Basque diaspora
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  • 1. From 1833 to 1876 a Carlist war happened in Spain. that war started when the king Fernando VII died and her fourth wife became the queen of Spain because their daughter Elisabete was very young enough.  In cause of that, the population divided in two groups. The first group called Cristinos, which defended the queen, and Carlists which were the supporters of king´s brother, Carlos V. So between them started a very long and important war for the history of Spain.  the second part of this Carlist war took part in Catalunia, however in Basque country was more important the third one which happened between 1872-1876 years. During the carlist war years the population of Basque country lived a very bad situation and they wanted to have a better life and an improvement of their economic situation. 
  • 2. These are the countries where basque people moved more:  The west of United States of America: They moved there, firstly because of the war and secondly for a phenomenon called the “the gold fever” which happened in California between 1848-1855 years. We say the gold fever to refer to the people who travelled there looking for metal. Round three hundred thousand travellers went there. In the United States are 36 centre which are related whith basque culture for example: boise basque centre Idaho.  Mexico: More or less eight thousand five hundred people travelled there. There was a basque man, Fray Juan de Zumarraga, who founded an university there in Mexico. At the end of XIX century, 1533 people travelled there and founded the basque centre. In Mexico “basque pelota” have been practised since 1895 and for Mexicians it is a very important sport.
  • 3.  Argentina: Nowadays the ten percentage of the population are from basque families, because at the date of 1876 the ancestors of those families moved there for political or economical reasons. There are aproximately 76 basque centres in Argentina and are officially recognised by the Basque Government. One of the biggest centre is situated in Llavallol and once a year they celebrate a very crouded party and it is called “basque party”. there are a lot of people who have a basque surname.  Colombia: Years ago a man started an investigation to know how many basque people were living in Colombia. And the results of the investigation showed that a fifteen percent had a basque surname like for example Montoya Zuluaga and Echeverri. In Colombia there are some singers or compositors who have basque grandparents and in cause of that have done some songs in basque. There are a lot of basque centres there in Colombia and the most of them are situated in Antioquia: Centre of basque studies in Antioquia studies how many basque people in that part of south America There are two foundations too, their aim is to spread Basque culture in all of the districts.
  • 4.  Venezuela: Some men took part in the attempt to founding Caracas between the years 1526-1528 but they didn´t get. In Venezuela have been a lot of governors and presidents with Basque origins. For example Antonio Berrio, José Iturriaga, Miguel de Ursua and more. We know that at the colonial time were created some frontons, and there, people could play to the “Basque pelota”. Years later Angel Bustunduy started a team called “pilota zale”. Moreover the principal football team was “deportivo vasco” created in 1944. Nowadays the Basque centre in Caracas it is one of the most important in all of the world. It is situated in “El Paraiso” district. When it was inaugurated the president of Basque Country was there, José Antonio de Aguirre. T here are some Basque men who was born in Venezuela and nowadays are living here in Basque Country:  Iñaki Mirena Anasagasti: He was born in Cumaná and nowadays is a Basque politician.  Fernando Amorebieta: He was born in Cantaura and now is a very known football player.  Mikel Erentxun: He was born in Caracas, is a rock singer and he is now living in San Sebastian.
  • 5.  From 1936-1939 a civil war happened in Spain. It was a war between Franco and the republicans. The first important movement from basque country to out of Spain happened the first month after the civil had started. One of the principal reasons of migration was the fear that basque people had to that bad situation. 2272 people crosses the france border and most of them were women and children. In that first movement, totally 16500 went to France and as have said most of them were women, children and old people because the men stayed there fighting. This transit was made posible thanks to the department of Basque Country which organised an evacuation out of the country.
  • 6. In 1937 the franquists bombed some places of Biscay. Precisely for this reason there were a lot of nutrition problems and it provoked that temporally went out. DESTINATION ADULTS CHILDREN May - June 11636 7665 Pauillac May - June (France South Western) 10532 7348 Southampton (England South Coast) May 3861 3861 Bayona June 270 270 La Pallice (France) DATE
  • 7. A part of France 30000 people went to Latino America, for example places like Mexico, Venezuela and Argentina. People from this countries offered them health care, a place to live and in some cases they offered work too. But not all of the them went there, some people travelled to countries in Europe like Russia, Belgium and United Kingdom. Firstly they only went to spend some time until the war finished but some families were very happy with their new life and stayed there for ever.
  • 8. Nowadays the reasons for why people migrate, are:  Economic reasons: if they have not a job, they can´t earn money for support the family, and they have to leave they city and look for another place where they will have a better life.  Politic reasons: If the place has a really bad politic system and they don´t agree they use to go out.  Socio cultural reasons: there is a possibility that someone likes more another country to live so she/he has the chance for start a new life.  Nowadays the most important reason is the one of the students have created, after they have finished their studies, they think that they will have a better chance for founding a interesting of well paid job. This reason makes the population be more older than years ago when this problem doesn´t exist. The consecuences of these reasons are generally bad for us because the people who has the possibility to produce something good, is leaving our country to go to another.