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Globalization report Globalization report Presentation Transcript

  • GLOBALIZATION
    A Presentation by
    • Yolanda TevesSobrepeña
  • What is Globalization?
    Process by which the people of the world
    are unified into a single society
    Integration of national economies into
    the international economy through trade,
    foreign direct investment, capital flows,
    migration, and spread of technology
  • QUESTIONS:
    1.Is globalization merely harmful, or are there positive features associated with its practices and dynamics?
    2.Is it possible, then, to give general answers to the question of how globalization is affecting educational policy and practice worldwide?
  • Hence, the answers developed will require a careful analysis of trends in education, including:
    • the currently popular policy "buzz words" (privatization, choice, and decentralization of educational systems) that drive policy formation in education and prevailing research agendas based in rational organization and management theories
  • • the role of national and international organizations in education, including teacher unions, parent organizations, and social movements; and
    • the new scholarship on race, class, gender, and the state in education
  • Purposes
    First, to identify, characterize, and clarify some of the debates surrounding the phenomenon of globalization; and
    Second, to try to understand some of the multiple and complex effects of globalization on educational policy and policy formation.
    In summarizing some of the consequences of globalization for educational policy, we will follow the previous organization divided into three parts: tracing some of the economic impacts, the politicalimpacts, and the cultural impacts.
  • Economic Level
    Schools will need to reconsider this mission in light of changing job markets in a work environment; new skills and the flexibility to adapt to changing job demands and, for that matter, changing jobs over a lifetime; and dealing with an increasingly competitive international labor pool.
  • The broader economic effects of globalization tend to force national educational policies into a neoliberal framework that emphasizes lower taxes; shrinking the state sector and "doing more with less"; promoting market approaches to school choice (particularly vouchers); rational management of school organizations; performance assessment (testing); and deregulation in order to encourage new providers (including online providers) of educational services.
  • Political Level
    the constraint on national/state policy making posed by external demands from transnational institutions.
    a growing internationalization of global conflict, crime, terrorism, and environmental issues, but with an inadequate development of political institutions to address them.
  • Educational institutions may have a crucial role to play in addressing these problems, and the complex network of intended and unintended human consequences that have followed from the growth of global corporations, global mobility, global communication, and global expansion. In part, this awareness may help to foster a more critical conception of what education for "world citizenship" requires.
  • Cultural Level
    Global changes in culture deeply affect educational policies, practices, and institutions. Particularly in advanced industrial societies, for instance, the question of "multiculturalism" takes on a special meaning in a global context.
  • Aframework for multicultural education in developed societies -- to learn about different others as a way of living with them and coordinating social activity with them within a compact of mutual tolerance and respect -- extend to a global order in which the gulf of differences becomes wider, the sense of interdependence and common interest more attenuated, and the grounding of affiliation more abstract and indirect.
  • Criteria For Measuring Globalization
    Political Engagement
    Personal Contact
    Technological Connectivity
    Economic Integration
  • Political Engagement
    Foreign aid, treaties, organizations and peacekeeping
  • Personal Contact
    Including telephone calls, travel, and remittances.
  • Technological Connectivity
    Number of internet users, hosts, and secure servers
  • Technological Environment
    • Changing at “lightning speed”
    • Internet and telecommunications
    • Increasing bandwidth/high-speed access
    • Reduced costs of entry/leapfrogging
    • E-business
    • Customization (“the long end of the tail”)
    • E-retailing and financial services
    • Movement of money across borders
    • “E-cash” – a currency without a country
    • Outsourcing and offshoring
    • Information as a commodity
    • The 24-hour office – increased productivity/lower cost
  • Economic Integration
    International trade and foreign direct investment
  • Some Advantages
    Increased free trade between nations
    Increased liquidity of capital allowing investors in developed nations to invest in developing nations
    Corporations have greater flexibility to operate across borders
    Global mass media ties the world together
    Increased flow of communications allows vital information to be shared between individuals and corporations around the world
  • Greater ease and speed of transportation for goods and people
    Reduction of cultural barriers increases the global village effect
    Spread of democratic ideals to developed nations
    Greater interdependence of nation-states
    Reduction of likelihood of war between developed nations
    Increases in environmental protection in developed nations
  • Some Disadvantages
    Increased flow of skilled and non-skilled jobs from developed to developing nations as corporations seek out the cheapest labor
    Increased likelihood of economic disruptions in one nation effecting all nations
    Corporate influence of nation-states far exceeds that of civil society organizations and average individuals
    Threat that control of world media by a handful of corporations will limit cultural expression
    Greater chance of reactions for globalization being violent in an attempt to preserve cultural heritage
     
  • Greater risk of diseases being transported unintentionally between nations
    Spread of a materialistic lifestyle and attitude that sees consumption as the path to prosperity
    International bodies like the World Trade Organization infringe on national and individual sovereignty
    Increase in the chances of civil war within developing countries and open war between developing countries as they vie for resources
    Decreases in environmental integrity as polluting corporations take advantage of weak regulatory rules in developing countries 
  • Conclusion:
    Globalization is the brand of today. The boom of globalization has opened gates for economies both nationwide and worldwide. For the last decade’s governments get hold of the systems in taking advantage of the opportunities for international business as well as venture. Where there are some highly appreciated benefits of globalization to the world has witnessed some extremely harmful effects of globalization too especially when talking about Education. 
  • Conclusion
    The effects of globalization on education bring about fast expansions in technology and communications are anticipating changes within learning systems across the world as ideas, values, and knowledge, changing the roles of students and teachers and producing change in society from industrialization towards an information-based society.
  • Conclusion:
    In the 21st century, education systems deal with the twofold challenge of providing students with the new knowledge, skills and values needed to be competitive in a global market while at the same time producing graduates who are responsible adults, good citizens both of their country and of the world. Thus globalization challenges us to rethink not only how much education is needed but also its ultimate purposes. 
  • THANK YOU FOR LISTENING
    GOD BLESS
  • There is also a need to look closely and resolve the following important issues:
    1) quality of education 
    2) affordability of education
     3) government budget for education; and
     4) education mismatch.
  • Some of the Reforms Proposed:
    Upgrade the teachers' salary scale. Teachers have been underpaid; thus there is very little incentive for most of them to take up advanced trainings.
    Amend the current system of budgeting for education across regions, which is based on participation rates and units costs. This clearly favors the more developed regions. There is a need to provide more allocation to lagging regions to narrow the disparity across regions.
    Stop the current practice of subsidizing state universities and colleges to enhance access. This may not be the best way to promote equity. An expanded scholarship program, giving more focus and priority to the poor, maybe more equitable.
  • Some of the Reforms Proposed:
    4. Get all the leaders in business and industry to become actively involved in higher education; this is aimed at addressing the mismatch problem. In addition, carry out a selective admission policy, i.e., installing mechanisms to reduce enrollment in oversubscribed courses and promoting enrollment in undersubscribed ones.
    5. Develop a rationalized apprenticeship program with heavy inputs from the private sector. Furthermore, transfer the control of technical training to industry groups which are more attuned to the needs of business and industry.