Based on the feedback from the readersthat the readers gave me, I have made some revisions to the original document and made some constructive changes based on that feedback and the guidance of Sean and Richard.I’ve taken the advice and feedback from the readers and have begun to incorporate it into <SLIDE>
People don’t buy electricity, people don’t even want electricity, what the customer wants and pays for is lighting, heating, refrigeration, television etc…This is different than water, I pay for a litre of water, because I want a litre of water. I turn the tap on, because I want water to come out.I don’t pay for electricity because I want electricity, I pay for electricity because I want to run my lights.This is a disconnect between the means and the result. Which causes electricity to be largely invisibleAlso, the way that electricity is communicated can be very confusing <SLIDE>for example, understanding the difference between power and energy proves difficult for a lot of people. <SLIDE>These are just two barriers which make it hard for consumers to understand their domestic electricity consumption.Research in this area was spawned from the 1970’s Arab Oil Embargo which sparked concerns about the conceivable exhaustion of fossil fuels.Back in the 70’s there wasn’t the cost effective options for energy efficient appliances, or solar panels that we have today so behaviour modification was seen as the only option to curtail energy use.
There was rapid growth in psychological research which focused on intervention based behaviour modification.Intervention – something introduced or undertaken to influence behaviourThe main theme that developed from the literature is <SLIDE> Let me explain what I mean by that. <SLIDE>The major categories present in this research are antecedent, and consequence interventions.Antecedent interventions aim to influence underlying determinants prior to the commencement of a behaviour.Consequence interventions are based on the premise that consequences, either negative or positive, will influence behaviour.<SLIDE> here are some examples used in DEC researchSince the 70’s technology has evolved, and so has the research along with it.For example there are new technologies designed to assist people with their domestic electricity use by providing real-time feedback.It’s only really now that we have had the infrastructure in place to fully explore these types of technological interventions for domestic electricity use. <SLIDE>
Prior research has identified that the consequence intervention of feedback is an effective strategy to reduce domestic energy consumptionThere are two types of feedback – indirect and directIndirect feedback is provided after consumption occurs, for example a monthly of quarterly power bill is indirect feedback.Direct feedback is provided in real-time or near to real-time – and in some instances can even be down to individual appliance level. For example, power monitorsResearch has shown that direct feedback is the most effective in reducing domestic energy use with average savings between 9.2% and 12%An effective way to deliver direct feedback to consumers is through the use of an in home energy monitoring deviceHowever, these devices usually present information in an unengaging and mundane manner. <SLIDE>
Information displayed fails to address consumers’ different needs and motivations to save energy and information communicated through these devices is still confusing <SLIDE>Aesthetics aside, what these monitors ultimately provide, is a technological way to engage consumers in energy savings. These monitors are a technology designed with the intent to modify behaviours by reducing domestic energy use, they are what’s known as persuasive technologies.<SLIDE>
Persuasive Technology is defined as: READ SLIDE<SLIDE>Persuasive technologies are currently being used for domestic electricity use behaviour modification.There is also being research focused on developing persuasive games for electricity conservation from basic stack a blob, to a The Sims style virtual life game Some research on using social platforms to encourage collaboration and competition.I’ll just talk a little about the theory behind design for persuasive technology now <SLIDE>
Persuasive technology research has been pioneered by Stanford researcher BJ Fogg.Fogg developed This model called the Fogg Behavioural model argues that three factors need to be present for persuasive design. These are Motivation Ability and TriggerMotivation: People need to be sufficiently motivated to change behaviourAbility: People need to have the phisical ability to change their behaviourTrigger: People need the trigger necessary change behaviour. E.g. pop ups, tailored advertising on facebook based on your data. Etc.Social connevtivity and gaming are providing new ways for designers to design persuasive technologies <SLIDE>
Many people use social media, social connectivity, and game mechanics to support learning and lifestyle changes, for example, <SLIDE>Weight watchers has a facebook page with support for its members, <SLIDE>Myfitnesspal is an iphone and android app which allows users to track their exercise progress and share with friends and message them<SLIDE>Lumosity is a brain training game that uses leaderboards and friendly competition to motivate people to keep playingHowever, electricity savings, at the moment, is largely an individual activity.Research is starting to explore these concepts for electricity use.Recent research suggests social interaction plays a key role in new forms of motivation for domestic energy conservation. <SLIDE>A two week dorm vs dorm energy saving competition based in the US, saw an estimate of 32% reduction in energy use. The prize for winning, was simply an Ice cream party, which saw less than 10% of the winning dorm attend. <SLIDE>Clearly the motivation wasn’t in the ice cream party reward. – it was in the competition itself.Looking at these concepts got me interested in the design of technologies, just how do designers know what people want? How do they know what to design?
