Alberta land trust 2009 03 4 of 6-best stewardship practisesDocument Transcript
MODULE #4 Best Stewardship Practices Training Module April 2010This project is made possible through a grant from the Alberta Real Estate FoundationPrepared by: Sue Michalsky, Paskwa Consultants Ltd., Tel: 306-295-3696 Email:email@example.com
Best Stewardship Practices Training ModuleLearning Outcomes: • Know the best practices associated with land trust stewardship that are recommended by the Alberta Land Trust Alliance, including baseline documentation reporting, monitoring, defence and enforcement, landowner and public relations and funding.
GLOSSARYBaseline Documentation Report - The legal record of the site and condition of the resource;included in the easement or deed package.Conservation Easement - A legal agreement between a landowner and a qualifiedconservation organization or government agency that limits a propertys uses in order toprotect the propertys conservation values. It is a voluntary, written agreement that isregistered on title to the land in Alberta in accordance with the Alberta Land Titles Act. Itbinds current and future owners of the land.Encroachment - Extension of a structure, portion of a structure, or destructive activity ontosomeone elses property without permission.Endowment - A fund which is kept in perpetuity to provide interest and dividend earningsfor the benefit of a charitable cause.Liability - The responsibility of a land trust to ensure that negligence or inappropriateactions do not result in bodily injury or property damage.Monitoring - The act of observing and keeping a record of the activities and conservationvalues associated with a conservation property.Stewardship endowment - A dedicated, permanent source of funds for a land trust to coverthe costs of conservation easement monitoring and land management in perpetuity.Violations - Breaking, breaching or contravening the restrictions and managementstipulations outlined in a conservation easement agreement to the detriment of theconservation values of a property.
BACKGROUNDStewardship is an important responsibility of land trust organizations. Land trust areresponsible for ensuring that conservation values are protected in perpetuity. Ifimplemented correctly, long-term stewardship creates credibility with landowners, donors,governments, supporters, neighbours and staff. Because of this responsibility, land trustalliances such as the Canadian Land Trust Alliance place a heavy emphasis onrecommended best practices associated with stewardship activities and administration.The Canadian Land Trust Alliance (CLTA) includes perpetual responsibility as one of itsfour guiding principles: Principle B: Perpetual Responsibility. Land trusts should recognize that they have an obligation to protect the lands and properties that they care for in perpetuity. As such, land trusts have a responsibility to act in the long-term best interest of both the properties, themselves and their organization.
BEST PRACTICES FOR BASELINE DOCUMENTATION REPORTINGThe CLTA provides guidance on stewardship administration in standard 12, practice E: Land Stewardship Administration. The land trust performs administrative duties in a timely and responsible manner. This includes establishing policies and procedures, keeping essential records, filing forms, paying insurance, paying any taxes and/or securing appropriate tax exemptions, budgeting, and maintaining files. Staff and volunteers responsible for administrative duties and responsibilities will be adequately trained.This responsibility begins with the baseline documentation report and appliesthrough all stages of stewardship.BEST PRACTICES ASSOCIATED WITH BDRS FOR CONSERVATION EASEMENTSThe CLTA provides guidance on best practices associated with BDRs for conservationeasement agreements in standard 11, practice B: Baseline Documentation Report. For every conservation agreement, the land trust has a baseline documentation report (that includes a baseline map and photographs) prepared prior to closing and signed by the landowner at closing. Both the landowner and the land trust should hold at least one original copy. The report documents the important conservation values protected by the conservation agreement and the relevant conditions of the property as necessary to monitor and enforce the conservation agreement. In the event that seasonal conditions prevent the completion of a full baseline documentation report by closing, the baseline documentation report may include an interim baseline documentation report and an acknowledgement it will be replaced by a full report. This interim report and acknowledgement will be signed by the landowner at closing.In addition to the guidelines recommended by CLTA, the Alberta Land Trust Alliance alsorecommends: • Either the full baseline documentation report or an interim version will be attached to the CE, and the conservation easement agreement should refer to it and describe
its purpose. A typical provision in a conservation easement agreement might state: The Parties agree that the Land and the Amenities are described in the Report.• It is good practice for the landowner and land trust to work together in gathering baseline information, even though it is the land trust’s responsibility to prepare the baseline documentation report. The landowner may have valuable information to contribute and participating in gathering the baseline information will educate the landowner about the land and may increase their commitment to its conservation.• The baseline report should be written in a manner that facilitates third party interpretation in order to account for acceptable natural dynamics of the property, as well as to support the defence of the CE in situations of non-compliance.• The land trust should provide each new landowner with a copy of the full baseline documentation report, particularly if the full report is not attached to the conservation easement agreement. This will ensure that all parties have complete information and also provides an opportunity for the land trust to contact the landowner. New landowners should be asked to sign a document indicating that they have read and agree with the contents of the baseline documentation report as an indication that they received a copy and an explanation of the terms.• Baseline information may become outdated in situations where land changes significantly over time. For example, a natural catastrophe or certain types of human intervention may alter the land to the degree that the original baseline report is no longer useful. It may be necessary either to update the baseline documentation report or prepare a new report. Ideally, this should be accomplished by way of an amendment to the conservation easement agreement to ensure that updated baseline information is fully incorporated.• Baseline documentation should be stored in a location where it is safe from harm and easily located. It should be stored in both electronic and hard copy form. See Appendix A for more detail on proper storage of baseline information.
BEST PRACTICES ASSOCIATED WITH BDRS FOR FEE SIMPLE PROPERTIESThe CLTA provides guidance on best practices associated with BDRs and managementplans for fee simple properties in standard 12, practices B and C: B. Stewardship Principles. The land trust establishes general principles to guide the stewardship of its fee-owned properties, including determining what uses are and are not appropriate on its properties, the types of improvements it might make and any land management practices it will follow. Principles should be clearly stated in all management plans and all public relations material. C. Land Management. The land trust inventories the natural and cultural features of each property prior to developing a management plan that identifies its conservation goals for the property and how it plans to achieve them. Permitted activities are compatible with the conservation goals, stewardship principles and public benefit mission of the organization. Permitted activities occur only when the activity poses no significant threat to the important conservation values and reduces threats or restores ecological processes.In addition to the guidelines recommended by CLTA, the Alberta Land Trust Alliance alsorecommends: • An environmental site assessment or site inspection should be the first piece of baseline information collected on a property a land trust is considering owning. Such an inspection can detect environmental liabilities associated with the property which may provide a high risk to the land trust. Appendix B contains an example of a site inspection form. • Baseline information may become outdated in situations where land changes significantly over time. For example, a natural catastrophe or certain types of human intervention may alter the land to the degree that the original baseline report is no longer useful. It may be necessary either to update the baseline documentation report or prepare a new report and management plan. • Baseline documentation should be stored in a location where it is safe from harm and easily located. It should be stored in both electronic and hard copy form. See Appendix A for more detail on proper storage of baseline information.
BEST PRACTICES FOR MONITORING LAND TRUST PROPERTIESThe Alberta Land Trust Alliance recommends the following best practices for stewardshipmonitoring of both CE and fee simple properties: • Land trust goals for the monitoring program should be formally identified in written form and approved by the land trust board. • Organizational capacity should be assessed periodically in terms of funding, labour and time, and a monitoring program developed or updated that both fulfills stewardship obligations and organizational sustainability. For some organizations, this assessment may mean refocusing, for a time, on stewardship rather than new land protection initiatives. • Monitoring procedures should be written down and/or to a monitoring policy developed and periodically reviewed and updated. It will be a valuable resource for new board members and land trust personnel. • Land trusts should establish a training program for monitors tailored to the monitoring requirements for the specific property. Depending on the conservation values protected and the nature of the monitoring required, it may be necessary to recruit monitors with technical expertise. Otherwise, lay volunteers generally will carry out monitoring duties. Training programs should teach techniques that will be required in the particular circumstances. These could include videotaping, photography, and the use of other specialized techniques. All monitors should be proficient in accurate and detailed note-taking. • Personal safety is of primary importance for monitors. All potential hazards associated with land trust properties should be documented and brought to the attention of new monitors. Safety protocols should be designed and monitors should be trained annually to ensure a high safety standard. Safety protocols should include notification of when and where monitors will be, emergency response preparation, dealing with specific hazards including wildlife and difficult landowners, and first aid. • Monitoring should be rigorous, credible and repeated at regular intervals. Information should be gathered as accurately, precisely and often as possible. Consistent use of the same methods, timing and techniques for gathering similar types of information is essential so that any differences in results can be clearly attributed to change on the land rather than variation in technique. Where possible, having the same individuals involved in monitoring a particular property over several monitoring cycles can contribute to consistency in gathering monitoring data.
