Ch01a
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Ch01a Ch01a Presentation Transcript

  • Information Systems Why Do People Need Information?  Individuals - Entertainment and enlightenment  Businesses - Decision making, problem solving and control MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 1
  • Data, Information, and Systems Data vs. Information  Data  A “given,” or fact; a number, a statement, or a picture  Represents something in the real world  The raw materials in the production of information  Information  Data that have meaning within a context  Data in relationships  Data after manipulation MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 2
  • Data, Information, and Systems Data Manipulation  Example: customer survey  Reading through data collected from a customer survey with questions in various categories would be time-consuming and not very helpful.  When manipulated, the surveys may provide useful information. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 3
  • Data, Information, and Systems Generating Information  Computer-based ISs take data as raw material, process it, and produce information as output. Figure 1.1 Input-process-output MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 4
  • Data, Information, and Systems Information in Context MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 5 Figure 1.2 Characteristics of useful information
  • Data, Information, and Systems What Is a System?  System: A set of components that work together to achieve a common goal  Subsystem: One part of a system where the products of more than one system are combined to reach an ultimate goal  Closed system: Stand-alone system that has no contact with other systems  Open system: System that interfaces with other systems MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 6
  • Data, Information, and SystemsFigure 1.3 Several subsystems make up this corporate accountingsystem. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 7
  • Data, Information, and Systems Information and Managers  Systems thinking  Creates a framework for problem solving and decision making.  Keeps managers focused on overall goals and operations of business. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 8
  • Data, Information, and SystemsFigure 1.5 Qualities of humans and computers that contribute tosynergy MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 9
  • Data, Information, and Systems The Benefits of Human-Computer Synergy  Synergy  When combined resources produce output that exceeds the sum of the outputs of the same resources employed separately  Allows human thought to be translated into efficient processing of large amounts of data MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 10
  • Data, Information, and SystemsFigure 1.6 Components of an information system MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 11
  • Data, Information, and Systems The Four Stages of Data Processing  Input: Data is collected and entered into computer.  Data processing: Data is manipulated into information using mathematical, statistical, and other tools.  Output: Information is displayed or presented.  Storage: Data and information are maintained for later use. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 12
  • Why Study IS? Information Systems Careers  Systems analyst, specialist in enterprise resource planning (ERP), database administrator, telecommunications specialist, consulting, etc. Knowledge Workers  Managers and non-managers  Employers seek computer-literate professionals who know how to use information technology. Computer Literacy Replacing Traditional Literacy  Key to full participation in western society MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 13
  • Ethical and Societal Issues The Not-So-Bright Side Consumer Privacy  Organizations collect (and sometimes sell) huge amounts of data on individuals. Employee Privacy  IT supports remote monitoring of employees, violating privacy and creating stress. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 14
  • Ethical and Societal Issues The Not-So-Bright Side Freedom of Speech  IT increases opportunities for pornography, hate speech, intellectual property crime, an d other intrusions; prevention may abridge free speech. IT Professionalism  No mandatory or enforced code of ethics for IT professionals--unlike other professions. Social Inequality  Less than 20% of the world’s population have ever used a PC; less than 3% have Internet access. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 15