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Chapter 8: Founding of the KatipunanI. The Founding of the Katipunan - The groups of patriots were divided into two faction: the LOS COMPROMISARIOS (those who are conservative members of the La Liga Filipina and still willing to demand reforms and compromise with the Spanish government) and the SEPARATIST (patriots who wanted to launch an armed rebellion to achieve independence from the colonizers) - La Liga Filipina was founded on 3 July 1892 at Tondo, it was founded by Rizal himself but the organization was short-lived due to Rizal’s arrest and exile to Dapitan. - On 7 July 1891, the Katipunan was founded on Azcarraga St. (C.M. Recto) in the house of Deodato Arellano - Founders of KKK were: Andres Bonifacio Teodoro Plata Ladislao Diwa - Main Objectives of the Organization: Struggle for Separation Abolition of Spanish Rule -II. Political Structure of the Katipunan 1. Supreme Council a. Kataas-taasang Sanggunian b. Composed of the Supremo, Fiscal, Secretary and the Treasurer 2. Provincial Council a. Sangguniang Bayan located in different provinces 3. Popular Council a. Sangguniang Balangay b. Located in various towns 4. Judicial Council a. Sangguniang Hukuman b. Held judicial functions c. Decide on cases of violations d. In charged of settling disputes among members
III. The Supremos 1. Deodato Arellano (1892) 2. Roman Basa (1893) 3. Andres Bonifacio (1895)IV. Membership • Triangle System • Include initiation rites similar to Masonry and sanduguan • Grades of Membership Katipun – Lowest ranking members who used green mask and sash with password ANAK NG BAYAN Kawal – Next ranking members who used red mask and sash with password GOMBURZA Bayani – Highest ranking members of the organization who used a red mask with a red sash that had green linings with password RIZAL • Women Section Must be a wife, sister or daughter of a Katipunan member Initial members were: • Gregoria de Jesus –Lakambini • Josefa Rizal • Trinidad Rizal • Marina Dizon • Benita Rodriguez – sew the Katipunan flag Tasks: • Recruitment • Document keepers • Served as front to mislead guardia civilesV. Pillars of KKK 1. Andres Bonifacio Acquired the title “Great Plebian” Minimal formal education but learned through self education and reading Worked in the Fleming Company and the Fressel Company Married first to Monica who died of leprosy and then to Gregoria de Jesus Generally impulsive, brave and a good organizer of the movement
Wrote “Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa” and “Ang dapat mabatid ng mga Tagalog” Trivia on Bonifacio The love story of Oriang and Andres 2. Emilio Jacinto “Brains of the Katipunan” He wrote the “Kartilya ng Katipunan” and an essay “Liwanag at Dilim” He also served as the editor of Kalayaan, the official organ of the KKK Commander of the revolutionary forces in Majayjay, LagunaVI. Rizal and the KatipunanJune 1896 - Bonifacio sent Dr. Pio Valenzuela to Dapitan to ask the opinion of Rizal on the staging of an armed rebellion against Spain especially that the authorities were already suspicious and the KK was unexpectedly discovered by the Spanish governmentRizal’s Opinion - KKK may be a patriotic organization but it Lack arms Lack manpower Lack able leaders - In Valenzuela’s 1896 account, he said that Rizal was against the revolution but later in 1930’s he retracted and said that Rizal was not against the rebellion and even suggested what the revolutionaries should do to win against the Spaniards. According to Valenzuela Rizal suggested the following: Get the support of the rich Filipinos or at least request them to be neutral Get the service of Gen. Antonio Luna Collect necessary funds, ammunition and weapons to be used in fighting - However, in Rizal’s letter to the Filipino People, he vehemently denied any involvement with the revolution of 1896 and stated that he believed that reforms should come from above and not from below, which in a way underestimated the capacity of the revolting masses to instill reforms and changes.VII. Katipunan Literature
Andres Bonifacio 1. Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa 2. Ang Dapat Mabatid ng mga Tagalog 3. Ang Katungkulang Gagawin ng mga Anak ng Bayan 4. PahimakasEmilio Jacinto 1. Kartilla ng Katipunan 2. Liwanag at Dilim 3. A La PatriaPio Valenzuela 1. Katuwiran? 2. Sa mga KababayanVIII. Preparation for the Revolution 1. KKK to solicit aid and alliance from the Japanese government 2. Manufacture of bolos and daggers 3. Steal firearms from Spanish arsenals 4. Successive secret meetingsIX. Discovery of the Katipunan - Two Katipuneros fought over a P2 increase in salary - Teodoro Patino ended up squealing everything he knew to his sister who in returned convinced him to tell everything he knew to Fr. Mariano Gil, the curate of Tondo. - Patino squealed about the lithographic stone hidden in the printing shop of Diario de Manila together with the document of membership using a member’s blood for signing, a picture of Dr. Rizal and receipt pertinent to the KatipunanX. The Cry of Pugadlawin This momentous event took place on 23 August 1896 at Pugadlawin, near Bahay Toro said to be near Caloocan. Katipuneros headed by Bonifacio tore their cedulas, a symbolism of freeing themselves from Spanish oppressionXI. Initial Encounters 1. Pasong Tamo
2. Marikina 3. Pinaglabanan (San Juan)XII. The Reign of Terror - Gove. Gen. Ramon Blanco declared Martial Law on the eight provinces serving as hotbeds of revolution: Cavite Manila Laguna Batangas Bulacan Pampanga Nueva Ecija Tarlac - Those who surrendered to the government in exchange of amnesty were arrested instead, tortured and executed while others were sent exile in colonies such as Marianas and Caroline Islands. - 4 Leaders captured in Pinaglabanan were executed through firing squad, followed by series of executions: 13 martyrs of Cavite Bicol martyrs Bagumbayan Martyrs Rizal’s Execution – 30 December 1896 through Gen. Polavieja’s order.XIII. Katipunan Victories in Cavite - Two factions were created: Magdalo – Founded by Baldomero Aguinaldo Magdiwang – Founded by Mariano Alvarez and was authorized by the Supremo - Successful battles Spanish garrison in Kawit – Candido Tirona Battle of Imus – Col. Jose Tagle and Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo Battle of Binakayan – Pio del Pilar Noveleta – Candido Tirona - Reason for the success was FACTIONAL FIGTING as a result of competitionXIV. Bonifacio in Cavite - Invited by Artemio Ricarte and Mariano Alvarez to settle the growing difference and dispute between Magdiwang and Magdalo
- Bonifacio was coldly received by the members of the Magdalo whose loyalty belonged to Aguinaldo - The Tejeros Convention was held on 22 March 1897 where Severino delas Alas proposed that a revolutionary government must be established to meet the demands of the revolutionary cause. - Outcome: President: Emilio Aguinaldo Vice President: Mariano Trias Captain general: Artemio Ricarte Director of War: Emilio Riego de Dios Director of Interior: Andres Bonifacio - Daniel Tirona opposed to Bonifacio’s election resulting to a violent confrontation - Bonifacio declared the Tejeros Convention Null and Void, and with his followers left Tejeros. The next day he issued the Acta de Tejeros signed by him and his followers. - The following night, Aguinaldo and other elected officers took oath at the San Francisco de Malabon, while Bonifacio went to Naic and made the Naic Military pact, an aim to establish a government to challenge the existing revolutionary government of Aguinaldo.XV. The Story of Pio del Pilar and Mariano NorielXVI. The Arrest, Trial and execution of Bonifacio - Bonifacio was charged of treason and sedition - He was captured in Limbon, Indang together with his wife and brother. He was said to be stabbed in the larynx by a loyal aide of Aguinaldo named Ignacio Paua, while his wife was allegedly raped by Agapito Bonzon. - A military court martial headed by Baldomero Aguinaldo was formed and eventually gave the verdict of death to the two brothers - On May 10, 1897 the Bonifacio brothers were executed in Mount Nagpatong near Mount Tala and Buntis in Maragondon, CaviteXVII. Retreat to Biak-na-Bato - When Cavite was retaken by the Spaniards, Aguinaldo and his revolutionary troops retreated to Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan - The Biak-na-Bato Republic It was established through a constitution copied from the Cuban constitution of 1895 with a section for Bill of Rights A Supreme Council was created - Through the efforts of Pedro Paterno, a peace pact was signed at Biak-na-Bato; both participated by Aguinaldo and the Spanish authorities. - The following are the provisions of the peace treaty: Aguinaldo and other revolutionary leaders would do a voluntary exile in Hong Kong
Payment of indemnity would be apportioned as follows: • 400,000 after the surrender of arms by the Filipinos • Another 200,000 if arms reached up to 800 • Another 200,000 if arms reached 1,000 Spanish government would pay additional 900,000 for the families of the Filipinos to serve as damage feesXVIII. Failure of the Ceasefire1. Violation of the provisions of the pact by both parties2. Filipinos who surrendered were not pardoned but executed instead3. Some Filipinos did not surrender their weapons4. Aguinaldo used up the money to buy weapons in Hong Kong while he was exile.