• Monitoring data and reports should be stored in a location where they are safe from harm and easily located. They should be stored in both electronic and hard copy form. See Appendix A for more detail on proper storage of monitoring information. • Changes to a stewardship program should be phased in by implementing a timeline that allows the land trust to build capacity and fully understand how the changes will affect the stewardship program and the organization as a whole.BEST PRACTICES ASSOCIATED WITH MONITORING OF CONSERVATIONEASEMENT PROPERTIESThe Canadian Land Trust Alliance provides guidance on best practices associated withmonitoring conservation easement agreements in standard 11, practices C and E: C. Conservation Agreement Monitoring. The land trust monitors its conservation agreement properties regularly, at least annually, except in exceptional and remote circumstances, in a manner appropriate to the size, restrictions and threats to the conservation values of each property. The land trust keeps written documentation (such as reports, updated photographs and maps) of each monitoring activity to confirm that the present use of the property is consistent with that at the time of donation or acquisition. Monitoring of Ecological Gifts will include confirmation that the present use of the property is consistent with that at the time of the donation and monitoring request. The land trust will determine the capabilities (both human and financial) of its organization to fulfill the short and long-term monitoring responsibilities and will not accept conservation agreements it cannot monitor effectively. If conservation agreements are monitored by volunteers, the land trust shall ensure that, they are trained, tailoring the monitoring techniques and requirements to the specific property. E. Enforcement of Conservation Agreements. The land trust has a written policy and/or procedure detailing how it will respond to potential violations of a conservation agreement, including the role of all parties involved (such as board members, volunteers, staff and partners) in any enforcement action. Policies and procedures should ensure that all discussions and actions taken are recorded and that all copies of correspondence and documents are retained and kept in a safe location. The land trust takes necessary and consistent steps to see that violations are resolved and has available, or has a strategy to secure, the financial and legal resources for enforcement and defence.In addition to the guidelines recommended by CLTA, the Alberta Land Trust Alliance alsorecommends:
• The land trust should create or adapt a standard CE monitoring form.• The monitoring program should be designed, and monitoring report written, in a manner that facilitates third party interpretation to account for acceptable natural dynamics of the property, as well as to support the defence of the CE in situations of non-compliance.• Land trusts should monitor only for compliance with the terms of the CE. It is important for the land trust to maintain the distinction between issues related to the CE and land management that is not part of the land trust’s responsibility. This distinction simplifies monitoring requirements and helps maintain positive relations with the landowner.• Where possible, permanent staff should be engaged in monitoring as it provides necessary continuity, consistent conservation easement agreement interpretation, proactive relations with landowners, and long-term organizational accountability.• In the event of a breach, the monitor should thoroughly document the breach and report to the stewardship team. The land trust should contact the landowner immediately and negotiate a timeline for compliance. Unintentional violations may be resolved through voluntary reparation by the landowner or by amending the CE to allow the activity. However, amendments to CEs should be very carefully considered. If agreement cannot be reached, or the landowner does not attempt to meet the deadline, a binding arbitration process should be started.• In general, parties to a CE are all committed to the protection of the land involved and a well designed and executed program of landowner contact usually prevents the need for enforcement. However, in some circumstances, it may be necessary for the land trust to enforce the terms of the CE. The land trust should enforce compliance in a timely fashion through the binding arbitration process (e.g., mediation or litigation) outlined in the CE agreement when violations occur or it may lose the right to a remedy from the courts in the future.• Land trusts should have a written CE violation policy and procedures which outlines the roles of all parties involved including legal counsel; the sequence of determining, reporting and handling the violation; and steps to ensure that landowners are treated fairly and consistently through the process.
BEST PRACTICES ASSOCIATED WITH MONITORING OF FEE SIMPLE PROPERTIESThe CLTA provides guidance on best practices associated with monitoring fee simpleproperties in standard 12, practice D: Monitoring Land Trust Properties. The land trust regularly monitors its properties and property boundaries for potential management problems such as trespass, misuse or overuse, vandalism or safety hazards or other activities as listed in the management plan and takes actions to rectify such problems. The land trust should mark the property boundaries or have capacity to establish the boundaries in the event of encroachments. Land trusts should record monitoring information and quickly respond to any problems. Monitoring of Ecological Gifts will include confirmation that the present use of the property is consistent with that at the time of the donation and monitoring documentation relating to Ecological Gifts will be made available to Environment Canada upon request.In addition to the guidelines recommended by CLTA, the Alberta Land Trust Alliance alsorecommends: • Encroachment and illegal activities on fee simple properties can usually be prevented if the land trust marks and maintains its boundaries and monitors regularly. Signage should include ownership at minimum, but might also include purposes and permitted and prohibited uses. Hazards on the property should also be marked. • In addition to signage and monitoring, a land trust with property that allows public access should hold liability insurance.
