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LEADERSHIPKoontz and Donnell “ Leading is the interpersonal aspect ofmanaging by which subordinates are led to understand andcontribute effectively and efficiently to the attainment ofenterprise objectives.”Urwick and Breach “ Leading is the guidance, the inspiration,the leadership of those men and women that constitute thereal core of the responsibilities of management.”Earnest Dale “ Leading is telling people what to do andseeing that they do it to the best of their ability. It includesmaking assignments, explaining procedures, seeing thatmistakes are corrected, providing on-the-job instruction andofcourse issuing orders.”
ELEMENTS OF LEADINGJoseph Massie states the aim of leading is to :-1. Issue clear, complete, comprehensive orders, within the capabilities of subordinates to accomplish.2. Provide continuous training to subordinates.3. Inspire the subordinates4. Supervise the work performance5. Maintain Order and Discipline.6. Communicate with the worker.
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADING1. One of the major functions of Management.2. It is a continuous activity.3. Leading functions from top to bottom4. Regular Supervision not just Orders5. Deals with human factor6. Other Managerial activities
MANAGERIAL ACTIVITIES1. AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY2. DECISION-MAKING3. COMMUNICATION4. LEADERSHIP5. PERCEPTION, LEARNING AND CREATIVITY6. INNOVATION AND CHANGE7. SUPERVISION
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD ORDER/INSTRUCTION1. REASONABLE2. ATTAINABLE3. CRYSTAL CLEAR4. MATCH WITH OBJECTIVE OF ORGN.5. TIME-BOUND6. COMPLETE & COMPREHENSIVE7. TONE APPROPRIATE8. FOLLOWED PROPERLY9. SHOULD BE IN WRITING
WRITTEN ORDERS & ORAL INSTRUCTIONSWRITTEN ORDERS ADVANTAGES1. Purpose of order is very clear.2. Continuity and clarity of thought3. Understood quickly and properly4. Avoids possibility of misunderstanding.5. Can study instructions in detail and execute6. Communicated to many7. Precise, accurate and to the point.8. Improves accountability9. Documentary evidence.
DISADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN ORDER1.Time-consuming2.Expensive3.Very rigid4.Difficult to revise5.Subordinate cannot be creative
PRINCIPLES OF LEADINGEffective leading can be accomplished by1. Principle of Unity of Objectives2. Principle of Unity of Command3. Principle of Direct Supervision4. Principle of Effective Communication5. Principle of Good Leadership6. Principle of Motivation
LEADERSHIP STYLESKURT LEWIN Three different styles:-1. AUTOCRATIC2. DEMOCRATIC3. LAISSEZ-FAIRE (Group Decision)RENSIS LIKERT1.Oppressive autocratic2. Benevolent autocratic3.Consultative4.Participatory
MANAGERIAL GRIDROBERT R.BLAKE AND JANE S MOUTON1. CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION (tasks)2. CONCERN FOR PEOPLE (relationship)
MANAGER LEADER(a) Doing things right. (a) Doing right things.(b) Efficient to success (b) Choosing right learning(c) Works well in (c) Works well in crises peacetime (d) Sets direction(d) Plans and budgets(e) Performs organising (e) Performs aligning and staffing functions function(f) Utilises material (f) Utilises human resources resources(g) Uses Authority (g) Uses Power(h) Manages People (h) Inspires people