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  1. 1. Course Goal Increase student awareness and understanding of children and family mental health needs after experiencing trauma.
  2. 2. Course Objectives Identify and define sources of childhood trauma Understand and analyze the prevalence, etiology and risk factors of childhood trauma Understand healthy child development to differentiate against development related to traumatic experiences Evaluate assessment criteria of child trauma and understand best practices and intervention Identify supports and resources for trauma in the community Understand the System of Care philosophy by applying to case studies
  3. 3. Required Reading Perry, B. & Szalavitz, M. (2007). The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog. Various research articles. Articles will be available on ecollege.
  4. 4. Grading Criterion Percentage PointsAttendance 10% 20 (10 @ 2 point each)Participation 15% 30 (15 @ 2 point each)Article Reviews 35% 60 (12 @ 5 points each)Discussion Lead 15% 30 (2 @ 15 points each)Paper 20% 40 pointsPresentation 10% 20 pointsTotal 100% 200 points
  5. 5. Attendance 10% of grade 20 points  10 @ 2 point each
  6. 6. Participation 15% of grade 30 points  15 @ 2 point each During classes in which your fellow students are presenting or threaded discussions Participation points cannot be made up if you are absent (even if the absence is excused)!
  7. 7. Article Reviews 35% of grade 60 points  12 @ 5 points each Every week students will be required to write a review of the articles for that weeks reading  All reviews must be completed prior to the start of class and should be turned into the ecollege dropbox  Be sure to bring a copy to class as well
  8. 8. Discussion Lead 15% of grade 30 points  2 @ 15 points each Students will be assigned to groups and a topic twice during the semester Each group will be expected to lead threaded discussion regarding the research articles and the assigned topic in general for that week
  9. 9. Paper 20% of grade or 40 points Identify one child trauma event (or theme) and make up a case study. Locate a written resource that covers trauma, its causes, consequences and possible interventions to assist traumatized children Identify resources within your community Interview one resource.
  10. 10. Paper logistics No more than 7 pages double spaced  One page is your list of resources  One is your case study  One is your reference page APA guidelines Due at start of class on 11/29/2011  Dropbox
  11. 11. Presentation 10% of grade  20 points Presentation of paper 10 -15 minutes
  12. 12. What is Development? Skill acquisition in physical, language, emotional, cognitive, and adaptive areas throughout the lifespan Based upon neurological maturation as well as experience and environmental influences Most rapid during prenatal, infancy, and adolescence
  13. 13. Key Concepts Wired for learning  First two years are critical Brain Plasticity: Brain’s ability to change as the result of experience Balance of risk and protective factors  Within child  Within environment
  14. 14. Risk Factors Co-exist and compound Generate secondary stresses Likelihood of disorders increase with number of risk factors
  15. 15. Risk Factors for Children Premature birth Colic Physical disabilities Developmental disabilities Chronic illness Emotional/behavioral difficulties Unwanted child
  16. 16. Risk Factor for Parents Low self-esteem/depression Poor impulse control Substance abuse Abused as child Teen parent Unrealistic expectation of child Negative view of self and child Punitive child rearing
  17. 17. Family Factors Isolation Family/domestic violence Non-biologically related male in home Poverty Unemployment/financial problems Single parent Animal abuse
  18. 18. Community Risk Factors Poor access to health care Limited community Neighborhood safety
  19. 19. Protective Factors Parental Resilience Social Connections Knowledge of parenting and development Concrete support in times of need Social and emotional competence of children
  20. 20. What is Trauma? Person is exposed to traumatic event or events that involve actual or threatened death or serious injury Man-made and natural disasters  Including war, abuse, violence, earthquakes, mechanized accidents or medical emergencies
  21. 21. Acute Trauma Psychological injury that results from singular exposure  Isolated experience
  22. 22. Complex Trauma Psychological injury that results from protracted exposure to prolonged social and/or interpersonal trauma with lack or loss of control, disempowerment, and in the context of either captivity or entrapment
  23. 23. Event Acute Complex BothJim’s fell out of a tree and broke his arm.Aiden’s grandmother died in a car accident.The Walsh family lost their home in a fire.Sara and Jacob were abused by their fatherthroughout their childhood.Eliza is a mother of three and has been stationed inIraq for the past nine months.Jarod and his family were forced to evacuate duringa hurricane.Mary was sexually assaulted at a party as a teen.
  24. 24. Acute Stress Reaction Immediate reaction to stress Symptoms  Initial daze, withdrawal, agitation and overactivity, anxiety, impaired judgment, confusion, detachment, and depression Partial to complete amnesia of event Immediate – 3 days
  25. 25. Acute Stress Disorder Psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying or traumatic event Symptoms  Numbing, detachment, dissociative amnesia, flashbacks, and avoidance of reminders 2 days to 4 weeks
  26. 26. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Severe anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to any event that results in psychological trauma Overwhelming the ability to cope Symptoms  Flashbacks, avoidance, hypervigilance, disruption in functioning Last longer than 4 weeks 50-90% expereince trauama, 8% develop PSTD
  27. 27. Reactions to Trauma: 5 and Younger Clinging to parent or caregiver Crying or screaming Whimpering or trembling Moving aimlessly Becoming immobile Returning to behaviors common to being younger  Thumb sucking, bedwetting, fear of dark
  28. 28. Reaction to Trauma: 6 - 11 Internalizing  Isolate, withdraw, unable to concentrate, unfounded fear, depression, guilt, numb Externalizing  Irritable, disruptive, anger, starts fights Psychosomatic  Sleep problems, unfounded physical complaints
  29. 29. Reactions to Trauma: 12 - 17 Internalizing  Avoid reminders, isolation, suicidal thoughts, depression, guilt Externalizing  Antisocial behavior, substance abuse Psychosomatic  Sleep problems, physical complaints, flashbacks, panic attacks
  30. 30. Hierarchy of Negative Cognitions/Beliefs in PTSD Responsibility: “It was my fault, I should have done something” Safety: “I am in danger/ I cannot protect myself/ I cannot trust my judgement/ I can’t trust anyone”  Results in hypervigilance Choice & Control: “I’m powerless”/ “I’m not in control” Self-Defectiveness: “I am a failure/ I am permanently damaged / I’m a bad person /I’m a disappointment / I am shameful/ I’m good enough”
  31. 31. Brain Alterations Neuroendocrinology  Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis Neuroanatomy  Prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus