Cjm Ceal Draft(20100325)

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Cjm Ceal Draft(20100325)

  1. 1. Overview of Trends in Japanese Libraries and its Impacts since the Change of 2010-03-25 Government2010 Introduction [Slide #1] Overview of Trends in Japanese Libraries and its Impacts since the Change of Government Committee on Japanese Materials 2010 Council on East Asian Libraries, Association for Asian Studies 2010-03-25 Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel Makoto Okamoto President / Producer, Academic Resource Guide, Inc. 1 Copyright Academic Resource Guide, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Thank you for your kind introduction, Ms. Haruko Nakamura. Hello, everyone, and good to see you again. It’s a great pleasure for me to give you my report from Japan again this year. Today, I’m going to outline the trends in Japanese libraries and their impacts after the change of government. Let’s begin with a simple question: how many people know the change of government in Japan in the last summer? Raise your hand, please. Thank you. Last summer, Japan experienced the change of government from Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) to Democratic Party. Since then, there have been so many changes in various areas. Of course, libraries are not free from these changes. However, changes are not limited to these. Japanese libraries have been facing many other changes already. For example, Google is the source of the most widespread and significant impact on Japanese libraries. Google have an impact not only on libraries but also on Japanese publishers. As you know well, publishing industry and libraries are deeply connected to each other. In short trends in Japanese libraries are partially trends in Japanese publishing industry. Today, from this point of view, I’ll give you an overview of trends in Japanese libraries and its impacts after the change of government. My topic is not limited only to libraries and covers publishing industry. First year of e-book This year is referred to as the first year of e-book in Japan. [Slide #2] Page 1 of 11
  2. 2. Overview of Trends in Japanese Libraries and its Impacts since the Change of 2010-03-25 Government2010 First Year of e-book #1 2 Copyright Academic Resource Guide, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Actually, first e-book summit (e-book summit 2010) was held in Tokyo in this February. Last year, Amazon began to sell Kindle in Japan and at the beginning of this year Kindle DX was also released in Japan. These devices are not popular in Japan yet because Japanese books are not yet available on Kindle Store. But it is true that Kindle shows Japanese reality of e-book. Through Kindle, Japanese are beginning to feel that e-book is upcoming to us gradually. iPhone plays the same role. According to Mr. Nobuyuki Hayashi, a famous journalist who have investigated Apple for years, sales volume of iPhone is now over 3M in Japan. Based on such trends, some publishers began to sell e-book on Apple Store. For example, Pot Shuppan starts to publish a book from this year through media like electronic book, as well as through paper book. [Slide #3] First Year of e-book #2 3 Copyright Academic Resource Guide, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Now you can read their books like “What is Chiyoda Library?” and “Archives in Japan” on your iPhone. However, the reality is that this is still just trial. Great majority of publishers, especially large companies like Kodansha, Shogakukan, do not take a step into the stage of e-book. They are waiting and seeing for now. Large scale digitization by National Diet Library (NDL) At the same time, National Diet Library, NDL, is in the spotlight Page 2 of 11
  3. 3. Overview of Trends in Japanese Libraries and its Impacts since the Change of 2010-03-25 Government2010 because of its plan for large scale digitization. This plan aims to digitalize their collection, including copyrighted works. For implementation of this plan NDL did 2 actions. One is law revision and the other is obtaining budget. [Slide #4] Large Scale Digitization by National Diet Library (NDL) #1 Extra Budget Approved (2009-05-29) Copyright Law Revised (2009-06-19) NDL Law Revised (2009-07-10) 4 Copyright Academic Resource Guide, Inc. All Rights Reserved. At the first day of this year, revised copyright law (issued in 2009-06-19) became effective and revised NDL law (issued in 2009-07-10) is going into effect this April. Revisions to these 2 laws mean that NDL can digitalize their collection without permission of authors based on revised copyright law and that NDL can collect, copy and archive governmental websites. [Slide #5] Large Scale Digitization by National Diet Library (NDL) #2 140M $ 0.9M Books Until 1968 5 Copyright Academic Resource Guide, Inc. All Rights Reserved. In tandem, extra budget of year 2009 was approved by National Diet (2009-05-29). This budget includes approximately 140M $ for digitization by NDL. Fortunately, this budget is reserved by the new government, though originally the budget was approved by the former government. By this budget, it is estimated that NDL can digitalize approximately 0.9M Japanese books published before 1968. NDL has already digitalized about 156k modern books and published them on the Web. However, it should be noted that NDL can’t publish these 0.9M books on the Web like modern Page 3 of 11
  4. 4. Overview of Trends in Japanese Libraries and its Impacts since the Change of 2010-03-25 Government2010 books even under revised laws. Nagao vision and Nagao scheme Yes, I know you think it is ridiculous situation because newly-digitalized books are not distributed on the Web and we can read them only in NDL. But, as you know, there are some conditions. Especially, publishers of these books can’t accept distribution on the Web easily. Publishers have to maintain their own business and they have some concerns about digitization and distribution by NDL. Then Nagao vision and Nagao scheme have gotten a lot of attention. This is a tentative proposal by Dr. Makoto Nagao, Librarian of NDL and well known researcher of natural language processing and digital library. In his plan, he is proposing new ecosystem of books. To sum up his idea in my understanding, Nagao vision and scheme consists of 3 parts. [Slide #6] Nagao Vision and Nagao Scheme NDL -> Library 3rd Party -> Users 3rd Party -> Publisher 6 Copyright Academic Resource Guide, Inc. All Rights Reserved. First, NDL provides digitalized books to public libraries. We can read these books inside each library. This is case 1. Second, NDL provides digitalized books to new independent organization which tentatively called “Center for e-book distribution”. We can read these books via Internet directly. This is case 2. Case 3 is basically the same as case 1, but each public library pay fee depending on usage. In case 2, each user pay fee. In both cases, an independent organization collects fees and pays to publishers. Following Dr. Nagao’s argument in these 2 or 3 years, framework for practical discussion is now fixed up. From this year, several working group started and government is now taking a positive stance toward these trends. Expanding Digitalization Not only NDL but other players also go on to digitization. Some of them are very confident and some of them are very confused. Let me show you some trends. Page 4 of 11
  5. 5. Overview of Trends in Japanese Libraries and its Impacts since the Change of 2010-03-25 Government2010 [Slide #7] Expanding Digitalization  Magazine:  Japanese Magazine Content Digital Promotion Consortium  Newspaper  “Nikkei” (economic paper)  Government  Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) 1. Digital Cultural Enlightenment 2. Ubiquitous library platform 3. Digital distribution of magazine contents 4. Digital distribution of newspapers and magazines by broadcasting 5. Hybrid digital publishing distribution  NDL  Round Table for Digital Information Resources  Promotion Conference of Digital Archive in Public Libraries 7 Copyright Academic Resource Guide, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Publishers set up Japanese Magazine Content Digital Promotion Consortium last summer (2009-08-05). This consortium are discussing and experimenting a new magazine system like pay per view in the age of Web. For a long time Japanese newspapers are not willing to use Web, but at last most famous economic newspaper “Nikkei” started electronic version just 2 days ago. Still we don`t know whether these trials will succeed or not. And it is true that not a few people, especially those who are familiar with internet, view these challenges with negative eyes. On the other hand, government has begun to focus on digitization. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) has run 5 projects for promotion of digitalize books. 5 policies of MIC are as follows; (1) Digital cultural enlightenment, (2) Ubiquitous library platform, (3) Digital distribution of magazine contents, (4) Digital distribution of newspapers and magazines by broadcasting, (5) Hybrid digital publishing distribution. These trends not only aim at publishers. Among libraries, museums and archives, digitization comes to be interested in. For example, “Round Table for Digital Information Resources” and “Promotion Conference of Digital Archive in Public Libraries” just started this year. In the not-so-distant future, many libraries, museums and archives will establish their own digital archive or repository, digitalize their collection and publish them on the Web. Change in collection So far, I’m focusing on digitization in any fields. It is very clear that most of traditional media are going to be digitized in the near future. As we see so far in my report, these traditional media like books, magazines, newspapers began to be published in both paper version and electronic version. Moreover, although I don't mention the largest media, which is Page 5 of 11
