Information Architecture in Real Life HiO, October 31 2006
Who am I? <ul><li>Senior Information Architect in NetLife Research </li></ul><ul><li>Formerly with WM-data/IconMedialab </...
Agenda – IA part 1 <ul><li>Why Information Architecture  </li></ul><ul><li>User Experience and IA - An introductory Exampl...
Why Information Architecture?
Information explotion
 
Consequenses <ul><li>&quot;A wealth of information creates a poverty of attention, and a need to allocate it efficiently&q...
Increasing user demands Geoffrey Moore: Crossing the Chasm
Missing information is expensive <ul><li>“ The Fortune 1000 stands to  waste at least $2.5  billion per year  due to an in...
What is Information Architecture? <ul><li>” Defining the Damn Thing” is not that important... </li></ul><ul><li>“ Architec...
An introductory example
Hunting for ”skillingsboller”
Scenario <ul><li>Find and print Kokke-Lise’s receipe for ”skillingsboller” </li></ul><ul><li>Bookmark NRK’s receipe pages ...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Utskrift
 
Unnecessary mental leaps Skillingsboller What is NRK’s multichannel strategy? Print receipe But I still have to write it d...
Basic Level Categories Virveldyr Pattedyr Rovdyr Hundeaktige dyr Hund Schäfer Kommunikasjon Eterbaserte medier TV TV-progr...
More about Basic Level Categories <ul><li>http://www.poorbuthappy.com/ease/archives/2003/11/20/1944/basic-level-categories...
 
User Experience  <ul><li>The end users subjective experience across channels </li></ul>
Aspects of User Experience
The User Experience Honeycomb brukarvennleg lettfunnen nyttig tiltalande tilgjengeleg truverdig verdifull http://semantics...
Usable – for who? <ul><li>Myths about usability </li></ul><ul><li>Three clicks </li></ul><ul><li>Seven elements </li></ul>...
Usability defined <ul><li>The extent to which a product can be used  </li></ul><ul><li>by  specified users   </li></ul><ul...
Usefulness - utility <ul><li>Perfect usability is no good if nobody needs your service </li></ul>
 
” I will accept poor usability if I get what I need, if the total experience is great. I will reject perfect usability if ...
 
 
A Question of Trust <ul><li>” If possible, avoid having ads on your site.  If you must have ads, clearly distinguish  the ...
 
Location  Trust  Hits Location Location
Is it easy to find? <ul><li>find ·a·bil·i·ty  n </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of being locatable or navigable. </li></ul><...
 
<ul><li>Findability Facts </li></ul><ul><li>For every search on cancer.gov, there are over  100  cancer-related searches o...
 
What Value does the solution create? <ul><li>Value for the end user </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usefulness </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
The User Experience Honeycomb brukarvennleg lettfunnen nyttig tiltalande tilgjengeleg truverdig verdifull http://semantics...
An Expanding Universe of Diciplines
 
Process and Deliverables
IA Process: Overview   Strategy   Scope   Structure   Skeleton   Surface <ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </l...
IA Process: Strategy   Strategy   Scope   Structure   Skeleton   Surface <ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </l...
Conflicting Goals User  goals <ul><li>Inform about our organization </li></ul><ul><li>” Keep” the user on our pages </li><...
Scenariobased Design  2.  What are their goals? 1.  Who are the users? 3.  How can we help them  achieve their goals?
 
 
IA Process: Scope   Strategy   Scope   Structure   Skeleton   Surface <ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </li><...
Top-down vs bottom-up Categories Content Categories Content
Content Inventory <ul><li>The process of getting a full overview of our content </li></ul><ul><li>Typically documented in ...
 
<ul><li>Documentation of existing content: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify content elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iden...
Card Sorting <ul><li>Simple, efficient user-centred IA method </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Content inventory, pick 30-40 con...
IA Process: Structure   Strategy   Scope   Structure   Skeleton   Surface <ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </...
Top-down vs bottom-up Categories Content Categories Content
A typical sitemap
 
Conceptual sitemaps
Site  flows
 
IA Process: Skeleton   Strategy   Scope   Structure   Skeleton   Surface <ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </l...
Section <ul><li>Generic sketch </li></ul>Logo/ID Global navigation Local navigation Other relevant entrances Featured news...
Wireframe Browse 312 jobs worldwide  Asia-pacific  (98) Europe  (124) America  (90) Administrative   (74) Engineering   (1...
 
Crash Course in Navigation <ul><li>Navigation is important, but often overrated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good navigation enab...
removed
removed
IA Process: Surface   Strategy   Specfication   Structure   Skeleton   Surface <ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>-------...
 
 
<ul><li>BI screendump </li></ul>
 
 
Real Beauty Comes From Within http://www.baxleydesign.com
Questions or comments? Thank You!
Next time <ul><li>Central Concepts of IA – mainly navigation </li></ul><ul><li>The Politics of IA: Short Case Studies </li...
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Information Architecture in Real Life - Part I

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Lecture held at HiO Oct 31 2006.

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Information Architecture in Real Life - Part I

  1. 1. Information Architecture in Real Life HiO, October 31 2006
  2. 2. Who am I? <ul><li>Senior Information Architect in NetLife Research </li></ul><ul><li>Formerly with WM-data/IconMedialab </li></ul><ul><li>Main areas: search, navigation, content </li></ul><ul><li>Local ambassador UXnet Norge </li></ul><ul><li>Blogging on brukaropplevingar.com and iallenkelhet.no </li></ul><ul><li>Master in Media and Communications from Universitetet i Oslo </li></ul><ul><li>Customers include a.o. AkerKværner, Handelshøyskolen BI, Cappelen, Forsvaret, Lånekassen, Norge.no, SFT, Telenor, Vinmonopolet </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda – IA part 1 <ul><li>Why Information Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>User Experience and IA - An introductory Example </li></ul><ul><li>Central Aspects of User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Process and Deliverables </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why Information Architecture?
  5. 5. Information explotion
  6. 7. Consequenses <ul><li>&quot;A wealth of information creates a poverty of attention, and a need to allocate it efficiently&quot; - Herbert Simon </li></ul><ul><li>The challenge is no longer to make information available, but to answer information needs where and when they occur </li></ul>
  7. 8. Increasing user demands Geoffrey Moore: Crossing the Chasm
  8. 9. Missing information is expensive <ul><li>“ The Fortune 1000 stands to waste at least $2.5 billion per year due to an inability to locate and retrieve information .” </li></ul><ul><li>“ While the costs of not finding information are enormous , they are hidden within the enterprise, and…are rarely perceived as having an impact on the bottom line.” </li></ul><ul><li>The High Cost of Not Finding Information </li></ul><ul><li>An IDC White Paper, July 2001. </li></ul>
  9. 10. What is Information Architecture? <ul><li>” Defining the Damn Thing” is not that important... </li></ul><ul><li>“ Architecture for Information Space” - Christina Wodtke </li></ul><ul><li>IA is an important component in crafting the overall “ user experience ” </li></ul>http://www.iawiki.net/DefiningTheDamnThing
  10. 11. An introductory example
  11. 12. Hunting for ”skillingsboller”
  12. 13. Scenario <ul><li>Find and print Kokke-Lise’s receipe for ”skillingsboller” </li></ul><ul><li>Bookmark NRK’s receipe pages </li></ul><ul><li>Trigger words: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skillingsboller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oppskrift (receipe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mat (food) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frokost-tv (breakfast tv) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kokke-lise </li></ul></ul>
  13. 23. Utskrift
  14. 25. Unnecessary mental leaps Skillingsboller What is NRK’s multichannel strategy? Print receipe But I still have to write it down on web-TV... This is gonna be expensive and ugly! Where’s my scissors? Norsk Tipping, Sesam, NRK??? Web-TV? Plugins? TV? Radio? Magasin? Tidlig?
  15. 26. Basic Level Categories Virveldyr Pattedyr Rovdyr Hundeaktige dyr Hund Schäfer Kommunikasjon Eterbaserte medier TV TV-programmer Frokost-TV Kokke-Lise Internett Magasiner Tidlig
  16. 27. More about Basic Level Categories <ul><li>http://www.poorbuthappy.com/ease/archives/2003/11/20/1944/basic-level-categories </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-basic-level-category.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.amazon.co.uk/Women-Fire-Dangerous-Things-Categories/dp/0226468046/ </li></ul>
  17. 29. User Experience <ul><li>The end users subjective experience across channels </li></ul>
  18. 30. Aspects of User Experience
  19. 31. The User Experience Honeycomb brukarvennleg lettfunnen nyttig tiltalande tilgjengeleg truverdig verdifull http://semanticstudios.com/publications/semantics/000029.php
  20. 32. Usable – for who? <ul><li>Myths about usability </li></ul><ul><li>Three clicks </li></ul><ul><li>Seven elements </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid scrolling </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Looks good </li></ul><ul><li>Imitates Windows </li></ul>
  21. 33. Usability defined <ul><li>The extent to which a product can be used </li></ul><ul><li>by specified users </li></ul><ul><li>to achieve specified goals </li></ul><ul><li>with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>in a specified context of use . </li></ul><ul><li>( ISO 9241 -11) </li></ul>
  22. 34. Usefulness - utility <ul><li>Perfect usability is no good if nobody needs your service </li></ul>
