Planning

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Planning

  1. 1. FAILING TO PLAN IS PLANNING TO FAILDEFINITIONSKOONTZ AND DONNEL” Planning involves selecting enterprise objectives,departmental goals, and programs, and determining the ways of reaching them,Planning, thus, provides a rational approach to pre-selected objectives.”PHILIP KOTLER “ Planning is deciding in the present what to do in the future. It isthe process whereby companies reconcile their resources with their objectivesand opportunities.”Peter F. Drucker” Planning is the continuous process pf making presententrepreneurial decisions systematically and with the best possible knowledge oftheir futurity, organizing systematically the efforts needed to carry out thesedecisions and measuring the results of these decisions against the expectationsthrough organized, systematic feedback.”
  2. 2. IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING OBJECTIVE ORIENTED INTELLECTUAL PROCESS ALL PERVASIVE CONTINUOUS PROCESS FLEXIBLE IN NATURE DIRECTED TOWARDS EFFICIENCY MASTER COORDINATOR
  3. 3. FEATURES OF GOOD PLAN BY WELL ESTABLISHED OBJECTIVESURWICK SIMPLE & UNDERSTANDABLE FLEXIBLE TO CHANGE ACCORDING TO CIRCUMSTANCES BALANCED & EQUAL EMPHASIS ON ALL SECTORS OF BUSINESS PROVIDE BETTER ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION OF ACTIONS REASONABLE POSSIBLE TO PERFORM
  4. 4. ADVANATAGES OF PLANNING Acts as a Significant Integrating Force Helps in process of decision-making Helps the organisation to implement Future Programs Keeps the organisation up-to-date and Highly competitive. Economies of large scale operation Budgeting and budgeting control Sense of Involvement & Team Spirit Performance of all functions-coordinating, controlling etc. Achieving objectives through proper control Efficient management and develop individual managers
  5. 5. DISADVANTAGES OF PLANNING1. VERY EXPENSIVE & TIME CONSUMING2. RIGID ORGANSATIONAL STRUCTURE3. DELAYS PROCESS OD DECISION-MAKING4. CANNOT ENSURE CERTAININTY OF FUTURE PERFORMANCE5. PRECISION BASED ON ASSUMPTIONS6. ONLY APPROXIMATE RESULTS
  6. 6. PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING Contribution to objectives Primacy of planning Pervasiveness of planning Flexibility of planning Periodicity Planning premises (Assumptions) Efficiency of Operations Limiting Factors Revision
  7. 7. Steps in Planning1. Defining the Problem2. Establishing objectives3. Establishing the planning premises4. Determining Alternative course of action5. Evaluation of Alternative course of action6. Selecting the course of action7. Formulating derivative plans8. Timing the sequence of operations9. Participation and Follow-up
  8. 8. PLANNING PREMISES Management has to take policy decisions based on certain assumptions and about future happenings. Such assumptions are known as Planning Premises.TYPES OF PREMISES5. INTERNAL &EXTERNAL PREMISES6. TANGIBLE & INTANGIBLE PREMISES7. CONTROLLABLE, SEMI-CONTROLLABLE & UNCONTROLLABLE8. CONSTANT & VARIABLE PREMISES
  9. 9. PLANNING PROCESS1. ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT2. ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT3. DETERMINATION OF MISSION4. DETERMINATION OF OBJECTIVES5. FORECASTING6. DETERMINING ALTERNATIVE COURSE OF ACTION7. EVALUATING ALTERNATIVE COURSE OF ACTION8. SELECTING THE BEST9. ESTABLISHING THE SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES10. FORMULATION OF ACTION PROGRAMMES11. REVIEWING THE PLANNING PROCESS

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