  6. 6. Overview of Trends in Japanese Libraries and its Impacts since the Change of 2010-03-25 Government2010 television, digitalization of broadcasting will be implemented in 2011. So, sooner or later, it is inevitable for Japan to face the age of "being digital". Then, what will happen in libraries? I think, libraries have to restructure their collections in both ways. One is the revision of collections accumulated as the result of their long efforts. Some of their collections will be digitized by several players like NDL, Google, Amazon, Apple and can be replaced to digitized version by libraries by themselves. In short, library has the opportunity and the choice to do that. The other is the reconstitution of collections using digital resources and web-based technologies. Indeed, there are some digital resources which help library to be digital library. For example, National Institute of Informatics (NII) provides CiNii API which allows everyone including library to use bibliographic information of CiNii, a national database of academic papers and articles, on their website. Here is an actual example of using CiNii API. [Slide #8] Change in Collection 8 Copyright Academic Resource Guide, Inc. All Rights Reserved. This is an indicator of related papers and articles with local area by Yuki public library. Not only NII but also other national institutes like NDL and JST provide APIs of their databases. In these days, the words like "Government 2.0" or "Open Government" are spreading among our societies globally. It is a way of thinking and behavior of governmental resources in this digital age, which appeal and claim the free use of governmental resources like patent information, weather information, tax information, law information, stats information and so on. Release of APIs by the national library and national institutes is a typical example of "Open Government". This movement is rapidly spreading and becoming influential. Being affected by this movement; it is required and prompted for library to change their collection Page 6 of 11
  7. 7. Overview of Trends in Japanese Libraries and its Impacts since the Change of 2010-03-25 Government2010 and their role, and transfer traditional library to digital library. Library as a “Place” Over becoming digital library, what is the new role of libraries? Before going on this topic, let me introduce 2 books and 2 persons. [Slide #9] Library as a “Place” #1 2 Books 2 Peoples  Mr. Yoshitaka Haba  a book director  Mr. Shintaro Uchinuma  a book coordinator 9 Copyright Academic Resource Guide, Inc. All Rights Reserved. First, here are 2 books. One is “Library as a Place for Creating Community – Challenge of Membership Library” by Ms. Mami Kobayashi, she is a director of Roppongi Library of Academy Hills in Tokyo. Next book is “What is Chiyoda Library? - Creation of New Public Sphere”, which I mentioned before. Author is Mr. Yoshio Yanagi, former librarian of Chiyoda Public library in Tokyo. These books describe their ideas and actions for creating new library as a “place”, I mean, new role of library and real meaning of “Public”. Next, 2 persons: they have a high profile in their job. One is Mr. Yoshitaka Haba, a book director, and the other is Mr. Shintaro Uchinuma, a book coordinator. Although I’m not sure about the difference between book director and book coordinator, it is true that they are doing great job concerning books, bookstores and libraries. You may be wondering why I’m giving these examples. The answer is that I want to show you that the meaning of libraries is also changing in Japan at least partially. Now a part of libraries and librarians are going to seek out their role in providing public space and sphere. Especially in academic library, learning commons just start a boom. I know, most of you think those commons are very usual in US. That`s right. But Japanese libraries are not geek but always followers unfortunately. [Slide #10] Page 7 of 11
  8. 8. Overview of Trends in Japanese Libraries and its Impacts since the Change of 2010-03-25 Government2010 Library as a “Place” #2 Library Digital Library Public Space/Sphere 10 Copyright Academic Resource Guide, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Anyway, library as a “place” will be the key issue in Japan for coming several years. [Slide #11] Library as a “Place” #3 Including New Articles; by Makoto Nagao & Makoto Okamoto 11 Copyright Academic Resource Guide, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Just a week ago, the book “Digital Library” is revised and published for the first time in 15 years. This is the very important book that introduced digital library to Japan for the first time. The author is Dr. Makoto Nagao. You already know he is