In order to design a technology that is to be used in a specific social context, designers want to understand that context.<SLIDE>The nature of domestic social context has prompted designers to shift towards social sciences to help understand users and technologies and how they are embedded in that contextMethods, such as interviews and observation are used by designers in various aspects of Human Computer Interaction – HCI <SLIDE>. For example; user requirements, new product development, and iterative design.Due to various time constraints the duration of these methods is often relatively short. - This is known as Rapid Ethnography. <SLIDE>Rapid ethnography is often employed by design teams and involves short focused studies which looks at relevant broad information to inform strategic decision making for design. Unlike traditional anthropological ethnography, where researchers would spend up to several years in a culture to gather a complete and detailed. The rapid approach accepts at the outset the impossibility of gathering a complete and detailed understanding of the setting at hand. Rapid Ethnography focuses on informing strategic decision making by selecting portions of the setting that are of particular importance in informing design.
<SLIDE>Lucy Suchman introduced the concept of situated action in her critique of the design of an interactive expert help system for a photocopier. Her critique of the user modelling and plan-based approach common in HCI argued that plans are one of a range of resources that guide the moment-by-moment sequential organization of activity; they do not lay out a sequence of work that is then blindly interpreted.This work by Suchman was really the inception of ethnomethodologically informed ethnography in the realm of HCI<SLIDE>Graham Button and Paul Dourishargue design can benefit from Ethnomethodology in three ways:Send the ethnomethodologist out into the field and have them come back with detaild observations, and an analytical framework with which to organise them. – Proxy for the field, ideas bounced offDesigner works with a specifically ethnomethodological analysis of the situation, rather then with the ethnomethodologist who might use training and judgement to respond to design specifics.Merging the two disciplines of design and Ethnomethodology into a hybrid discipline. – quite a radical idea, and never really took off.<SLIDE>Andy Crabtree picked up on the hybrid discipline idea focused on new technology as a “breaching experiment” a breach is a violation of commonly accepted norms he looked at how the breach can inform, support, and propel innovation and design. 1. Let designers build whatever they want with whomever they want, subject to their own constraints.2. Deploy the objects of design in real world settings.3. Treat deployment as a breaching experiment.4. Observe and report on what happens5. Feedback and redesign6. Repeat until satisfiedThis has a very Suchman style of observe the situated action people use when and if plans don’t work and design for that situated action.Crabtrees view on ethnomethodology in design is an innovative approach to improving an existing technology through iterations, however, when it comes to informing design for a new technology, I believe Dourish and Buttons interpretation of ethnomethodology in design is of greater benefit.To sum up:Electricity is an invisible resource and is difficult to understandTechnologicalintervention to help modify behavioursThese are a form of persuasive technologySocial and gaming aspects are being used in these technologiesEthnomethodology can be used to inform design of these devices
What do we need to know about domestic electricity use and technology use in order to design a persuasive in home device aimed at electricity conservation?The research questions have been crafted to focus on the methods used by researchers to gather information to inform design.I am interested in how these methods can be used, how to link the data to persuasive design concepts, how to address the issue of data gathering in a sustainable way with scalability.RQ1 is concerned with collecting the data. It will look at:What can be gathered from an in-home questionnaire and rapid ethnography (observed behaviour)?What can be gathered from a telephone questionnaire(reported behaviour)?What comparisons and contrasts are there between the in-home data and the telephone data?What data can be collected from which method and where does the data overlap?RQ2 is concerned with connecting the gathered data to the theories and concepts of persuasive design.Which Persuasive Design features connect to the telephone data?Which Persuasive Design features connect to the in-home data?What comparisons and contrasts are there between connections drawn from the in-home data and the telephone data?Which Persuasive design features can be linked to the data, and where does the data overlap?RQ3 is focusing on the quality of the data in relation to the principles of persuasive design. It aims to explore which data collection method provides greater quality and can draw stronger links to the persuasive design factors.Why telephone and in-home? Workload and Scalability issuesEthnography: richer data, requires a lot of work, and can’t scale up easilyTelephone: not as rich data, requires less work, and can scale up easilyI want to take the richness and quality of ethnographic data and see if it can be replicated and combined with the practically and scalability of the telephone – in this instance.A startup business for example won’t have the resources available to do a large scale ethnographic study, whereas they will most likely have access to a telephone and a phone book.
An ethnomethodological approach will be adopted in this research to help describe the methods people use concerning electricity use in the domestic setting.Ethnomethodologists often use ethnographically generated materials in their analysis, which can sometimes lead to confusion between the two. Ethnomethodology, as I understand it is not itself a method for studying people, like ethnography is; rather, it is a study of peoples’ own methods for making sense of the world.As mentioned earlier, rapid ethnography is used by HCI research due to various constraints. Therefor this style will be adopted in this study. The relevant data will be gathered in order to inform strategic decisions relating to electricity use, technology use, and persuasive design factors. As opposed to a holistic look at home energy use.