BEST PRACTICES FOR LANDOWNER RELATIONSBuilding strong relationships with landowners is essential to the success of a land trust.The land trust’s reputation in the landowner community will determine the success it willhave in securing land. Land trusts and landowners are partners in effective management ofCE properties and good relations with CE landowners help ensure violations do not occur.Many land trusts feel that landowner relations are the best defence against CE violations.The best practices in this section apply primarily to conservation easement properties.However, the practices recommended should also be used to guide landowner contactwhen securing fee simple properties or communicating with neighbours of fee simpleproperties.The CLTA provides guidance on best practices associated with landowner relations forconservation easement agreements in standard 11, practice D: Landowner Relationships. The land trust maintains regular contact with owners of properties with conservation agreements. When possible, it offers landowners information on property management and/or referrals to resource managers. The land trust enlists a contact staff or volunteer assigned to respond to landowner requests or inquiries. These staff or volunteers will be trained on how to work with landowners. The land trust strives to build promptly a positive working relationship with new owners of properties with conservation agreements and informs them about the conservation agreements existence and restrictions and the land trust’s stewardship policies and procedures. The land trust establishes and implements systems to track changes in land ownership. Land trusts should offer the new landowners a copy of the conservation agreement and baseline documentation as well as any information about its work in general.The CLTA provides guidance on best practices associated with community relationsassociated with fee simple properties in standard 12, practice F: Community Outreach. The land trust keeps neighbours and community leaders informed about its ownership and management of conservation properties.In addition to the guidelines recommended by CLTA, the Alberta Land Trust Alliance alsorecommends:
• Prior to monitoring a CE property, the land trust should contact the landowner to provide notice of its monitoring plans, including the date and methods of monitoring. Some land trusts in Alberta provide notice in writing early in the year and then confirm the date by phone at least 24 hours in advance of the actual monitoring visit. Even if the terms of the CE do not require prior agreement on monitoring dates or notice, it is respectful to do so and relations between landowners and land trusts will be strengthened by such contact.• As the representative of the land trust, the monitor should contact the landowner to inform the landowner of the pending monitoring visit, to introduce themselves, to advise the landowner about planned monitoring techniques, and to ask if the landowner has any concerns. Where there has been no previous contact between the monitor and the landowner, it may be preferable for long term staff to make the initial contact to introduce the monitor.• Land trusts should invite the landowner to accompany them on the monitoring visit or ask if the landowner would like to meet with the monitor after the monitoring visit. The monitoring visit provides an opportunity for a land trust to discuss its goals and stewardship philosophy and to seek information and opinions from landowners.• Land trust staff should brief monitors about appropriate questions to ask landowners as well as questions to expect from landowners. Careful preparation and prior contact with the landowner will help prevent any conflict or unpleasant surprises.• If a CE is monitored remotely in some years, the landowner should still be contacted in writing to inform them of the method and timing of monitoring and by phone to ask if they have any concerns or if there is anything that the land trust needs to be aware of.• Monitors should access the property only as permitted legally or by permission of the landowner. Use only public points of access or ask permission to use private access. Monitor on foot or ask permission from the landowner to use alternate methods of transportation. Use respect - stick to established roads and trails as may be described in the CE when using motorized vehicles.• The responsibility for taking action when a landowner is not in compliance with a CE lies with the land trust, not with the individual monitor. If violations are suspected during the monitoring visits, monitors should avoid discussion of the violation with the landowner. The violation should be thoroughly documented and presented to the stewardship team who will determine how to communicate with the landowner about this issue.• Land trusts should ask the landowner to sign off on monitoring reports. Sign off by the landowner indicates that they acknowledge the monitoring visit and have reviewed and agree with the results. Some land trusts send two copies of the monitoring report and ask for one to be signed and returned. If the report is not
returned, the land trust follows up with a phone call or visit. Signed copies of the monitoring report should be stored in the monitoring file.• There may be coholders or funders who require or would benefit from knowing the results of the monitoring visit. Depending on their interest in a property, land trusts should keep them up to date by providing information on dates and methods of monitoring, copies of monitoring reports and/or copies of correspondence between the landowner and the land trust.• The land trust should put in place a general program for maintaining contact with landowners and other partners in addition to monitoring visits. This could include providing landowners with regular updates of the land trust’s conservation activities as well as regularly scheduled specific contact with the landowner. Outreach programming may also include newsletters, field tours, publications, websites etc.• Land trusts should develop policies regarding contact with landowners and keep monitors informed of these policies. For example, the organization’s policy might involve a volunteer monitor contacting the landowner to arrange a visit and an interview time, if necessary, once a staff representative has made initial contact. When arranging monitoring visits, it is a good idea to check with the landowner about any specific circumstances to be careful of, such as the presence of livestock or wildlife.• Land trusts need to establish a method of determining when CE properties change hands. In Alberta the land titles office normally provides written notice to interest holders of a transfer of ownership. Land trusts should also request that landowners notify the land trust of any transfer in ownership. The land trust should have a policy in place to ensure they are aware of any land transfers and have a process to communicate in a timely manner with new owners.• New owners should immediately be sent copies of the conservation easement agreement and the baseline documentation report. The land trust should follow up this initial contact with a face to face meeting where they can introduce their mission and goals for the property, review the easement terms, and discuss the monitoring process.
BEST PRACTICES FOR DEDICATED STEWARDSHIP FUNDINGThe CLTA provides guidance on best practices associated with dedicated stewardshipfunding in standard 6, practice G; standard 11, practice A; and standard 12, practice B: 6 G: Funds for Stewardship and Enforcement. The land trust has a secure and lasting source of dedicated or operating funds sufficient to cover the costs of stewarding its land and conservation agreements over the long term and enforcing its conservation agreements, tracks stewardship and enforcement costs, and periodically evaluates the adequacy of its funds. In the event that full funding for these costs is not secure, the board has adopted a policy committing the organization to raising the necessary funds. 11 A: Funding Conservation Agreement Stewardship. The land trust determines the long-term stewardship and enforcement expenses of each conservation agreement transaction and secures the dedicated or operating funds to cover current and future expenses. If funds are not secured at or before the completion of the transaction, the land trust has a plan to secure these funds and has a policy committing the funds to this purpose. 12 A: Funding Land Stewardship. The land trust determines and documents the immediate and long-term financial and management implications of each land transaction and secures the dedicated and/or operating funds needed to manage the property, including funds for liability insurance, maintenance, improvements, monitoring, enforcement and other costs. The land trust sets priorities, ensuring first and foremost that the values for which the property was acquired are at least maintained or preferably strengthened. If funds are not secured at or before the completion of the transaction, the land trust has a plan to secure these funds and has a policy committing the funds to this purpose.In addition to the guidelines recommended by CLTA, the Alberta Land Trust Alliance alsorecommends: • The land trust should have a written land stewardship fund policy that can be shared with funders and partners (see Training Module 3: Dedicated Stewardship Funding for information on stewardship fund policy).
