3, choose manual interface, point it to the desired router interface, and then connect it to vpcs nio udp as described in picture below.
  • 58.  You can open command prompt, point to the vpcs folder, and run vpcs program. Because we use nio udp 30000, we should press 1 (one) in vpcs to enter virtual pc number 1  Press ? to see all available commands.
  • 59.  Its time to configure our routers, by right click on the router, click console.
  • 60.  Type “enable” to enter privileged mode, and then “configure terminal” to enter global configuration mode.  Every router has different configuration, and don’t forget to setup the loopback IP Address
  • 61. PRJKTKPI01: hostname PRJKTKPI01 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.255 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description to PRJKTKPI02 f0/0 ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description to PRKALBJM01 f0/1 ip address 10.10.10.14 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet1/0 description to PEJKTKPI01 f0/1 no switchport ip address 10.10.20.1 255.255.255.252 duplex full speed 100 ! interface FastEthernet1/1 description to PEBTNTGR01 f0/0 no switchport ip address 10.10.20.5 255.255.255.252 duplex full speed 100 ! PRJKTKPI02: hostname PRJKTKPI02 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.0.2 255.255.255.255 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description to PRJKTKPI01 f0/0 ip address 10.10.10.2 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description to PRJTMSBY01 f0/1 ip address 10.10.10.5 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet1/0 description to PEJKTKPI02 f0/1 no switchport ip address 10.10.20.22 255.255.255.252 duplex full speed 100 ! interface FastEthernet1/1 description PEJBRBKS01 f0/0 no switchport ip address 10.10.20.18 255.255.255.252 duplex full speed 100 ! PEJKTKPI01: hostname PEJKTKPI01 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.0.3 255.255.255.255 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description to PEJKTKPI02 f0/0 ip address 10.10.20.25 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description to PRJKTKPI01 f1/0 ip address 10.10.20.2 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex PEJKTKPI02: hostname PEJKTKPI02 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.0.4 255.255.255.255 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description PEJKTKPI01 f0/0 ip address 10.10.20.26 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description PRJKTKPI02 f1/0 ip address 10.10.20.21 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex
  • 62. PEBTNTGR01: hostname PEBTNTGR01 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.0.5 255.255.255.255 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description to PRJKTKPI01 f1/1 ip address 10.10.20.6 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description to PEJBRBGR01 f0/1 ip address 10.10.20.9 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! PEJBRBGR01: hostname PEJBRBGR01 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.0.7 255.255.255.255 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description to PEJBRBKS01 f0/1 ip address 10.10.20.13 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description to PEBTNTGR01 f0/1 ip address 10.10.20.10 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! PEJBRBKS01: hostname PEJBRBKS01 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.0.6 255.255.255.255 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description to PRJKTKPI02 f1/1 ip address 10.10.20.17 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description to PEJBRBGR01 f0/0 ip address 10.10.20.14 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex !
  • 63. PRJTMSBY01: hostname PRJTMSBY01 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.0.8 255.255.255.255 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description to PRKALBJM01 f0/0 ip address 10.10.10.9 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description to PRJKTKPI02 f0/1 ip address 10.10.10.6 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet1/0 description to PEJTMSBY01 f0/0 no switchport ip address 10.10.30.1 255.255.255.252 duplex full speed 100 ! interface FastEthernet1/1 description to PEJTMMDN01 f0/0 no switchport ip address 10.10.30.14 255.255.255.252 duplex full speed 100 ! PEJTMSBY01: hostname PEJTMSBY01 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.0.9 255.255.255.255 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description to PRJTMSBY01 f1/0 ip address 10.10.30.2 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description to PEJTMMLG01 f0/0 ip address 10.10.30.5 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex !
  • 64. PEJTMMLG01: hostname PEJTMMLG01 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.0.10 255.255.255.255 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description to PEJTMSBY01 f0/1 ip address 10.10.30.6 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description to PEJTMMDN01 f0/1 ip address 10.10.30.9 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex PEJTMMDN01: hostname PEJTMMDN01 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.0.11 255.255.255.255 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description to PRJTMSBY01 f1/1 ip address 10.10.30.13 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description to PEJTMMLG01 f0/1 ip address 10.10.30.10 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex !
  • 65. PRKALBJM01: hostname PRKALBJM01 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.0.12 255.255.255.255 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description to PRJTMSBY01 f0/0 ip address 10.10.10.10 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description to PRJKTKPI01 f0/1 ip address 10.10.10.13 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet1/0 description to PEKALBJM01 f0/0 no switchport ip address 10.10.40.1 255.255.255.252 duplex full speed 100 ! interface FastEthernet1/1 description to PEKALBJM01 f0/1 no switchport ip address 10.10.40.5 255.255.255.252 duplex full speed 100 PEKALBJM01: hostname PEKALBJM01 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.0.0.13 255.255.255.255 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description to PRKALBJM01 f1/0 ip address 10.10.40.2 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description to PRKALBJM01 f1/1 ip address 10.10.40.6 255.255.255.252 speed 100 full-duplex
  • 66.  OK, after finishing interface configuration setup. Don’t forget to save it by typing: “copy running-config startup-config”. And then do verification on each router, following below procedure. This verification step is a MUST, otherwise the next step will be failed. Such as OSPF, MPLS, and MPLS VPN.
  • 67.  Configuration verification : from privileged mode, type “show run” check within interface, make sure configuration were entered correctly.
  • 68.  Interface verification: from privileged mode, type “show ip interface brief”, or “show interface”, make sure we already setup the IP Address, and UP, whether by status or protocol.
  • 69.  Connectivity verification, do ping to directly connected neighbor. And make sure all were giving reply.
  • 70.  IP routing verification, final step, make sure loopback IP, and neighbor IP were shown in routing table. The “C” sign indicate direct connection to neighbor interface and loopback interface.
  • 71.  Format ospf routing can be described below:  Router>enable  Router#configure terminal  Router(config)#router ospf x  x is the ospf process number  Router(config-router)#network A.B.C.D W.X.Y.Z area y ABCD= network address, WXYZ= wildcard mask,y = area  Router(config-router)#  Insert all network interfaces IP Address that will be processed in OSPF process, including the Loopback IP Address.
  • 72. PRJKTKPI01: router ospf 10 log-adjacency-changes network 10.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 network 10.10.10.0 0.0.0.3 area 0 network 10.10.10.12 0.0.0.3 area 0 network 10.10.20.0 0.0.0.3 area 1 network 10.10.20.4 0.0.0.3 area 1 ! PRJKTKPI02: router ospf 10 log-adjacency-changes network 10.0.0.2 0.0.0.0 area 0 network 10.10.10.0 0.0.0.3 area 0 network 10.10.10.4 0.0.0.3 area 0 network 10.10.20.20 0.0.0.3 area 1 network 10.10.20.16 0.0.0.3 area 1 ! PEJKTKPI01: router ospf 10 log-adjacency-changes network 10.0.0.3 0.0.0.0 area 1 network 10.10.20.0 0.0.0.3 area 1 network 10.10.20.24 0.0.0.3 area 1 ! PEJKTKPI02: router ospf 10 log-adjacency-changes network 10.0.0.4 0.0.0.0 area 1 network 10.10.20.20 0.0.0.3 area 1 network 10.10.20.24 0.0.0.3 area 1 ! PEBTNTGR01: router ospf 10 log-adjacency-changes network 10.0.0.5 0.0.0.0 area 1 network 10.10.20.4 0.0.0.3 area 1 network 10.10.20.8 0.0.0.3 area 1 ! PEJBRBGR01: router ospf 10 log-adjacency-changes network 10.0.0.7 0.0.0.0 area 1 network 10.10.20.8 0.0.0.3 area 1 network 10.10.20.12 0.0.0.3 area 1 ! PEJBRBKS01: router ospf 10 log-adjacency-changes network 10.0.0.6 0.0.0.0 area 1 network 10.10.20.12 0.0.0.3 area 1 network 10.10.20.16 0.0.0.3 area 1 ! PRJTMSBY01: router ospf 10 log-adjacency-changes network 10.0.0.8 0.0.0.0 area 0 network 10.10.10.4 0.0.0.3 area 0 network 10.10.10.8 0.0.0.3 area 0 network 10.10.30.0 0.0.0.3 area 2 network 10.10.30.12 0.0.0.3 area 2 ! PEJTMSBY01: router ospf 10 log-adjacency-changes network 10.0.0.9 0.0.0.0 area 2 network 10.10.30.0 0.0.0.3 area 2 network 10.10.30.4 0.0.0.3 area 2 !
  • 73. PEJTMMLG01: router ospf 10 log-adjacency-changes network 10.0.0.10 0.0.0.0 area 2 network 10.10.30.4 0.0.0.3 area 2 network 10.10.30.8 0.0.0.3 area 2 ! PEJTMMDN01: router ospf 10 log-adjacency-changes network 10.0.0.11 0.0.0.0 area 2 network 10.10.30.8 0.0.0.3 area 2 network 10.10.30.12 0.0.0.3 area 2 ! PRKALBJM01: router ospf 10 log-adjacency-changes network 10.0.0.12 0.0.0.0 area 0 network 10.10.10.8 0.0.0.3 area 0 network 10.10.10.12 0.0.0.3 area 0 network 10.10.40.0 0.0.0.3 area 3 network 10.10.40.4 0.0.0.3 area 3 ! PEKALBJM01: router ospf 10 log-adjacency-changes network 10.0.0.13 0.0.0.0 area 3 network 10.10.40.0 0.0.0.3 area 3 network 10.10.40.4 0.0.0.3 area 3 !
  • 74.  Don’t forget to save the configuration : “copy running-config startup-config”. Also don’t forget to do verification on each router. This verification step is very important.
  • 75.  First verification is neighbor establishment, this step is used to check whether the ospf session between neighbor router already established or not. Can be done by typing “show ip ospf neighbor”. Make sure all state is FULL
  • 76.  The second step is “show ip ospf interface”, to verify interface status towards neighbor, from here we can check the detail status of ospf process, hello timer, dead timer, wait timer, process id, and router id from ospf routing protocol.
  • 77.  Next type “show ip ospf database”, from here we can see the link id detail, advertised routers, sequence, detail of each area, summary, and so on.
  • 78.  Last one, command “show ip route” in bogor router (PEJBRBGR01) were used to see path that available from ospf process.
  • 79. Next, Chapter 2. MPLS VPN Services