What is Globalization? Process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society Integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and spread of technology
QUESTIONS: 1.Is globalization merely harmful, or are there positive features associated with its practices and dynamics? 2.Is it possible, then, to give general answers to the question of how globalization is affecting educational policy and practice worldwide?
Hence, the answers developed will require a careful analysis of trends in education, including: • the currently popular policy "buzz words" (privatization, choice, and decentralization of educational systems) that drive policy formation in education and prevailing research agendas based in rational organization and management theories
• the role of national and international organizations in education, including teacher unions, parent organizations, and social movements; and • the new scholarship on race, class, gender, and the state in education
Purposes First, to identify, characterize, and clarify some of the debates surrounding the phenomenon of globalization; and Second, to try to understand some of the multiple and complex effects of globalization on educational policy and policy formation. In summarizing some of the consequences of globalization for educational policy, we will follow the previous organization divided into three parts: tracing some of the economic impacts, the politicalimpacts, and the cultural impacts.
Economic Level Schools will need to reconsider this mission in light of changing job markets in a work environment; new skills and the flexibility to adapt to changing job demands and, for that matter, changing jobs over a lifetime; and dealing with an increasingly competitive international labor pool.
The broader economic effects of globalization tend to force national educational policies into a neoliberal framework that emphasizes lower taxes; shrinking the state sector and "doing more with less"; promoting market approaches to school choice (particularly vouchers); rational management of school organizations; performance assessment (testing); and deregulation in order to encourage new providers (including online providers) of educational services.
Political Level the constraint on national/state policy making posed by external demands from transnational institutions. a growing internationalization of global conflict, crime, terrorism, and environmental issues, but with an inadequate development of political institutions to address them.
Educational institutions may have a crucial role to play in addressing these problems, and the complex network of intended and unintended human consequences that have followed from the growth of global corporations, global mobility, global communication, and global expansion. In part, this awareness may help to foster a more critical conception of what education for "world citizenship" requires.
Cultural Level Global changes in culture deeply affect educational policies, practices, and institutions. Particularly in advanced industrial societies, for instance, the question of "multiculturalism" takes on a special meaning in a global context.
Aframework for multicultural education in developed societies -- to learn about different others as a way of living with them and coordinating social activity with them within a compact of mutual tolerance and respect -- extend to a global order in which the gulf of differences becomes wider, the sense of interdependence and common interest more attenuated, and the grounding of affiliation more abstract and indirect.
Criteria For Measuring Globalization Political Engagement Personal Contact Technological Connectivity Economic Integration
Political Engagement Foreign aid, treaties, organizations and peacekeeping
Personal Contact Including telephone calls, travel, and remittances.
Technological Connectivity Number of internet users, hosts, and secure servers
Changing at “lightning speed”
Internet and telecommunications
Increasing bandwidth/high-speed access
Reduced costs of entry/leapfrogging
Customization (“the long end of the tail”)
E-retailing and financial services
Movement of money across borders
“E-cash” – a currency without a country
Outsourcing and offshoring
Information as a commodity
The 24-hour office – increased productivity/lower cost
Economic Integration International trade and foreign direct investment
Some Advantages Increased free trade between nations Increased liquidity of capital allowing investors in developed nations to invest in developing nations Corporations have greater flexibility to operate across borders Global mass media ties the world together Increased flow of communications allows vital information to be shared between individuals and corporations around the world
Greater ease and speed of transportation for goods and people Reduction of cultural barriers increases the global village effect Spread of democratic ideals to developed nations Greater interdependence of nation-states Reduction of likelihood of war between developed nations Increases in environmental protection in developed nations
Some Disadvantages Increased flow of skilled and non-skilled jobs from developed to developing nations as corporations seek out the cheapest labor Increased likelihood of economic disruptions in one nation effecting all nations Corporate influence of nation-states far exceeds that of civil society organizations and average individuals Threat that control of world media by a handful of corporations will limit cultural expression Greater chance of reactions for globalization being violent in an attempt to preserve cultural heritage
Greater risk of diseases being transported unintentionally between nations Spread of a materialistic lifestyle and attitude that sees consumption as the path to prosperity International bodies like the World Trade Organization infringe on national and individual sovereignty Increase in the chances of civil war within developing countries and open war between developing countries as they vie for resources Decreases in environmental integrity as polluting corporations take advantage of weak regulatory rules in developing countries
Conclusion: Globalization is the brand of today. The boom of globalization has opened gates for economies both nationwide and worldwide. For the last decade’s governments get hold of the systems in taking advantage of the opportunities for international business as well as venture. Where there are some highly appreciated benefits of globalization to the world has witnessed some extremely harmful effects of globalization too especially when talking about Education.
Conclusion The effects of globalization on education bring about fast expansions in technology and communications are anticipating changes within learning systems across the world as ideas, values, and knowledge, changing the roles of students and teachers and producing change in society from industrialization towards an information-based society.
Conclusion: In the 21st century, education systems deal with the twofold challenge of providing students with the new knowledge, skills and values needed to be competitive in a global market while at the same time producing graduates who are responsible adults, good citizens both of their country and of the world. Thus globalization challenges us to rethink not only how much education is needed but also its ultimate purposes.
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There is also a need to look closely and resolve the following important issues: 1) quality of education 2) affordability of education 3) government budget for education; and 4) education mismatch.
Some of the Reforms Proposed: Upgrade the teachers' salary scale. Teachers have been underpaid; thus there is very little incentive for most of them to take up advanced trainings. Amend the current system of budgeting for education across regions, which is based on participation rates and units costs. This clearly favors the more developed regions. There is a need to provide more allocation to lagging regions to narrow the disparity across regions. Stop the current practice of subsidizing state universities and colleges to enhance access. This may not be the best way to promote equity. An expanded scholarship program, giving more focus and priority to the poor, maybe more equitable.
Some of the Reforms Proposed: 4. Get all the leaders in business and industry to become actively involved in higher education; this is aimed at addressing the mismatch problem. In addition, carry out a selective admission policy, i.e., installing mechanisms to reduce enrollment in oversubscribed courses and promoting enrollment in undersubscribed ones. 5. Develop a rationalized apprenticeship program with heavy inputs from the private sector. Furthermore, transfer the control of technical training to industry groups which are more attuned to the needs of business and industry.