  23. 36. ” I will accept poor usability if I get what I need, if the total experience is great. I will reject perfect usability if I am not rewarded with a useful, engaging experience.” - Donald Norman
  24. 39. A Question of Trust <ul><li>” If possible, avoid having ads on your site. If you must have ads, clearly distinguish the sponsored content from your own. Avoid pop-up ads, unless you don't mind annoying users and losing credibility.” </li></ul><ul><li>http://credibility.stanford.edu/guidelines </li></ul>
  25. 41. Location  Trust  Hits Location Location
  26. 42. Is it easy to find? <ul><li>find ·a·bil·i·ty n </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of being locatable or navigable. </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which an object is easy to discover or locate. </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which a system or environment supports wayfinding, navigation, and retrieval. </li></ul><ul><li>am ·bi·ent findabilty </li></ul><ul><li>the ability to find anyone or anything </li></ul><ul><li>from anywhere at anytime </li></ul>
  27. 44. <ul><li>Findability Facts </li></ul><ul><li>For every search on cancer.gov, there are over 100 cancer-related searches on public search engines. </li></ul><ul><li>Of these searches, 70% are on specific types of cancer. </li></ul>
  28. 46. What Value does the solution create? <ul><li>Value for the end user </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usefulness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return on Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value for company/organisatio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saving money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return on Investment </li></ul></ul>
  29. 47. The User Experience Honeycomb brukarvennleg lettfunnen nyttig tiltalande tilgjengeleg truverdig verdifull http://semanticstudios.com/publications/semantics/000029.php
  30. 48. An Expanding Universe of Diciplines
  31. 50. Process and Deliverables
  32. 51. IA Process: Overview Strategy Scope Structure Skeleton Surface <ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </li></ul>Concrete Abstract Strategy is where it all begins: What do we want to get out of the site. What do our users want? http://jjg.net/elements/ Scope transforms strategy into requirements: What features/content will the site need to include? Structure gives shape to scope: How will the pieces of the site fit toghether and behave? Skeleton makes structure concrete: What components will enable people to use the site? Surface brings everything together visually: What will the finished product look like?
  33. 52. IA Process: Strategy Strategy Scope Structure Skeleton Surface <ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>User requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Expert evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>User observations </li></ul><ul><li>Task analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaries </li></ul><ul><li>Log analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Personas and scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Content strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Business strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Bencmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy development </li></ul><ul><li>Target group definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Creative concept </li></ul>
  34. 53. Conflicting Goals User goals <ul><li>Inform about our organization </li></ul><ul><li>” Keep” the user on our pages </li></ul><ul><li>Get rid of stock items </li></ul><ul><li>Highest price </li></ul><ul><li>Get as much info about the customer as possible </li></ul>Business goals <ul><li>Get answer to questions </li></ul><ul><li>Use as little time as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Find one particular item </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest price </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t give up personal info </li></ul>Example: Registration process
  35. 54. Scenariobased Design 2. What are their goals? 1. Who are the users? 3. How can we help them achieve their goals?
  36. 57. IA Process: Scope Strategy Scope Structure Skeleton Surface <ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>Content specification </li></ul><ul><li>Content Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Document analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Card sorting </li></ul><ul><li>Content modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Functional specification </li></ul><ul><li>Use cases </li></ul><ul><li>Functional scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>CMS requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Search </li></ul>
  37. 58. Top-down vs bottom-up Categories Content Categories Content
  38. 59. Content Inventory <ul><li>The process of getting a full overview of our content </li></ul><ul><li>Typically documented in an Excel spreasheet </li></ul>
  39. 61. <ul><li>Documentation of existing content: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify content elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify who’s responsible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enables us to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove ROT (Redundant, Outdated, Trivial content) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revamp, rework, resample existing and new content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Map what’s missing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add columns and rows as needed </li></ul></ul>Content Inventory – summary
  40. 62. Card Sorting <ul><li>Simple, efficient user-centred IA method </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Content inventory, pick 30-40 content elements </li></ul><ul><li>Ask users to sort the cards in heaps, depending on ”what goes together with what” </li></ul>
  41. 63. IA Process: Structure Strategy Scope Structure Skeleton Surface <ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>Information architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Organization principles </li></ul><ul><li>Information structuring </li></ul><ul><li>Sitemaps and site flows </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata og taxonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled Vocabularies </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction design </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual models </li></ul><ul><li>Application flow </li></ul><ul><li>Error handling </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction principles </li></ul>
  42. 64. Top-down vs bottom-up Categories Content Categories Content
  43. 65. A typical sitemap
  44. 67. Conceptual sitemaps
  45. 68. Site flows
  46. 70. IA Process: Skeleton Strategy Scope Structure Skeleton Surface <ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>Information design </li></ul><ul><li>Selection and priorization among page elements </li></ul><ul><li>Wireframes </li></ul><ul><li>Content chunking </li></ul><ul><li>Legibilty </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation design </li></ul><ul><li>Global og local menues </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation aids </li></ul>
  47. 71. Section <ul><li>Generic sketch </li></ul>Logo/ID Global navigation Local navigation Other relevant entrances Featured news Most important content element Short intro Other entrances / sitemap More news / content elements
  48. 72. Wireframe Browse 312 jobs worldwide Asia-pacific (98) Europe (124) America (90) Administrative (74) Engineering (128) Construction (110) <ul><li>Young and hungry? </li></ul><ul><li>Trainee programs </li></ul><ul><li>Meet other freshmen </li></ul><ul><li>On-site education programs </li></ul><ul><li>111 jobs for young people </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced </li></ul><ul><li>Professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Career paths </li></ul><ul><li>Meet other professionals </li></ul><ul><li>232 jobs for seasoned professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently Asked </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>What help do I get if I want to move abroad? </li></ul><ul><li>How should I prepare for a job interview? </li></ul>Search jobs: Go . . . . . . Clickable world map Vizualises &quot;a world of opportunities&quot;, and indicates &quot;hot regions&quot;. Clicking a region should take users to job listings for the country/region. Facets and search Provides fast and direct access to job listings, sorted by relevant aspects for target groups. The search should tackle job numbers, freetext, synonyms, etc. Persuasion paths for target audiences These boxes should give relevant keywords and &quot;information scent&quot; to content pages that persuade users to read more about key benefits and adresses all relevant concerns.
  49. 74. Crash Course in Navigation <ul><li>Navigation is important, but often overrated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good navigation enables the user to focus on the content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Navigation should answer three questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where am I now? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where can I go from here? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do I get to where I want? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different types of navigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global vs local navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I.e. index, sitemap, log in, search, navigation path, feedback, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual navigation, within content </li></ul></ul>Global + functional navigation Local navigation Contextual navigation content Functional navigation
  50. 75. removed
  51. 76. removed
  52. 77. IA Process: Surface Strategy Specfication Structure Skeleton Surface <ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>--------- </li></ul><ul><li>Visual design </li></ul><ul><li>Experience and emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency, color use </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast, typography </li></ul><ul><li>Final labelling </li></ul>
  53. 80. <ul><li>BI screendump </li></ul>
  54. 83. Real Beauty Comes From Within http://www.baxleydesign.com
  55. 84. Questions or comments? Thank You!
  56. 85. Next time <ul><li>Central Concepts of IA – mainly navigation </li></ul><ul><li>The Politics of IA: Short Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Site search </li></ul><ul><li>IA 1.0 vs 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>What do you want to hear about? </li></ul>

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