CHAPTER 3:Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn
Period of the Zygote: Week 1-2Key terms: Ovulation; fertilization, implantation, fallopian tube;zygote, blastocyst; germ discCharacteristics: 2 weeks duration; rapid divisionLet’s look at the next slide to viewthis period more closely.
PERIOD OF THE ZYGOTE
Period of the Embryo: Week 3-8Key terms: Embryo Ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm Amnion and amniotic fluid Umbilical cord Placenta VilliCharacteristics: Third to eighth weeks of prenatal development Differentiation of organs and organ systems occurs
Period of the Fetus: Weeks 9-38Key Terms: Cerebral cortex Vernix Age of viabilityCharacteristics: From 9 weeks after conception to birth Increase in size Systems begin to function
Period of the FetusFetal Behavior: Fetal movement Behavioral maturity of sense Changes during prenatal development
Five Steps Toward a Healthy Baby1. Regular check-ups2. Healthy foods3. No alcohol or caffeinated beverages4. Exercise5. Adequate diet
General Risk Factors Nutrition Chronic stress Mother’s age
Teratogens: Diseases, Drugs,and Environmental HazardsTeratogen:Agent that causes abnormal prenatal development Diseases passing through placenta directly or attacking atbirth Potentially dangerous drugs Environmental hazards
Can you hear me now???Is cell phone usage a potentialteratogen for pregnant women?Check out Yale’s recent study…http://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/health/yale-study-cellphone-pregnancy-bad-babies-health-article-1.1039527
Let’s review the effects of teratogensacross prenatal development.
Labor and DeliveryLabor is usually divided into three stagesLet’s watch some men give it a try…http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A44oEcmDn1c&list=PLmc_JvKoNAoqH1xNuQVMs8rLrlPn7EnYA Stage 1• Startswhenmusclesof uteruscontractand endswhencervix isfullyenlargedStage 2• Baby ispushedthroughthe birthcanalStage 3• Placentaisexpelled
THREE STAGES OF LABOR
Approaches to Childbirth Prepared childbirth Natural childbirth Childbirth with doula Choice of place of birth
Approaches to ChildbirthChildbirth classes Content BenefitsAdditional Resources:http://www.spinningbabies.com/
Adjusting to Parenthood Reorganization of old routines Physical and emotional reactions Postpartum depression
True or False?Infant mortality is relatively low in the United Statescompared to other industrialized countries.Let’s look at these rates around the world.
INFANT MORTALITY RATES
Assessing the Newborn Apgar score (Table 3-5) Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)Newborns’ reflexes prepare them to interact with theworld Survival reflexes Protective reflexes Foundational reflexes
Newborn States: PrimaryFour primary states Alert inactivity Waking activity CryingThree distinctive types of cries Basic Mad Pain SleepingCheck out how to determine the 5 words all newbornssay…Dunstan Baby Language Method (Oprah Clip)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nWQ51099C24
Newborn States: Sleep Developmental change in sleep-wake cycle Types of sleep (REM/non-REM) Co-sleeping
Perception and Learning in theNewbornAll the basic perceptual processesare operating at birthNewborns can see, hear, taste,smell, and feelNewborns can also learn andremember