ADDITIONAL RESOURCESBackground to Canadian Land Trust Standards and Practices. 2007. The Canadian LandTrust Alliance.Canadian Land Trust Standards and Practices. 2007. The Canadian Land Trust AllianceConservation Easement Stewardship. 2008. Standards and Practices Curriculum. TheLand Trust AllianceGreening Your Title: A guide to best practices for conservation covenants, 2nd Edition.2005. Ann Hillyer and Judy Atkins. West Coast Environmental Law.
APPENDIX A: DATA STORAGE AND ARCHIVINGThe following guidelines have been extracted from the LTABC Baseline Inventory Guide.2006. Although the guidelines were prepared for baseline documentation, they are equallyapplicable to monitoring information.
- DATA STORAGE AND ARCHIVING -Data storage and archiving methods are critical components of the baseline inventory process. Asbaseline inventory reports may be necessary for future legal action, it is essential that appropriatemethods be taken to ensure that data do not degrade over time, and that all information can beproperly identified.Data storage refers to the physical methods taken to ensure that the data remains viable in the longrun, while archiving involves the proper labelling and identification of your data to ensure that youknow what it is in the future. The following section of this guide discusses this issue in detail.ARCHIVINGIn order to ensure that data can be positively identified in the future, it is advisable that simplearchiving methods be undertaken. For all reports, maps, and field notes make sure that the nameand date of the inventory of the property is clearly indicated. For photographs it is a differentmatter.Each photograph that is taken during an inventory needs to be labelled. Labels should indicate thedate, location, subject and photographer. A simple method to do this is to create a unique code foreach photograph. For example, photographs were taken on the ABC Nature Reserve on August 20th,2005. Before field work was started, the following code and information was decided upon:Therefore, all photos taken on the ABC Nature Reserve would use this code as a unique identifier.The first photo would be labelled ABC-200805-R1-01, the second labelled ABC-200805-R1-02 andso on. Photos taken on the same date but on a different roll would use R2, R3 and so on. Futuremonitoring photos can then use the same format with dates changing as necessary to ensureconsistency through time.LTABC Data Storage & Archiving Guidelines
In the body of the baseline report you can create a table which states the unique code for a givenphoto, and provides descriptions of the subject, location, etc. This method only requires a shortcode to be written on each photo, thereby reducing the chance of damage to the photo and ensuringthat the photo can be accurately identified and described in the future.A data form can be used in the field to record the location and subject of each photograph to ensurethat they can be described later in the report. As well, it is recommended that a Photo ID Sheet isused. The Photo ID Sheet contains all of the information described above (property name, code,date, and roll number). At the beginning of each roll the first photo should be of the Photo ID Sheet.This way, the necessary information is permanently embedded on the negative and multiple rollsare not confused when processed.For digital photographs the same technique can be used. Roll numbers are obviously not required,but it may be necessary to replace the roll number with a flash card number depending on availablememory. Instead of writing the code on each photo, it can be digitally placed on the front of thephoto. The file name of the photo should also be the unique code so specific photos can easily belocated.DATA STORAGEIntroductionData storage is one of the most important aspects of your baseline inventory. If your records do notsurvive time then, obviously, they are useless. The general rule for all data storage is duplication,duplication and duplication. The issue of digital storage is relatively new and constantly changing.The information on digital storage in this section is current for 2006, but it will likely becomeobsolete within the decade. Therefore, digital storage methods need to be constantly evaluated andupdated as required by technological changes since methods used today may not even berecognizable in the near future.Paper & InkAs baseline inventory reports will be used for a long time, it is important to use archive quality ink.Most bubble jet and inkjet printers use very cheap ink that generally does not last long. Laserprinters, on the other hand, use powdered ink similar to photocopiers that will last much longer.Colour printing is also a problem. Most colour ink fade very quickly, especially red. Colour laserprinting generally lasts longer then bubble jets or ink jets. Paper should be acid free and at least 22lbs. weight. Special, coated paper is available for colour prints. Avoid storing any paper product inthe sun as it will greatly increase the fading of ink and degradation of paper.Negative and Slide StorageOf all photographic sensitized products, processed negatives are usually given the least attentionwhen it comes to storage (Kodak, 2003). As with photos and slides, negatives must be properlystored and handled to preserve their quality. Special care must be taken with storage, as even whenstored in the dark, colour negatives slowly change and lose quality.Negatives and slides must be kept free of dust, fingerprints and any other contamination as thesethings often contain chemicals and endospores that can damage the image. Negatives should beLTABC Data Storage & Archiving Guidelines
