REPUBLICA DE COLOMBIAIMPORTANCE OF COLOMBIAAlejandro RestrepoGeology 40005/02/2013
MAPS OF COLOMBIACOLOMBIACOLOMBIA WITH RELEVANCE TO“SPANISH AMERICA”
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Located in Northern South America Borders Panama, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, andBrazil Only South American country with coastlines on boththe Pacific and Atlantic ocean Area comparative : slightly less than twice the size ofTexas Very Tropical climate Rich in natural resources (petroleum, coal, iron, gold,natural gas, emeralds, copper) Tropical climate (equatorial country)
A LITTLE BIT OF HISTORY Prior to Spanish colonization, Colombia wasinhabited by local Native Indian tribes 1525 begins Spanish Colonization Exploited for its massive amounts of gold and othernatural resources Originally named Vice Royalty of NuevaGranada Later became Gran Colombia (Ecuador,Venezuela, Panama, Colombia) Bogota uprising 20 de Julio, 1810
SIMON BOLIVAR : THE LIBERATOR 1819 secured Independence for GranColombia Slowly, but surely Gran Colombia breaksapart forming individual countries
EL BOGOTAZO Y LA VIOLENCIA Fast forward to 1900’s Colombia has been torn by political violence andsocial inequality April 9th, 1948 popular leftist Jorge EliezerGaitan was murdered in Bogota El Bogotazo – massive riots after the death of Gaitan 3000 to 5000 injured or dead in 10 hours of riots Effects of El Bogotazo spread throughoutColombia, therefore receiving the title “LaViolencia”
EL PUEBLO QUERIA MAS!The outcome of the death of Jorge Eliezer Gaitain
HTTP://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=T0LY31W84VCSmall clip of some pictures of El Bogotazo
MODERN DAY COLOMBIA Despite the political upheaval and violencethat has consistently tormented the country,Colombia and its people continue to cometogether, economically and socially
ECONOMY Colombia has a free market economy, verysimilar to that of the US Major American and foreign investment Colombia is becoming more and more acapitalistic society and economy with free tradeagreements with neighboring countries and theUS Having two coastlines gives Colombia a hugemaritime opportunity for trade, opening up itsoptions for more trade with countries on bothsides of the world
ECONOMY CONT. In recent years Colombia has had a an aggressiveexpansion of its economy Aggressive free trade with the US and China Colombia-US Free Trade Agreement, also with Mexico, EU,Japan… Market friendly economic prices have led to… GDP has grown at a level of more than 4% over thelast few years Over a decade of strong performance This due to foreign investment and US aid Relies heavily on oil export (Ecopetrol) According to heritage.org, Colombia has the 37thfreeist economy in the world
ECONOMIC ISSUES Relies heavily on oil export (Ecopetrol) Also relies on many other commodities In order to maximize business, Colombia needsto adjust to the commodities boom Important reforms need to be enacted Income inequality needs to be reduced Income inequality largely driven by unemploymentand informality Boost productivity and sustain growth Government policies should be adjusted to promoteproductivity across the economy
2013 INDEX OF ECONOMIC FREEDOMSLOWLY BUT SURELY… Gradual increase over time
MAJOR CITIES One interesting feature about Colombia isthat its two most important cities, the capital,Bogota and Medellin are not near the coast Cartagena, Santa Marta, and Barranquillaare also very important coastal cities A lot of trade comes in and out of these cites, toinclude de Port of Buenaventua and Tumaco http://www.worldportsource.com/ports/COL.php Map of Colombian ports both scattered on the Atlanticand Pacific
BOGOTA Capital and largest city of Colombia 7.3 million people as of 2010 Amongst the 30 largest cities in the world Center of administrative, economic andpolitical influence in Colombia
MEDELLIN : CUIDAD DE ETERNA PRIMERVA Located in “El Valle de Aburra” Capital of the Department of Antioquia Northern Andes Mountains Second largest city in Colombia Population of 2.7 million 3.5 million in the metropolitan area Metropolitan area consists of 9 cities Medellin, Envigado, Sabaneta, La Estrella, Caldas,Copacabana, Giradota, Barbosa WSJ named it the world most innovative city
MEDELLIN CONT. Civic spaces Rich culture Increased mobility amongst its citizens Metro, MetroPlus, MetroCable, highway andtunnel systems through and around themountains “The Urban Land Institute said Medellin had seenone of the most remarkable urban turnarounds inmodern history.” -BBC
SANTA MARTA Y CARTAGENA These coastal cities have been driving Colombiantourism sky high Not only are commodities a big part of the GDP, butthese tropical areas are the destination of manywealthy Latin Americans, Europeans, and nowAmerican spring breakers
PUERTO DE BUENAVENTURA Key Colombian hub to connect it to the restof the world Import/export capital of Colombia Colombia’s busiest and most important port,located on the Pacific, outside of the city ofCali Not only a key port used by the Colombiangovernment, but also by drug smugglers tolaunder money
NEGATIVE IMAGE/CONNATATION Drug violence has consistently givenColombia a negative image Drug Cartels since the 1970’s have hadenormous power and influence Medellin and Cali Cartel during the 80’s andearly 90’s Guerilla and Paramilitary forces FARC, ELN,AUC now control the billion dollar cocainetrade
DRUG TRADE… Colombian ports are not only used for legal reasons, butalso for the drug trade (both Pacific and Atlantic ocean)
DRUG TRADE LEADS TO VIOLENCE Colombia, no matter were you go is plagued bylower class violence While traveling in Medellin in December, there was amassacre in Medellin between rival gangs, 9 werefound dead, including two models Guerillas use violent force in order to continueto produce cocaine in mountainous areas Fighting for control and legalization of the drugbusiness Ex president Alvaro Uribe dramatically reducedthe influence of both drug cartels and guerillaforces
NOT EVERY THING ABOUT COLOMBIA ISNEGATIVE! “We already knew Colombians were people with a lot of flavor,delicious dishes and high-spirited, so for many it won’t come as asurprise that being happy and hopeful would also be one of theirgreatest characteristics.” - Huffington Post Colombia took first place on the “Global Barometer of Hope andHappiness” Study of 54 countries, 55,718 men and women responded to thequestion “As far as you are concerned, do you personally feel happy,unhappy, or neither happy nor unhappy about your life?” Twice as happy as the global average Colombian, whether in poverty or rich, find ways to remain happy,optimistic, and enjoy their everyday lives Here is 21 reasons why Colombia is the happiest country in theworld http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/17/reasons-colombia-happiest-country_n_2490813.html
TO CONLUDE Although the negative image exists and willbe extremely tough to get rid of that negativestigma, Colombia continues to move forward,no matter what the past may dictate. Not onlydid I chose to do this topic because I amColombian, but to also raise awareness ofwhat kind of country Colombia is. Colombiais moving forward economically, politically,and most important socially.
WORKS CITED CIA World Fact Book. "Central Intelligence Agency." CIA. CentralIntelligence Agency, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. "Colombia." Infoplease.Infoplease, 2012. Web. 28 Apr. 2013. OECD. "Newsroom - Organisation for Economic Co-operationand Development." Newsroom - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. OECD, 31 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 May2013. Ramos, Zuania. "Colombia Was Happiest Country In The WorldBy The End Of 2012, Survey Finds." The Huffington Post.TheHuffingtonPost.com, 07 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 May 2013. "Colombia Official Travel Guide." Colombia Travel: Official Guide.N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2013. W, T. "Why Is Less Cocaine Coming From Colombia?" TheEconomist. The Economist Newspaper, 2 Apr. 2013. Web. 01May 2013.
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