Two part studyCreate a standardised questionnaire (SQ) and administer to 5 households via telephone and 5 households in person, and then do a household walk-around, interview, and video-recorded observation.Richness of the ethnographic data and replicate that in the questionnaire - Revise the questionnaire and administer to 5 more households via telephoneThis methodological study aims to understand which domestic electricity use and technology use data needs to be collected ethnographically, and which can be collected via a standardised questionnaire with the purpose of informing persuasive technology designSaturation: I will be looking into the notion of saturation and figure out if it is relevant to what I am doing, because this is a methodological study, I am not sure at this stage if it will be relevant. But I will definitely be looking into it.
I initially wanted to look at family households, however after receiving feedback the issue of recruiting participants will be discussed with my advisors with regards to selection criteria.Apart from the issue of criteria, I see the basic procedure as <READ SLIDE>The reward for participating the in-home section of the study will be a $50 coles voucher up to a maximum of 5 peopleRecruiting the telephone participants will be negotiated with and advised by my advisory team. The telephone survey participants will be rewarded with a big thanks.
It is not yet clear exactly what principles I will use for data analysis, however I am using Mixed methods ethnography to gather the data and exactly how I will analyse the data will be revisited at length when I start gathering the data.However, I have identified and started training on Leximancer as a possible tool for the thematic grouping of data. Leximancer should help me identify the concepts present in the gathered data which can be linked to features of persuasive design.An Ethnomethodological analysis will be used to deconstruct the observation data and describe peoples methods and accounts and how they link to persuasive technology.
Analysis of methods used to gather dataOperationalising persuasive technology conceptsTesting a scalable method to inform future technology design
We are in November now, so if I am confirmed, I will immediately begin the planning phase of the fieldwork.Then I will be gearing up for a busy four months between Jan and March of the main fieldwork and beginning of data analysis.Then towards the second half of 2013 I’ll be collating responses to the second questionnaire and analysing the results.’
Analysing methods for data collection to inform design of
a persuasive technology aimed at reducing domestic
MPhil Confirmation of Candidature
Motivation and Previous Work
Approach and Methodology
Future Work Plan
Timing of delivery selects intervention type
• Goal Setting
“any interactive computing system designed to
change people’s attitudes or behaviours”(Fogg, 2003, p. 1)
Fogg, B. (2009). A behavior model for persuasive design. Proceedings of the 4th
International Conference on Persuasive Technology, Persuasive ’09 (pp. 40:1–
40:7). New York, NY, USA
32% reduced electricity use
• User Requirements
• Product Development
• Iterative Design
Rapid Ethnography AKA Quick and Dirty Ethnography
Plans are resources that guide the moment-by-moment
sequential organization of activity
Button and Dourish’s 1996 Solutions:
1. Learn from ethnomethodologist
2. Learn from ethnomethodological accounts
3. Learning from ethnomethodology – Hybrid discipline
Crabtree’s Hybrid Discipline
Treat new technology as a breach and use to inform,
support and propel innovation and design
Overall Research Problem
What combination of home electricity use information and technology use information is needed
to produce specifications for a persuasive technological intervention for electricity conservation?
1. How does in-home (ethnographic) data collection (for the above) compare and contrast to
telephone data collection?
2. What known Persuasive Design factors connect to the data RQ1 collected?
3. Does ethnographic data provide more, better, or more nuanced information (for RQ2) than
the telephone data, or does the telephone data provide sufficient connection to Persuasive
Operationalisation procedures for writing specifications for a persuasive technological
intervention for electricity conservation
The study of the methods people use for
producing recognizable social orders.
(Garfinkel and Rawls, 2002)
Providing a detailed description
of everyday life and practices.
Short focused studies which looks at relevant
broad information to inform strategic decision
making for design.
In home ethnography
Compare and Contrast
• Contact from
Ethnomethodological analysis of methods used
to gather home electricity and technology use
Operationalising the concepts of Persuasive
Technology in the domestic electricity setting
Testing a scalable method for gathering
electricity use information to inform future
Design questionnaire and field work procedures
Obtain Necessary Technological Equipment
Milestone 1 Confirmation
Recruitment Produce and distribute flyers
Contact from respondents - select participants
Undertake Telephone Questionnaires
Fieldwork In-Home questionnaires - ethnography
and Analysis Initial analysis
Transcribe interviews and write up notes
Milestone 2 Mid Candidature Reviw
Revise and finalise questionnaire
Undertake Telephone Questionnaires
Collate responses to questionaire
Milestone 3 Submission
Future Work Plan