stored in a dark place as light can affect the photographic dye. Storage boxes made of metal ispreferred as metal is does not contain preservatives like wood, or produce volatile chemicals asdoes plastic. If stored in envelopes or plastic sleeves make sure they are of archive quality and donot contain any damaging substances.Temperature and humidity must be controlled as both adversely affect processed negatives andslides. The following conditions and precautions are recommended by Kodak (2003) when storingnegatives and slides: • Keep storage containers away from radiators, warm-air registers, and windows where sunlight can strike them. • Keep the temperature low for long-term storage. High temperature and high relative humidity can affect processed negatives. A temperature of 0°F (-18°C) and a relative humidity between 30 and 35 percent are excellent conditions for long-term storage. • Even minor reductions from room temperature have a major beneficial impact on the stability of an image. • Do not store negatives in areas where ozone-generating machines such as photocopiers are used. • Air conditioning and climate control can significantly reduce the level of airborne pollutants, but be sure to change filters regularly. Chemical fumes can harm negatives and slides. Check your storage area for harmful fumes.Photo StoragePhotographs are susceptible to the same environmental factors as slides and negatives; primarilyextreme temperatures, humidity, and chemical and biological degradation. Photographs should bestored in archive quality albums or transparent sheets in binders. Binders or albums should be keptout of direct sunlight preferably on open air shelves. Kodak (2003) recommends the following: • Provide a cool, dry, uncontaminated storage place. • Avoid storing prints in the original cardboard box or package. Packaging material that is suitable for unexposed sensitized materials may not be inert to processed materials. Use archival safe boxes or envelopes. • The best storage conditions for color prints are the same as those for most other photographic products. Store prints in the dark at 75°F (24°C) or lower and at 30- to 50- percent relative humidity.CD Use and StorageCompact Disks (CD) are considered to be a long lasting, inexpensive way of storing digital data. Allmonitoring data should be printed and recorded on duplicate CDs for long-term storage. However,there are a number of things that can greatly affect the longevity of the CDs and, therefore, thelongevity of the data on the CDs. Longevity is usually limited by the cumulative effects of smallscratches and contaminants that are introduced through normal handling and use (Media Sciences,2003). Therefore, care must be taken to ensure that CDs are used and stored in an appropriatemanner and always in duplicate.When purchasing recordable CDs it is better to choose more expensive brands that come with theirown jewel case. These days there are hundreds of brands to choose from, each with their own claimLTABC Data Storage & Archiving Guidelines
as the best on the market. Ignore the claims as there is no proven ‘best’ brand, but price is linkedwith quality. According to Media Science Inc. (2003) there was “no correlation observed betweenCD-R quality and dye type (cyanine or phthalocyanine), metallization (gold or silver), or recordingspeed (2X-8X)”. For archiving purposes, Media Science Inc. (2003) recommends the following:“Generally accepted capacities are 650 MB for 74 minute discs and 550 MB for 63 minute discs.High quality recording should utilize only 550 MB or less of a 74 minute disc, because performancemay rapidly degrade at large diameters.Use 63 minute CD-R discs for all but the highest capacity applications. Benefit from higher qualityand the improved probability of successful interchange. Careful investigation shows that datawritten on 63 minute CD-R discs may be of significantly higher quality than data on 74 minutediscs.”Once data has been recorded onto the CDs, care must be taken to handle and store them in a propermanner. When labeling the CDs Media Science Inc. (2003) recommends the following:“Although damage to the readout surface can cause a disc to fail, the label side is even moredelicate. CD discs have a soft, very thin protective coating on the label surface that is vulnerable tochemical or physical attack. Physical damage to this surface will destroy the underlying recordeddata, or will admit atmospheric contaminants that corrode the metallic coating. Silver is particularlyvulnerable to attack by sulphur, a common air pollutant. Even aluminum layers used for CD-ROMdiscs oxidize when exposed to clean air, resulting in loss of performance. Application of a label orother marks can also cause degradation. Special non-reactive adhesives or inks must be used toavoid attack of the metallization layer by migration of chemicals through the protective coating.The safest method of identification is to rely on the manufacturers lot code that is present on theclear inner ring of the disc. Small, custom markings in this area can be safely made with felt-tippedmarking pens that use waterbased inks. Such pens may be available from CD-R manufacturers orcan be purchased at office supply shops.Popular felt-tipped pens, such as the Sharpie, use solvent-based inks. The solvent can attackcertain CD protective coatings, causing degradation that may not be immediately apparent.Even water-based inks may not be safe, since the permanent ink from any marking pen cansubsequently degrade the information layer. Do not write using a ballpoint pen or otherobject having a hard point.”CDs should always be stored in clean, non-flexible, plastic jewel cases. Media Science Inc. (2003)recommends that “both unrecorded and recorded disks should be [stored] in a stable storageenvironment of 10 C-15 C and 20%-50% relative humidity, and protected from sunlight and otherradiation sources”. CDs should never be exposed to extreme temperatures or bright light.Long Term Facilities and PackagingCare must be taken to use appropriate packaging and facilities for any data that are stored for thelong term. For packaging materials, Kodak (2003) recommends the following: • Use proper packaging materials. Do not store processed material in the original packaging. Over time, some adhesives, glues, and products from the manufacture of paper and plastics are harmful to photographic products.LTABC Data Storage & Archiving Guidelines