now a librarian of National Diet Library. This is very symbolic. It shows us discussion about digital library half finished and now we are facing new dimension which discuss and execute library as a “place”. Conclusion – Who are the remarkable players? I think, at last, we are reaching a temporary conclusion. Now Japanese libraries are facing 2 challenges. One is to become digital library against big impact like Google Books and others. The other is to explore potential of the library as a “place”. Then, who are the players? Who are the remarkable players? Now, I will offer you useful and practical information to help you watch and track Japanese materials ahead in the coming days. Based on some investigations and interviews, as well as on my anticipation, let me give you an overview of trends in Japanese libraries and their impacts after the change of government. I have 3 recommendations. First, I recommend you to pay attention to the policy and actions of Page 8 of 11
  9. 9. Overview of Trends in Japanese Libraries and its Impacts since the Change of 2010-03-25 Government2010 Dai Nippon Printing (DNP), in Japanese, Dai Nippon Insatsu. [Slide #12] Conclusion - The remarkable players #1 Dai Nippon Printing (DNP) TRC (2007~) Maruzen (2008~) Junkudo (2009~) BOOKOFF (2009~) CHI Group (2010~) 12 Copyright Academic Resource Guide, Inc. All Rights Reserved. After many alliances, now DNP retain TRC (2007), Maruzen (2008-08-20), Junkudo (2009-03-18) and BOOKOFF (2009-05-20). And just 2 month ago, DNP established CHI Group (2010-02-01) that aims to integrate TRC and Maruzen. Despite of these quick and extensive range of actions, DNP`s intention is not very clear so far. Next month, however, executive director of DNP is going to reveal their policy on publishing industry reorganization. Mr. Yoshishige Onuma, the president of Bunsei Shoin Booksellers and the president of union of rare book commercial cooperatives in Japan, who is attending this meeting today, and I are planning to hold a conference on the future of Japanese rare book on April, 14th in Tokyo. This conference will be broadcasted through USTREAM. You can watch our conference from USA. Second, of course, NDL is the very important player. Moreover, Dr. Nagao’s proposal drove other stakeholders and the government. Just a week ago, “Council for Promotion and Utilization of Publications in Digital Network Society” was held by 3 important government agencies, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) and Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). [Slide #13] Page 9 of 11
  10. 10. Overview of Trends in Japanese Libraries and its Impacts since the Change of 2010-03-25 Government2010 Conclusion - The remarkable players #2 Council for Promotion and Utilization of Publications in Digital Network Society MEXT MIC METI 13 Copyright Academic Resource Guide, Inc. All Rights Reserved. This council consists of many stakeholders like NDL, Japanese P.E.N., publishing industry, IT industry. The council is going to draw a conclusion this June. Based on Japanese governmental custom, I suppose their conclusion will become the national policy of digitization and its utilization. Finally, I want to count those who are interested in not only books and libraries, but also information and knowledge with high hopes and expectations. Last year, I and more than 30 librarians organized a nationwide library event called “U40 – Future Librarian”. [Slide #14] Conclusion - The remarkable players #3 14 Copyright Academic Resource Guide, Inc. All Rights Reserved. What’s “U40”? U40 means “Under 40”. This event was held in conjunction with annual meeting of Japan Library Association (JLA) last October. It was not held in only Tokyo where annual meeting was held, but held in more than 12 cities in Japan at the same time and about 330 people gathered and talked about the future of libraries and librarians. Not all of those 330 people were librarians. Like me, there were so many people who are just interested in books, libraries, information and knowledge. This year, we are planning to have large meetings at least 2 times. I think, even now, they are discussing this year’s plan. So, I want to recommend you to take notice of them. They are more important than anything, because people Page 10 of 11
  11. 11. Overview of Trends in Japanese Libraries and its Impacts since the Change of 2010-03-25 Government2010 inside libraries and people around libraries are the keystone for our future, as far as “The library is a growing organism” as Ranganathan said. [Slide #15] Thank you! This slide will be uploaded on "SlideShare". Please, check my blog!! Please, search "ARG" using Yahoo/Google. Makoto Okamoto President / Producer, Academic Resource Guide, Inc. 15 Copyright Academic Resource Guide, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Thank you. Page 11 of 11

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