• All mounting boards, interleaving paper, album covers and pages, and plastic sleeves and sheets must be free of acids, peroxides, plasticizers, metal particles, wood fibers, sulfites, nitrates, and chlorides. • Fumes from mothballs, mildew inhibitors, wood preservatives, paints, varnishes, and wood glues can contaminate drawers and harm photographic materials. Therefore, open bookshelves may be a better place to store albums and prints.Protection against fire is another necessity for obvious reasons. Even with a fireproof vault, asdescribed below, it is vital to keep the originals and copies in separate locations for added security.Kodak (2003) recommends the following for long-term storage facilities:“A ‘fireproof’ storage vault located and constructed in accordance with local building codes andunderwriters’ regulations offers additional protection for large collections. The vault should haveenough insulation to provide satisfactory temperature control all year around, prevent moisturecondensation on the walls, and provide significant resistance to internal temperature increases inthe event of fire. For smaller collections, a fire cabinet or safe will provide protection.Examine any safe carefully before using it. Many fire-resistant safes and cabinets have a type ofinsulation that releases moisture when heated; the interior can become filled with steam during afire, which can damage photographic emulsions. Before storing any films or prints in this type ofsafe, seal them in moisture proof and photographically inert storage envelopes”.LTABC Data Storage & Archiving Guidelines
APPENDIX B: SAMPLE SITE INSPECTION FORMSThe following documents have been provided by the Alberta Conservation Association andinclude: 1. Phase 1 ESA Site Visit Form 2. Phase 1 ESA Environmental Assessment Form 3. Phase 1 ESA Interview Form
Phase 1 Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) Site Visit Form Site Visit Conducted General Method by: Used: Site Visit Date and Site Visit Time: Conditions: Property Legal Description: Qrtr Sect Twp Rnge Mer Current/Previous Land Use:Any evidence of current or past use of hazardous materials on the property?(i.e. PCB’s, asbestos (insulation), Lead (paint, pipes), ozon-depleting substances, urea foam, formaldehyde, radon etc).Hazardous Materials Inventory:(Note: approximate quantities/types of containers and storage conditions)Any unidentified substances observed on the property?Any storage tanks observed on the property or adjacent properties or previously removed or abandoned tanks/storage facilities?Any strong noxious or pungent odours detected?Do property grounds show any sign of contamination?(e.g. stressed or dead vegetation, soil staining, water films etc)Any well sites (active or abandoned) including water, oil or gas?Any pits, lagoons or dug-outs on the property or adjacent properties?Any buildings on the property?Does the exterior of any building on the property show sign of contamination?
ALBERTA CONSERVATION ASSOCIATIONENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FORMSite:Location:Prepared By: Date:Please complete the form as fully as possible using “don’t know “ or “not applicable” as appropriatefor questions you cannot answer. The original of this form, sketch map, and photographs should besubmitted with the land acquisition/donation proposal package to Head Office.Overall Assessment: (Indicate the source of information you consulted in conducting thisassessment): Interviews with owner Interviews with others-identify: Interviews with fire, health, building, land use or environmental official-identify:*Aerial photos-current Aerial photos-historical (give years): Topographical maps Zoning/land use maps Land title search (chain of title history) Building Plans Other government records-identify: Previous environmental assessments-identify: Other-specify:Describe your visit and how you inspected the property: (e.g. walked perimeter, entered buildings,drove all passable roads, flew over interior, etc.)List the date and time of all visits and identify all persons present during visits:
Attach a sketch map of the property covered by this assessment (and adjacent property if necessary).Show any areas of concern noted in this assessment. Identify those areas that you physically inspected(e.g. paths walked, roads driven, etc.).Take pictures of the property (particularly any problem areas) and include them with this form.Property History/Use: List all known historical and current uses of the property (e.g. agricultural,manufacturing, undeveloped land, etc.) Identify all known owners/operators. Include dates/time periodsof these uses as appropriate.List all known historical and current uses of adjacent properties that might have an impact on thisproperty. Include dates/time periods as appropriate.List all buildings/structures on the property and their uses.General Property Condition: (When visiting the property, did you observe the following): Yes No Don’t KnowDistressed vegetation or any areas that were bare for noapparent reason.Unusual odors.Stains (unusual or around areas where chemicals arestored/used)Evidence of dumpingTrash or other debrisDrainsAny unusual depressions or moundsSheens or unusual colors on the surface of water bodiesPiping/vents for underground storage tanks
Comment on any yes answers above and locate those areas on the sketch map.Identify any other areas of concern and identify on sketch map.Water Impoundments: (Indicate if any of the following are on the property and how they are usedand what they contain. Identify any of the following on the sketch map.) Ditches: Pits: Ponds: Lagoons: Clarifiers: Oil/water separators: Surface impoundments: Sumps:Drums: (If storage drums are on the property, show them on the sketch map and provide thefollowing information): Are they empty: What is/was in the drums: Any evidence of leaking: Will the drums need to be moved: Describe the area around the drums:Transformers: (If transformers, pole-mounted or pad-mounted are located on the property, showthem on the sketch map and provide the following information): Type of device and who owns them: Are they labeled as containing PCB’s or being PCB free: Any evidence of leaking or damage:Storage Tanks: (If storage tanks are or were on the property, show them on the sketch map andprovide the following information): Is/are the tanks above or below ground: Age and size of tanks: What was/is stored in the tanks: Details on any tank that has been removed: Describe permits for the tank, if available: Results for any tank and associated piping that has been tested: Describe the area around the tank and indicate any evidence of leaking or spilling:
Septic Tanks or fields: (If septic tanks or fields are on the property, show them on the sketch map andprovide the following information): Are they in use or abandoned: Did they receive any industrial materials and what type:Wells: (If wells are on the property, show them on the sketch map and provide the followinginformation): The type of well and how is it used: Are the wells in use or abandoned: Are the wells locked or protected: If the well has been tested attach results. Have there been any complaints about the quality of the water or flow rate:Mineral/Petroleum Operations: (If any oil or gas wells, or other mining activities are on theproperty, show these locations on the sketch map and provide the following information): The type of operation: Where the wastes of the operation was disposed: Any gas or oil pipelines: Details of any pipeline leakage: The owner/operator of any well, pipeline or mine:Radon: (Attach the results of any radon test conducted in any building on the property)Asbestos: (Describe any evidence of materials that are likely to contain asbestos. Check roof, exterior,pipe coverings, spray-on fire proofing, cement sheet, etc. Describe the types, amounts and condition ofmaterials intact or deteriorating)Fill: (If fill has ever been brought to the property, indicate where and when it was placed and where itcame from)
Grading: (If there has been any grading or disturbance to the soil, indicate why)Chemicals: (If any chemicals have been used on the property, indicate the types of chemicals, howthey were used and where and how they were stored. Chemicals are industrial materials, cleaningcompounds, lubricating agents, greases, oils, heating fluids, gasoline, pesticides; i.e. insecticides,herbicides, fungicides and fertilizers and metals)Waste Disposal: (If the property has been used to dispose of waste, indicate the kinds of materialsdisposed and identify the method of disposal; i.e. burning, discharge to waterbody, dump, landfarming, landfill, recycled, settling ponds, surface impoundments, etc. Identify these sites on thesketch map) Material Method of DisposalAppliancesAsbestosAutomobilesChemicalsConstruction debrisGarbage (food wastes)Household trashIncinerator ashIndustrial wastes(identify)Mining wastesPesticide containersPesticidesPetroleum productsSewage sludgeTiresOther (identify)
Spills: (If there has been a chemical spill or leak on the property, indicate what was spilled, where itwas spilled, how much, and what actions were taken in response)(Indicate if there has been any chemical spills or leaks on adjacent properties or in the surroundingarea)Studies/Records/Enforcement: Attach copies of any previous environmental assessments, tests, samplings or impact statements that have been conducted for the property. Indicate any communications the current landowner has had with any government agency concerning environmental conditions on the property. Indicate if government officials have ever investigated, cited or been involved with any violations of any environmental law on this property or in the immediate area. Does this property or any property within one-half mile radius appear on any list of “problem” sites maintained by an environmental agency.Summary: Summarize the overall condition of the property and your conclusions and/orrecommendations regarding the property.Signature of Preparer: Date:Signature of Reviewer: Date:
Phase 1 Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) Interview Form Interview Conducted Name of by: Interviewee: Interview Date and Interviewee Time: Relation to the Property Property Legal Description: Qrtr Sect Twp Rnge Mer Current/Previous Land Use:How long have the current owners had the property?To the best of your knowledge have any businesses occupied either all or portions of the property in the past, as owners, renters orleasers?To the best of your knowledge have portions of the property been owned, rented or leased to other businesses that could havestored chemicals, washed machinery, or produced or used hazardous materials?Are you aware of any past or current above ground or below ground storage tanks on the property or adjacent properties?Are you aware of the storage of any chemicals/fuels or other hazardous materials that are, or were previously, stored on theproperty or adjacent properties?Are you aware of any hazardous material spills that have occurred on the property or adjacent properties?Interview Limitations:SignaturesInterviewee: ACA Interviewer: