The bryant advantage 150 commands

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The bryant advantage 150 commands

  1. 1. The Bryant Advantage Cisco Certified Network Associate® Command Reference 150 Commands Every CCNA Must Know! www.thebryantadvantage.com Chris Bryant, CCIE™ # 12933 Copyright Information:
  2. 2. Cisco®, Cisco® Systems, CCIE™, and Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert are registered trademarks of Cisco® Systems, Inc., and/or its affiliates in the U.S. and certain countries. All other products and company names are the trademarks, registered trademarks, and service marks of the respective owners. Throughout this Course Guide, The Bryant Advantage has used its best efforts to distinguish proprietary trademarks from descriptive names by following the capitalization styles used by the manufacturer. Disclaimer: This publication, The Bryant Advantage CCNA ® Command Reference, is designed and intended to assist candidates in preparation for the Intro and ICND exams for the Cisco Certified Network Associate ® certification. All efforts have been made by the author to make this book as accurate and complete as possible, but no guarantee, warranty, or fitness are implied, expressly or implicitly. The enclosed material is presented on an “as is” basis. Neither the author, Bryant Instructional Services, or the parent company assume any liability or responsibility to any person or entity with respect to loss or damages incurred from the information contained in this workbook. This Course Guide is an original work by the Author. Any similarities between materials presented in this Study Guide and actual CCNA® exam questions are completely coincidental. Copyright 2005 © The Bryant Advantage
  3. 3. LAN Switching Commands (2950): Show interface trunk SW1#show interface trunk Port Fa0/11 Fa0/12 Mode desirable desirable Encapsulation Status 802.1q trunking 802.1q trunking Native vlan 1 1 Port Vlans allowed on trunk Fa0/11 1-4094 Fa0/12 1-4094 Port Fa0/11 Fa0/12 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1 1 Port Fa0/11 Fa0/12 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1 none This command displays all ports that are actively trunking, their trunking mode, the encapsulation type, and the native VLAN. It also displays the VLANs that are allowed to have traffic go across the trunk. CCNA candidates should note that this is the command that displays the trunking protocol in use – either 802.1Q (“dot1q) or ISL. Show mac-address-table SW1#show mac-address-table Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan Mac Address Type Ports ---- ------------------ ----All 000f.90e2.25c0 STATIC CPU All 0100.0ccc.cccc STATIC CPU All 0100.0ccc.cccd STATIC CPU All 0100.0cdd.dddd STATIC CPU 1 000b.be2c.518b DYNAMIC Fa0/11 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 5 Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 1 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  4. 4. This command does just what it says; it shows you the MAC address table that the switch has built. (You should know how this table is built before you take any CCNA exam. If you’re unsure, check Section Two of your copy of The Bryant Advantage Ultimate CCNA Study Guide.) Note the dashes that connect the three words. Show spanning-tree vlan (VLAN_NUMBER) SW2#show spanning-tree vlan 23 VLAN0023 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32791 Address 000b.be2c.5180 This bridge is the root Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Bridge ID Priority 32791 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 23) Address 000b.be2c.5180 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 15 Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.Nbr Type ---------------- ---- --- --------- -------- -------------------------Fa0/3 Desg FWD 100 128.3 Shr Fa0/11 Desg FWD 19 128.11 P2p Fa0/12 Desg FWD 19 128.12 P2p A vital LAN switching command, the command output shows if this device is the root bridge for this particular vlan (“this bridge is the root”), the hello, maxage, and forward delay values for this VLAN, and the status (“sts”) of each port. This will be listening, learning, forwarding, or blocking. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 2 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  5. 5. Show vlan brief SW1#show vlan brief VLAN Name Status Ports ---- -------------------------------- --------- --------------------------1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/3, Fa0/4, Fa0/5 Fa0/6, Fa0/7, Fa0/8, Fa0/9 Fa0/10 23 VLAN0023 active Fa0/2 1002 fddi-default act/unsup 1003 token-ring-default act/unsup 1004 fddinet-default act/unsup 1005 trnet-default act/unsup Quickly learn what ports are in what VLAN with this command. Note the default VLAN is VLAN 1, which is also the native VLAN. Show vtp status SW2#show vtp status VTP Version :2 Configuration Revision :2 Maximum VLANs supported locally : 64 Number of existing VLANs :6 VTP Operating Mode : Server VTP Domain Name : CCNA VTP Pruning Mode : Enabled VTP V2 Mode : Disabled VTP Traps Generation : Disabled MD5 digest : 0xE2 0xCC 0x1A 0xB8 0x8E 0x80 0x6F 0xF4 Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 3-1-93 00:52:40 Local updater ID is 0.0.0.0 (no valid interface found) The main concerns here is that this is the command that shows you the VTP operating mode of this device (server, client, or transparent), the VTP domain name, and whether pruning is enabled. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 3 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  6. 6. Spanning-tree vlan (VLAN_NUMBER) root primary SW1#conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. SW1(config)#spanning vlan 23 root primary SW1(config)#^Z SW1#show spanning vlan 23 VLAN0023 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 20503 Address 000f.90e2.25c0 This bridge is the root Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec This one-line command can make a non-root bridge become the root bridge. In this example, SW1 was configured with the command. Where SW2 was the root bridge in the previous command example, SW1 is now the root bridge. Note the priority change from the default of 32768. Vtp domain Vtp password Vtp pruning SW1#conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. SW1(config)#vtp domain CCNA Changing VTP domain name from NULL to CCNA SW1(config)#vtp password CISCO Setting device VLAN database password to CISCO SW1(config)#vtp pruning Pruning switched on Setting the VTP domain name, password, and enabling pruning are done with these three commands. Note that the VTP domain name changed from NULL in this example; this means that there was no previous VTP domain membership, not that the previous VTP domain was actually named “NULL”. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 4 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  7. 7. Vlan database SW2#vlan database % Warning: It is recommended to configure VLAN from config mode, as VLAN database mode is being deprecated. Please consult user documentation for configuring VTP/VLAN in config mode. SW2(vlan)# In VLAN DATABASE mode, you can create and modify VLANs. Note that Cisco is getting away from this mode, as indicated by the console message received in IOS 12.2. This is good, since most people using this mode use CTRL-Z to save their changes. While this works in most configuration modes, it does NOT work in vlan database mode. You must enter the commands APPLY or EXIT in vlan database mode to save your changes. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 5 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  8. 8. Frame Relay Commands: Debug frame lmi R1#debug frame lmi Frame Relay LMI debugging is on Displaying all Frame Relay LMI data R1# 01:26:40: Serial0(out): StEnq, myseq 98, yourseen 97, DTE up 01:26:40: datagramstart = 0xE47328, datagramsize = 13 01:26:40: FR encap = 0xFCF10309 01:26:40: 00 75 01 01 01 03 02 62 61 01:26:40: 01:26:40: Serial0(in): Status, myseq 98 01:26:40: RT IE 1, length 1, type 1 01:26:40: KA IE 3, length 2, yourseq 98, myseq 98 R1# 01:26:50: Serial0(out): StEnq, myseq 99, yourseen 98, DTE up 01:26:50: datagramstart = 0xE476B8, datagramsize = 13 01:26:50: FR encap = 0xFCF10309 01:26:50: 00 75 01 01 01 03 02 63 62 01:26:50: 01:26:50: Serial0(in): Status, myseq 99 01:26:50: RT IE 1, length 1, type 1 01:26:50: KA IE 3, length 2, yourseq 99, myseq 99 R1#undebug all All possible debugging has been turned off Used to troubleshoot down frame relay connections, this debug shows you whether the DTE is up or down, and also the sequence numbers of the incoming and outgoing LMI. When they’re equal or 1 apart, that’s good; any more indicates why your frame relay is down in the first place – an LMI mismatch. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 6 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  9. 9. Encapsulation frame-relay R1#conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R1(config)#interface serial0 R1(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay The first step in configuring frame relay is enabling it on the interface. This command changes the encapsulation type to frame relay from the default of HDLC. Frame map ip <remote_IP> <local_DLCI> <broadcast> R1#conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R1(config)#int s0 R1(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay R1(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.2 122 broadcast R1(config-if)#frame map ip 172.12.123.3 123 broadcast This command is used to create manual frame mappings, the preferred method in production networks. Frame relay must be configured first, as shown. Note that the mapping is the remote IP address to the local DLCI. Also, since broadcasts are not sent across frame relay by default, the broadcast keyword is needed to enable this. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 7 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  10. 10. No frame-relay inverse-arp R1#conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R1(config)#interface serial0 R1(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay R1(config-if)#no frame-relay inverse-arp By default, frame relay will use Inverse ARP to dynamically create frame maps. Using InARP can lead to incomplete frame map tables, and many production networks turn it off when using frame relay. You do so with this command. It’s generally done right after enabling frame-relay. Show frame lmi R1#show frame lmi LMI Statistics for interface Serial0 (Frame Relay DTE) LMI TYPE = CISCO Invalid Unnumbered info 0 Invalid Prot Disc 0 Invalid dummy Call Ref 0 Invalid Msg Type 0 Invalid Status Message 0 Invalid Lock Shift 0 Invalid Information ID 0 Invalid Report IE Len 0 Invalid Report Request 0 Invalid Keep IE Len 0 Num Status Enq. Sent 167 Num Status msgs Rcvd 168 Num Update Status Rcvd 0 Num Status Timeouts 2 There are 12 fields here, but the ones to be most concerned about are the highlighted ones. Here, 167 status messages have been sent, and 168 received. These numbers should be no more than one apart, or the line protocol is getting ready to drop. There were two timeouts earlier as well. Bonus command: To set all your router counters back to zero, run the command clear counters. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 8 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  11. 11. R1#clear counters Clear "show interface" counters on all interfaces [confirm] R1#show frame lmi LMI Statistics for interface Serial0 (Frame Relay DTE) LMI TYPE = CISCO Invalid Unnumbered info 0 Invalid Prot Disc 0 Invalid dummy Call Ref 0 Invalid Msg Type 0 Invalid Status Message 0 Invalid Lock Shift 0 Invalid Information ID 0 Invalid Report IE Len 0 Invalid Report Request 0 Invalid Keep IE Len 0 Num Status Enq. Sent 0 Num Status msgs Rcvd 0 Num Update Status Rcvd 0 Num Status Timeouts 0 Show frame map R1#show frame map Serial0 (up): ip 172.12.123.2 dlci 122(0x7A,0x1CA0), static, broadcast, CISCO, status defined, active Serial0 (up): ip 172.12.123.3 dlci 123(0x7B,0x1CB0), static, broadcast, CISCO, status defined, active This command will show you both your dynamically and statically configured frame maps and their status. It will also show whether broadcasts have been enabled for that mapping. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 9 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  12. 12. Show frame pvc R1#show frame pvc PVC Statistics for interface Serial0 (Frame Relay DTE) Local Switched Unused Active 2 0 0 Inactive 0 0 0 Deleted Static 0 0 0 0 0 0 DLCI = 122, DLCI USAGE = LOCAL, PVC STATUS = ACTIVE, INTERFACE = Serial0 input pkts 0 output pkts 0 in bytes 0 out bytes 0 dropped pkts 0 in pkts dropped 0 out pkts dropped 0 out bytes dropped 0 in FECN pkts 0 in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0 in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0 out bcast pkts 0 out bcast bytes 0 pvc create time 01:40:05, last time pvc status changed 00:29:52 This command shows you how many PVCs you have on your router, the DLCIs in use, their status, and the interface they’re configured on. It also shows your FECN, BECN, and DE statistics. You must know what these are before taking the CCNA exams. Check the Frame Relay section of my Ultimate CCNA Study Guide for a refresher. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 10 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  13. 13. ISDN and Point-to-Point Serial Connection Commands Clock rate <x> R3#conf t R3(config)#int s1 R3(config-if)#ip address 172.12.13.2 255.255.255.252 R3(config-if)#clock rate 56000 R3(config-if)#no shut 01:47:59: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial1, changed state to up R3(config-if)#z 01:48:00: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial1, changed state to up Here, R3’s S1 interface is directly connected to R1’s S1 interface. R3’s S1 interface is the DCE. When two Cisco routers are directly connected by serial interface, the DCE must supply a clock rate to the DTE. This command is configured at the interface level. Once the clock rate is entered, the line protocol will come up. To see the other values for this command, use IOS Help after the clock rate command. Show controller serial <x> R1#show controller serial 1 HD unit 1, idb = 0x1DBFEC, driver structure at 0x1E35D0 buffer size 1524 HD unit 1, V.35 DTE cable I truncated about 20 lines of hexadecimal information that this command results in, because the key information is in the second line. This command tells you whether you have the DTE or DCE end of the DTE/DCE cable connected to this particular interface. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 11 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  14. 14. Debug ppp negotiation R1#debug ppp negotiation PPP protocol negotiation debugging is on R1#ping 172.12.12.2 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.12.12.2, timeout is 2 seconds: 02:12:01: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up 02:12:01: BR0:1 PPP: Using dialer call direction 02:12:01: BR0:1 PPP: Treating connection as a callout 02:12:01: BR0:1 PPP: Phase is ESTABLISHING, Active Open [0 sess, 0 load] 02:12:01: BR0:1 LCP: O CONFREQ [Closed] id 1 len 14 02:12:01: BR0:1 LCP: AuthProto PAP (0x0304C023) 02:12:01: BR0:1 LCP: MagicNumber 0xE0974794 (0x0506E0974794) 02:12:01: BR0:1 LCP: I CONFREQ [REQsent] id 1 len 14 02:12:01: BR0:1 LCP: AuthProto PAP (0x0304C023) 02:12:01: BR0:1 LCP: MagicNumber 0xE0973A66 (0x0506E0973A66) 02:12:01: BR0:1 LCP: O CONFACK [REQsent] id 1 len 14 02:12:01: BR0:1 LCP: AuthProto PAP (0x0304C023) 02:12:01: BR0:1 LCP: MagicNumber 0xE0973A66 (0x0506E0973A66) 02:12:01: BR0:1 LCP: I CONFACK [ACKsent] id 1 len 14 02:12:01: BR0:1 LCP: AuthProto PAP (0x0304C023) 02:12:01: BR0:1 LCP: MagicNumber 0xE0974794 (0x0506E0974794) 02:12:01: BR0:1 LCP: State is Open 02:12:01: BR0:1 PPP: Phase is AUTHENTICATING, by both [0 sess, 0 load] 02:12:01: BR0:1 AUTH: Started process 0 pid 66 02:12:01: BR0:1 PAP: O AUTH-REQ id 1 len 12 from "R1" 02:12:01: BR0:1 PAP: I AUTH-ACK id 1 len 5 02:12:01: BR0:1 PAP: I AUTH-REQ id 1 len 12 from "R2" 02:12:01: BR0:1 PAP: Authenticating peer R2 02:12:01: BR0:1 PAP: O AUTH-ACK id 1 len 5 02:12:01: BR0:1 PPP: Phase is UP [0 sess, 0 load] 02:12:01: BR0:1 IPCP: O CONFREQ [Closed] id 1 len 10 02:12:01: BR0:1 IPCP: Address 172.12.12.1 (0x0306AC0C0C01) 02:12:01: BR0:1 CDPCP: O CONFREQ [Closed] id 1 len 4 02:12:01: BR0:1 IPCP: I CONFREQ [REQsent] id 1 len 10 Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 12 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  15. 15. 02:12:01: BR0:1 IPCP: Address 172.12.12.2 (0x0306AC0C0C02) 02:12:01: BR0:1 IPCP: O CONFACK [REQsent] id 1 len 10 02:12:01: BR0:1 IPCP: Address 172.12.12.2 (0x0306AC0C0C02) 02:12:01: BR0:1 CDPCP: I CONFREQ [REQsent] id 1 len 4 02:12:01: BR0:1 CDPCP: O CONFACK [REQsent] id 1 len 4 02:12:01: BR0:1 IPCP: I CONFACK [ACKsent] id 1 len 10 02:12:01: BR0:1 IPCP: Address 172.12.12.1 (0x0306AC0C0C01) 02:1.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent (4/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 36/36/36 ms R1#2:01: BR0:1 IPCP: State is Open 02:12:01: BR0:1 CDPCP: I CONFACK [ACKsent] id 1 len 4 02:12:01: BR0:1 CDPCP: State is Open 02:12:01: BR0 IPCP: Install route to 172.12.12.2 02:12:02: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed statto up Speaking from experience, I can tell you that it’s easy to make an error when configuring PPP password authentication, either PAP or CHAP. A null space can make the entire process fail. You simply must know this command in order to begin troubleshooting ISDN. It’s kind of hard to spot a null space with the naked eye, but when there’s a problem with PPP, this command will point you in the right direction. The output shown is a successful PAP authentication. Dialer-group R1#conf t R1(config)#interface bri0 R1(config-if)#dialer-group 1 This interface-level command links the interface to the dialer-list command, which defines interesting traffic. The number used here must match the number used in the dialer-list command. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 13 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  16. 16. Dialer-list R1#conf t R1(config)#dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit R1(config)#interface bri0 R1(config-if)#dialer-group 1 The dialer-list command defines interesting traffic, which is the traffic that causes one router to dial another. Interesting traffic also resets the dialer idle-timer. The dialer-list is defined globally and is linked to the interface with the dialer-group command. The number used in the dialer-list command must match the dialer-group number. Dialer-list has many options, including the option to define interesting traffic with access-lists. Use IOS Help to further explore these options. The dialer-list shown defines all IP traffic as interesting. Dialer idle-timeout R1#conf t R1(config)#interface bri0 R1(config-if)#dialer idle-timeout 60 By default, when interesting traffic brings up the ISDN link, an idle-timer of 120 seconds begins to run. Only interesting traffic resets the idle-timer. To change this default time, use this command. EXAM NOTE: Notice that the command value is in seconds, not minutes. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 14 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  17. 17. Dialer load-threshold, ppp multilink R1#conf t R1(config)#interface bri0 R1(config-if)#ppp multilink R1(config-if)#dialer load-threshold 191 outbound By default, the second b-channel in a BRI interface will not be used until the first is at capacity. To change this, first enable ppp multilink. Second, use the dialer load-threshold command to define the capacity level of the first channel before the second channel is brought up. Finally, define the direction you want to consider – inbound, outbound, or both. EXAM NOTE: The numeric value of this command is NOT a ratio of 100; it’s a ratio of 255. For example, to bring the second b-channel up when the first reaches 75% outbound capacity, you must enter a value that is 75% of 255 – which is 191. (191 x .75) Dialer map R2#conf t R2(config)#interface bri0 R2(config-if)#dialer map ip 172.12.12.1 name R1 broadcast 5553333 There are no dynamic dialer maps; they must be configured manually with the dialer map command. Note that you map the remote IP address to the remote phone number; 5553333 is R1’s phone number. As with frame, broadcasts will not be sent over the ISDN link by default; this must be enabled with the broadcast keyword. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 15 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  18. 18. Dialer pool Dialer pool-member Dialer string Dialer remote-name Interface dialer0 R1#conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R1(config)#interface dialer0 R1(config-if)#ip address 172.12.12.1 255.255.255.252 R1(config-if)#encapsulation ppp R1(config-if)#dialer pool 1 R1(config-if)#dialer remote-name R2 R1(config-if)#dialer string 5554444 R1(config-if)#dialer-group 1 R1(config-if)#interface bri0 R1(config-if)#no ip address R1(config-if)#dialer pool-member 1 R1(config-if)#encapsulation ppp These commands are used to create a dialer profile, which is a logical dial interface that will be bound to a physical BRI interface when that particular number is dialed. You need to know the basics of dialer profile configuration for the CCNA exams. Notice that the IP address is on the logical interface Dialer0, not the physical interface bri0. PPP encapsulation is enabled on both. The dialer pool, dialer remote-name, and dialer string commands all go on the dialer0 interface, as does dialer-group. The dialer pool-member command is configured on the physical interface. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 16 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  19. 19. Encapsulation ppp No encapsulation ppp R2#conf t R2(config)#interface bri0 R2(config-if)#encapsulation ppp The default encapsulation type of BRI interfaces is HDLC. Before you can enable PAP or CHAP authentication, you must enable PPP encapsulation with this command. To revert to the default HDLC encapsulation, run no encapsulation ppp. Isdn switch-type basic-ni R2#conf t R2(config)#isdn switch-type basic-ni OR R2(config)#interface bri0 R2(config-if)#isdn switch-type basic-ni Required for ISDN. You cannot have a working configuration without this command. You can enter this globally or at the BRI interface level, as shown. You may see it in your running configuration under the BRI configuration even when you enable it globally. That’s the normal behavior. Ppp authentication chap R2#conf t R2(config)#interface bri0 R2(config-if)#ppp authentication chap Enables chap authentication. There is no “ppp chap sentusername” command. Passwords must be the same on both routers when using CHAP. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 17 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  20. 20. Ppp authentication pap Ppp pap sent-username <name> password <password> R2#conf t R2(config)#interface bri0 R2(config-if)#ppp authentication pap R2(config-if)#ppp pap sent-username R2 password cisco PPP PAP authentication is unencrypted; the passwords go across the ISDN link in clear-text. The passwords can be different on each router, though, due to the ppp pap sentusername command. This command is required for PAP. Show dialer R2#show dialer BRI0 - dialer type = ISDN Dial String Successes Failures Last DNIS Last status 5553333 6 1 00:00:04 successful 0 incoming call(s) have been screened. 0 incoming call(s) rejected for callback. BRI0:1 - dialer type = ISDN Idle timer (120 secs), Fast idle timer (20 secs) Wait for carrier (30 secs), Re-enable (15 secs) Dialer state is data link layer up Dial reason: ip (s=172.12.12.2, d=172.12.12.1) Time until disconnect 117 secs Connected to 5553333 (R1) BRI0:2 - dialer type = ISDN Idle timer (120 secs), Fast idle timer (20 secs) Wait for carrier (30 secs), Re-enable (15 secs) Dialer state is idle The key with this important command is that the output shows you the source and destination of the traffic that caused the router to dial. If you see 224.0.0.5, 224.0.0.9, Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 18 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  21. 21. 224.0.0.10, or 255.255.255.255 here, you have a great idea of what traffic brought the link up. Don’t take the CCNA exam without knowing what kind of traffic each of those IP addresses represents. Here’s a quick refresher. 224.0.0.5, OSPF. 224.0.0.9, RIP version 2. 224.0.0.10, EIGRP. 255.255.255.255, broadcast traffic (routing protocols IGRP and RIP version 1 send broadcast updates). Show interface bri0 R2#show interface bri0 BRI0 is up, line protocol is up (spoofing) Hardware is BRI Internet address is 172.12.12.2/30 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 64 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255 Encapsulation PPP, loopback not set Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:00, output hang never Last clearing of "show interface" counters 02:20:49 Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: weighted fair Notice the word “spoofing” in parenthesis after the physical and line protocols are shown as up. There is no active call on this link, and the ISDN connection is not up. “spoofing” refers to the fact that the interface is acting as though there were an active connection. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 19 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  22. 22. Show isdn history R2#show isdn history ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ISDN CALL HISTORY ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Call History contains all active calls, and a maximum of 100 inactive calls. Inactive call data will be retained for a maximum of 15 minutes. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Call Calling Called Remote Seconds Seconds Seconds Charges Type Number Number Name Used Left Idle Units/Currency ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Out ---N/A--5553333 0 0 Out ---N/A--5553333 0 0 Out ---N/A--5553333 0 0 Out ---N/A--5553333 0 0 Out ---N/A--5553333 0 0 In 5553333 5554444 0 In 5553333 5554444 0 In 5553333 5554444 0 In 5553333 5554444 2 Out ---N/A--5553333 R1 121 0 As the name implies, this command shows the last 10 calls and the numbers to which they were made. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 20 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  23. 23. Show isdn status R2#show isdn status Global ISDN Switchtype = basic-ni ISDN BRI0 interface dsl 0, interface ISDN Switchtype = basic-ni Layer 1 Status: ACTIVE Layer 2 Status: TEI = 66, Ces = 1, SAPI = 0, State = MULTIPLE_FRAME_ESTABLISHED Layer 3 Status: 1 Active Layer 3 Call(s) CCB:callid=8008, sapi=0, ces=1, B-chan=1, calltype=DATA Active dsl 0 CCBs = 1 The Free Channel Mask: 0x80000002 Total Allocated ISDN CCBs = 1 A vital command for ISDN troubleshooting. This command indicates whether you have defined the ISDN switch-type, and whether layers 1, 2, and 3 are active. These layers map to the OSI model. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 21 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  24. 24. Static and Distance-Vector Commands: Bandwidth <x> R2#conf t R2(config)#int s0 R2(config-if)#bandwidth 512 IGRP makes a default assumption that any Serial interface running IGRP is connected to a T1 line, which runs at 1544 KBPS. With equal-cost load-balancing enabled by default, this may be an undesirable assumption. To alter IGRP’s assumption, use the bandwidth command on the serial interface in question. Note that this command does NOT actually affect the bandwidth available to the interface; it merely changes IGRP’s assumption of the bandwidth. Clear ip route * R2#clear ip route * This command clears your routing table of all non-static and non-connected routes. In a lab environment, it’s very handy; it forces your routers running routing protocols to send and request updates, rather than waiting for the regularly scheduled updates. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 22 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  25. 25. Debug ip igrp events R2#debug ip igrp event IGRP event debugging is on R2#clear ip route * 06:02:51: IGRP: broadcasting request on BRI0 06:02:51: IGRP: broadcasting request on Serial0.123 Debug ip igrp events allows you to see IGRP updates being sent and requested. Here, the debug is run and then the routing table is cleared. The router immediately broadcasts update requests via the IGRP-enabled interfaces. Debug ip igrp transactions R2#debug ip igrp transactions IGRP protocol debugging is on R2#clear ip route * 06:05:33: IGRP: received update from 172.12.123.1 on Serial0.123 06:05:33: subnet 172.12.123.0, metric 10476 (neighbor 8476) 06:05:33: network 1.0.0.0, metric 8976 (neighbor 501) 06:05:33: IGRP: edition is now 3 06:05:33: IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via BRI0 (172.12.12.2) 06:05:33: network 1.0.0.0, metric=8976 06:05:33: IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Serial0.123 (172.12.123.2) - suppressing null update 06:05:34: IGRP: received update from 172.12.12.1 on BRI0 06:05:34: subnet 172.12.13.0, metric 160250 (neighbor 8476) 06:05:34: network 1.0.0.0, metric 158750 (neighbor 501) To configure IGRP unequal-cost load-sharing with the variance command, you’ve got to know the metric of the less-desirable routes. EIGRP keeps these in its topology table; IGRP has no such table. To get the metrics of routes not in the routing table, run debug ip igrp transactions. To force IGRP updates, the routing table was cleared with clear ip route *. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 23 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  26. 26. Debug ip packet R2#debug ip packet IP packet debugging is on R2#ping 172.12.123.2 R2#ping 172.12.123.2 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.12.123.2, timeout is 2 seconds: 06:10:04: IP: s=172.12.12.2 (local), unroutable. 06:10:06: IP: s=172.12.12.2 (local), unroutable. 06:10:08: IP: s=172.12.12.2 (local), unroutable. 06:10:10: IP: s=172.12.12.2 (local), unroutable. 06:10:12: IP: s=172.12.12.2 (local), unroutable. Success rate is 0 percent (0/5) d=172.12.123.2, len 100, d=172.12.123.2, len 100, d=172.12.123.2, len 100, d=172.12.123.2, len 100, d=172.12.123.2, len 100, If you have a problem sending a ping, this command will give you a good idea where the problem is. Here, the message indicates that there is no route to the destination. Debug ip rip 2#debug ip rip IP protocol debugging is on 2#clear ip route * 6:14:53: RIP: received v2 update from 172.23.23.3 on Ethernet0 6:14:53: 1.0.0.0/8 via 0.0.0.0 in 16 hops (inaccessible) 6:14:53: 1.1.1.1/32 via 0.0.0.0 in 2 hops 6:14:53: 172.12.0.0/16 via 0.0.0.0 in 16 hops (inaccessible) 6:14:53: 172.12.12.2/32 via 0.0.0.0 in 2 hops 6:14:53: 172.12.13.0/30 via 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops 6:14:53: 172.12.123.0/24 via 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops 6:14:53: 172.23.0.0/16 via 0.0.0.0 in 16 hops (inaccessible) Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 24 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  27. 27. Run debug ip rip to troubleshoot routing update problems, RIP authentication problems, and to view the routing update contents. Clear ip route * was run to clear the routing table and to force a RIP update. Note that poison reverse is in operation. (A route that is unavailable is not just dropped from updates; it is advertised with an unreachable metric.) Ip route <destination> <mask> <next-hop IP> OR Ip route <destination> <mask> <exit interface> R2#conf t R2(config)#ip route 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 172.12.123.1 OR R2(config)#ip route 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 serial0 To configure a static route to a given destination IP address, use the ip route command. The destination is followed by a subnet mask, and that can be followed by either the nexthop IP address or the exit interface on the local router. Ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 <next-hop-IP-address> Ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 <exit interface> R2#conf t R2(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.12.123.1 OR R2(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 ethernet0 Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 25 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  28. 28. To configure a default static route, use either of these two commands. You could have any number for the first “0.0.0.0”, since the second set of zeroes is the subnet mask. This means that any destination will match this route statement. Maximum-paths <x> R2#conf t R2(config)#router rip R2(config-router)#maximum-paths 6 By default, distance-vector routing protocols perform equalcost load-balancing over four paths. This default can be set from a minimum of 1 to a maximum of 6 with this command. Note: If you configure maximum-paths 1, you are in effect disabling equal-cost load-balancing. Network R2#conf t R2(config)#router rip R2(config-router)#network 172.12.0.0 The network command indicates that interfaces in the indicated network will run this particular routing protocol. The network command is used in RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, and OSPF. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 26 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  29. 29. No auto-summary R2#conf t R2(config)#router rip R2(config-router)#version 2 R2(config-router)#no auto-summary Both RIP version 2 and EIGRP perform summarization of routes when those routes are advertised across a network border. (For a complete, illustrated explanation of this concept, please check the EIGRP section of my Ultimate CCNA Study Guide.) This default behavior is generally disabled. To do so, run no auto-summary as shown. Passive-interface R2#conf t R2(config)#router rip R2(config-router)#passive-interface bri0 An interface configured as passive will continue to accept routing updates, but will no longer send them. Exam Note: Even though this command affects an interface, it is NOT configured at the interface level. It’s configured as part of the routing protocol configuration. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 27 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  30. 30. Router igrp 1 R2#conf t R2(config)#router igrp 1 This command enables IGRP on the router. Exam Tip: The number in the command is the Autonomous System number. Exam Tip: The only automatic route redistribution between protocols is between IGRP and EIGRP if the AS number for each is the same. Router rip Version 1 Version 2 R2#conf t R2(config)#router rip R2(config-router)#version 1 R2(config-router)#version 2 Router rip enables RIP on your router. RIP runs two versions, 1 and 2, and you must know the differences between the two before succeeding on the CCNA exams. By default, RIP sends version 1 updates and accepts version 1 and 2 updates. To change this default to accept and send updates of only one of the two versions, configure version 1 or version 2 under the RIP routing process. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 28 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  31. 31. Show ip protocols R2#show ip protocols Routing Protocol is "rip" Sending updates every 30 seconds, next due in 20 seconds Invalid after 180 seconds, hold down 180, flushed after 240 Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set Redistributing: rip Default version control: send version 2, receive version 2 Interface Send Recv Triggered RIP Key-chain Serial0.123 2 2 Automatic network summarization is not in effect Maximum path: 4 Routing for Networks: 172.12.0.0 Passive Interface(s): BRI0 Routing Information Sources: Gateway Distance Last Update 172.12.12.1 120 00:00:24 Distance: (default is 120) A lot of information here! First, you see the update timers. Auto-summarization has been turned off; maximum-paths is set to four; BRI0 has been made a passive-interface; finally, RIP has been kept at its default Administrative Distance of 120. Also, interface s0.123 is sending and receiving RIP version 2 only. Exam Tip: Know all the information that can be seen in this command’s output. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 29 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  32. 32. Show ip route R2#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 0.0.0.0 to network 0.0.0.0 1.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets S 1.1.1.1 [1/0] via 172.12.123.1 172.12.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 3 masks C 172.12.12.0/30 is directly connected, BRI0 R 172.12.13.0/30 [120/1] via 172.12.12.1, 00:00:10, BRI0 C 172.12.12.1/32 is directly connected, BRI0 R 172.12.123.0/24 [120/1] via 172.12.12.1, 00:00:10, BRI0 172.23.0.0/27 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 172.23.23.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0 S* 0.0.0.0/0 is directly connected, Ethernet0 [1/0] via 172.12.123.1 This command displays the entire routing table. To see only the routes of a given protocol, enter the protocol name at the end of this command, such as show ip route rip: R2#show ip route rip 172.12.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 3 masks R 172.12.13.0/30 [120/1] via 172.12.12.1, 00:00:20, BRI0 R 172.12.123.0/24 [120/1] via 172.12.12.1, 00:00:20, BRI0 Exam Tip: Note that the letter indicating EIGRP routes is “D”. “E” was already taken by EGP when EIGRP came along. ☺ Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 30 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  33. 33. Traffic-share balanced R3#conf t R3(config)#router igrp 1 R3(config-router)#traffic-share balanced R3#conf t R3(config)#router eigrp 1 R3(config-router)#traffic-share balanced When EIGRP and IGRP perform unequal-cost load-sharing, the load is shared in proportion to the metrics by default; that is, if one path has a metric that is three times better than the other path in use, that path will carry roughly three times as much data. To divide the load equally among all the paths, configure traffic-share balanced. Variance R3#conf t R3(config)#router igrp 1 R3(config-router)#variance 3 Variance is used to configure unequal-cost load-balancing. Variance is simply a multiplier. The metric of the best path is multiplied by the variance; any path with a lower metric than the result will be used for unequal-cost load-balancing. Example: Three paths to a destination exist, with the following metric: Path 1: 4000 Path 2: 7500 Path 3: 8100 Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 31 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  34. 34. By default, IGRP and EIGRP will use only Path 1. A variance value of 2 would result in any path with a metric of less than 8000 being used (4000 x 2), so Path 1 and Path 2 would be used. A variance of 3 would result in all three paths being used for unequal-cost load-balancing. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 32 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  35. 35. OSPF Commands Area <x> stub R2#conf t R2(config)#router ospf 1 R2(config-router)#area 23 stub To configure an area as stub, configure it as Area 23 has been configured here. Exam Tip: For an area to be configured as stub, all routers with an interface in that area must be so configured. Exam Tip: A virtual link cannot be configured with a stub area as the transit area. Area <x> stub no-summary R2#conf t R2(config)#router ospf 1 R2(config-router)#area 23 stub no-summary To configure an area as a total stub area, use the configuration shown here. Exam Tip: A virtual link cannot use a stub or total stub area as a transit area. Area <x> virtual-link <remote-router-RID> R2#conf t R2(config)#router ospf 1 R2(config-router)#area 13 virtual-link 1.1.1.1 Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 33 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  36. 36. A virtual link is created to logically connect a router to Area 0 when no physical connection exists. Watch the syntax carefully. The area specified is the transit area, or the area through which the virtual link will form. This area cannot be a stub or total stub area. The IP address shown is the OSPF RID (Router ID) of the remote router. This command must be configured on both sides of the transit area. Debug ip ospf adjacency R3# debug ip ospf adjacency 09:58:43: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console R3# 09:58:48: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 2.2.2.2 on Ethernet0 seq 0xEEF opt 0x42 flag 0x7 len 32 mtu 1500 state INIT 09:58:48: OSPF: 2 Way Communication to 2.2.2.2 on Ethernet0, state 2WAY 09:58:48: OSPF: Neighbor change Event on interface Ethernet0 09:58:48: OSPF: DR/BDR election on Ethernet0 09:58:48: OSPF: Elect BDR 0.0.0.0 09:58:48: OSPF: Elect DR 172.23.23.3 09:58:48: DR: 172.23.23.3 (Id) BDR: none 09:58:48: OSPF: Send DBD to 2.2.2.2 on Ethernet0 seq 0x13F3 opt 0x42 flag 0x7 len 32 09:58:48: OSPF: First DBD and we are not SLAVE 09:58:48: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 2.2.2.2 on Ethernet0 seq 0x13F3 opt 0x42 flag 0x2 l en 132 mtu 1500 state EXSTART 09:58:48: OSPF: NBR Negotiation Done. We are the MASTER 09:58:48: OSPF: Send DBD to 2.2.2.2 on Ethernet0 seq 0x13F4 opt 0x42 flag 0x3 len 152 09:58:48: OSPF: Database request to 2.2.2.2 09:58:48: OSPF: sent LS REQ packet to 172.23.23.2, length 60 09:58:48: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 2.2.2.2 on Ethernet0 seq 0x13F4 opt 0x42 flag 0x0 len 32 R3# mtu 1500 state EXCHANGE 09:58:48: OSPF: Send DBD to 2.2.2.2 on Ethernet0 seq 0x13F5 opt 0x42 flag 0x1 len 32 Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 34 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  37. 37. 09:58:48: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 2.2.2.2 on Ethernet0 seq 0x13F5 opt 0x42 flag 0x0 l en 32 mtu 1500 state EXCHANGE 09:58:48: OSPF: Exchange Done with 2.2.2.2 on Ethernet0 09:58:48: OSPF: Synchronized with 2.2.2.2 on Ethernet0, state FULL 09:58:48: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 2.2.2.2 on Ethernet0 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done 09:58:48: OSPF: Build router LSA for area 23, router ID 172.23.23.3, seq 0x80000002 09:58:48: OSPF: Build network LSA for Ethernet0, router ID 172.23.23.3 09:58:53: OSPF: Neighbor change Event on interface Ethernet0 09:58:53: OSPF: DR/BDR election on Ethernet0 09:58:53: OSPF: Elect BDR 2.2.2.2 09:58:53: OSPF: Elect DR 172.23.23.3 09:58:53: DR: 172.23.23.3 (Id) BDR: 2.2.2.2 (Id) debug ip ospf adjacency allows you to watch the adjacency formation process, and to spot problems preventing adjacency. In this example, you can see the stages of OSPF adjacency, and see the DR and BDR election at the end. Ip ospf hello <x> Ip ospf dead <x> R1#conf t R1(config)#int s0 R1(config-if)#ip ospf hello 30 R1(config-if)#ip ospf dead 100 OSPF hello and dead timers have different defaults on different network types; review the OSPF section of The Bryant Advantage Ultimate CCNA Study Guide for a refresher on these. No matter the network types, the default is that the OSPF deadtime is four times the hello time. One way to change the deadtime is to change the hello time; no matter what Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 35 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  38. 38. you set the hello time to, the dead time will change to four times the new hello value. You can also set the dead time manually, as shown. This is done on the interface level, and the timers must match on both sides of the link. If you change the timers on one side and not the other, the adjacency will drop. Ip ospf demand-circuit R2#conf t R2(config)#interface bri0 R2(config-if)#ip ospf demand-circuit Throughout your CCNA and CCNP studies, you’ll be faced with the ISDN link coming up when you don’t want it to. By using show dialer to determine the destination of the interesting traffic that brought the link up, you’ll see that many times, it’s routing update packets or Hello packets that brought the link up. OSPF has a mechanism to allow the ISDN link to have an adjacency form over the ISDN link, and keep that adjacency even when the link comes down. By using the ip ospf demand-circuit command, OSPF will keep the adjacency without sending Hellos that might otherwise keep resetting the ISDN idle-timer. Note that this is an interface-level command. While you generally see this configured on both sides of the ISDN link in most books, it’s only needed on one side. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 36 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  39. 39. Ip ospf priority 0 R2#conf t R2(config)#int s0.123 R2(config-subif)#ip ospf priority 0 OSPF hub-and-spoke networks are common, and require extra configuration on both the hubs and the spokes. In a hub-and-spoke configuration, the spokes cannot under any circumstances become the Designated Router (DR) or Backup Designated Router (BDR). The only way to do this is to set the spoke’s OSPF interface priority to zero, as shown above. Since the OSPF default interface priority is 1, configuring this on all spokes will ensure that the hub becomes the DR and that no BDR will be elected. Ip ospf network non-broadcast R3#conf t R3(config)#int s0.31 point-to-point R3(config-subif)#ip ospf network non-broadcast Keep in mind that a major reason for OSPF neighbors not forming an adjacency is a mismatch in the network types. Serial interfaces default to non-broadcast, but a point-to-point interface will always default to OSPF network type “point-to-point”. If you have a physical serial interface on one side of a link and a point-to-point interface on the other side, the adjacency will not form You can change the OSPF network type as shown to allow the adjacency to form. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 37 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  40. 40. Router-id x.x.x.x R1#conf t R1(config)#router ospf 1 R1(config-router)#router-id 11.11.11.11 Reload or use "clear ip ospf process" command, for this to take effect R1#clear ip ospf process Reset ALL OSPF processes? [no]: yes 10:22:19: OSPF: Interface Serial0 going Down 10:22:19: OSPF: 1.1.1.1 address 172.12.123.1 on Serial0 is dead, state DOWN 10:22:19: OSPF: Neighbor change Event on interface Serial0 First, what is the default OSPF Router ID (RID)? The rules are a little odd, so let’s review them. If a router running OSPF has one or more loopback addresses, the numerically highest address is the OSPF RID, even if that interface is not running OSPF. If a router running OSPF has no loopback addresses, the numerically highest IP address of the physical interfaces is the OSPF RID, even if that interface is not running OSPF. I know it’s second nature to think the interface bearing the OSPF RID must be running OSPF, but it’s not true. To change the RID, use the router-id command under the OSPF process as shown. Note that to make this command take effect, the router prompts you to reload or run the “clear ip ospf process” command. That command is going to restart ALL your OSPF processes. In other words, don’t try this at work. ☺ Also note that the prompted answer for “reset ALL OSPF processes?” is no. When the router default for a question is “no”, the router’s trying to tell you you’re about to do Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 38 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  41. 41. something fairly drastic. I always take a second look before I answer “yes” to a question like that. Show ip ospf R1#show ip ospf Routing Process "ospf 1" with ID 11.11.11.11 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes Supports opaque LSA It is an area border router SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000 Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000 Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0 Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0 Number of areas in this router is 3. 3 normal 0 stub 0 nssa External flood list length 0 Area BACKBONE(0) Number of interfaces in this area is 1 Area has no authentication SPF algorithm executed 4 times Area ranges are Number of LSA 13. Checksum Sum 0x10123B Number of opaque link LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000 Number of DCbitless LSA 0 Number of indication LSA 0 Number of DoNotAge LSA 0 Flood list length 0 Area 1 Number of interfaces in this area is 1 Area has no authentication SPF algorithm executed 2 times Area ranges are Number of LSA 6. Checksum Sum 0x02FD14 Number of opaque link LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000 Number of DCbitless LSA 0 Number of indication LSA 0 Number of DoNotAge LSA 0 Flood list length 0 Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 39 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  42. 42. There’s a lot of output to this command, but the keys for CCNA and CCNP exam success are that you see the OSPF RID here, you see the router type (this is an ABR), and you see the different areas and how many times the SPF algorithm has been executed. Since the SPF algorithm (also known as the Dijkstra algorithm) only runs on a network topology change, a constantly advancing counter here indicates a flapping link in the network – one that goes up and down continually, and which will make the SPF algorithm run every time it does so. Show ip ospf interface <interface name and number> R1#show ip ospf interface serial0 Serial0 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 172.12.123.1/24, Area 0 Process ID 1, Router ID 11.11.11.11, Network Type NON_BROADCAST, Cost: 64 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 11.11.11.11, Interface address 172.12.123.1 No backup designated router on this network Timer intervals configured, Hello 30, Dead 120, Wait 120, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:08 Index 1/1, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 6 Last flood scan time is 4 msec, maximum is 8 msec Neighbor Count is 2, Adjacent neighbor count is 2 Adjacent with neighbor 172.23.23.3 Adjacent with neighbor 2.2.2.2 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) Note that this command shows you the RID, the network type, what the state is (DR, BDR, DROTHER), the RID of the DR and BDR, and what adjacencies this interface has formed. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 40 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  43. 43. Show ip ospf neighbor R1#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 172.23.23.3 2.2.2.2 172.23.23.3 Pri State Dead Time 0 FULL/DROTHER 00:01:37 0 FULL/DROTHER 00:01:53 1 FULL/ 00:00:38 Address 172.12.123.3 172.12.123.2 172.12.13.2 Interface Serial0 Serial0 Serial1’ A vital OSPF command, you see the RIDs of the router’s OSPF neighbors, the state of the adjacency, the dead time (which in a healthy adjacency will decrement for while, then increment upon receipt of an OSPF Hello), the IP address of that neighbor, and the neighbor’s interface with which the adjacency has formed. Note the state “DROTHER”. This means that the neighbor is neither the DR nor the BDR for that segment. Note the state “ – “. This state is seen when the link is point-to-point. Since a point-to-point link by definition can only have two hosts, there’s no need for a DR or BDR. There is no DR or BDR election on a point-to-point link. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 41 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  44. 44. EIGRP Command Reference Network R3#conf t R3(config)#router eigrp 100 R3(config-router)#network 172.12.123.0 0.0.0.255 You enable EIGRP on router interfaces with the network command. Note that the network command in EIGRP includes wildcard masks, just as OSPF does. Exam Tip: As with IGRP, the number following “router eigrp” is the Autonomous System (AS) number. Exam Tip: When IGRP and EIGRP are running on the same router, routes will be automatically redistributed between the two if the AS number of both is the same; that is, IGRP 100 and EIGRP 100 would automatically redistribute routes; IGRP 200 and EIGRP 100 would not. No ip split-horizon eigrp <AS_NUMBER> R1#conf t R1(config)#interface serial0 R1(config-if)#no ip split-horizon eigrp 100 Split horizon is enabled by default on interfaces running EIGRP. (Remember that EIGRP is a hybrid; it has some characteristics of distance-vector protocols and some of linkstate protocols. Split horizon is a distance-vector behavior.) Occasionally, you may need to turn split horizon off in a hub-and-spoke network to have full network reachability. You turn split horizon off at the interface level as shown. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 42 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  45. 45. Router eigrp <AS_NUMBER> R2#conf t R2(config)#router eigrp 100 Enable EIGRP on a router with the router eigrp command. The number defined is the Autonomous System number. Show ip eigrp neighbors R1#show ip eigrp neighbors IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 100 H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq Type (sec) (ms) Cnt Num 0 172.12.123.3 Se0 13 00:01:53 52 312 0 5 1 172.12.123.2 Se0 149 00:03:18 51 306 0 2 EIGRP neighbors are shown for each EIGRP process with this single command. Note that you can also see how long each adjacency has been up. Show ip eigrp topology R1#show ip eigrp topology IP-EIGRP Topology Table for AS(100)/ID(1.1.1.1) Codes: P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply, r - reply Status, s - sia Status P 3.3.3.3/32, 1 successors, FD is 2297856 via 172.12.123.3 (2297856/128256), Serial0 via 172.12.123.2 (2323456/409600), Serial0 P 1.1.1.1/32, 1 successors, FD is 128256 via Connected, Loopback0 P 2.2.2.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 2297856 via 172.12.123.2 (2297856/128256), Serial0 via 172.12.123.3 (2323456/409600), Serial0 P 172.23.23.0/27, 2 successors, FD is 2195456 via 172.12.123.3 (2195456/281600), Serial0 via 172.12.123.2 (2195456/281600), Serial0 P 172.12.123.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 2169856 via Connected, Serial0 Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 43 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  46. 46. To configure unequal-cost load-balancing with the variance command, you need to know the metrics of the lessdesirable routes. With EIGRP, this is easy if you know where to look. All these routes are kept in the EIGRP Topology Table. The Successor (the best route) is seen here, and this is the route you’ll see in the routing table with show ip route. The Feasible Successor (less-desirable, but still valid) is seen only in the topology table. Exam Tip: EIGRP has three tables; the route table, seen with show ip route; the topology table, seen with show ip eigrp topology; and the neighbor table, seen with show ip eigrp neighbor. Note that the routes in the topology table are seen as Passive, indicated by the letter “P”. There are no active routes. At first glance, this may not seem good, but this is actually what you want. Routes marked as Passive are not currently being calculated by DUAL (EIGRP’s algorithm), and are available to carry data. Routes marked as Active are being calculated by DUAL and cannot currently be used to carry data. In a perfectly working network, routes that go into Active don’t stay there very long. If you see one that stays there, the acronym used for that is SIA – Stuck-In-Active. Start looking for solutions in Google for that one. ☺ Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 44 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  47. 47. Advanced TCP/IP Topics Command Summary (Access-lists, NAT, Route Summarization) Standard Access List Format and Application: R1#conf t R1(config)#access-list 5 permit 172.1.0.0 0.0.255.255 R1(config)#interface serial0 R1(config-if)#ip access-group 5 in First, the access-list (abbreviated as “ACL”) is written. Second, the ACL is applied to the interface. A standard ACL is straightforward, but there are a lot of details in that little configuration. Mastery of these details will make you a CCNA and CCNP. Let’s take a look at these details. • Remember that every ACL ends with an implicit deny. If traffic is not explicitly permitted, it is implicitly denied. • ACLs run from top to bottom; when there is a match, the ACL no longer runs. This makes the order of the ACL’s lines vital. • Standard ACLs can be numbered 1 – 99 and 1300 – 1399. • Exam Tip: Note the command applying the ACL to the interface. It begins with “ip”. It ends with the direction of traffic this ACL will be matched against – inbound or outbound. An interface can have two ACLs applied at one time, with one affecting incoming traffic and another affecting outgoing traffic. • ACLs always use wildcard masks, just as OSPF and EIGRP do. • Standard ACLs consider only the source IP address. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 45 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  48. 48. ACLs using “host”, “any”, and “remark” R1#conf t R1(config)#access-list 5 permit 172.1.13.1 0.0.0.0 OR R1#conf t R1(config)#access-list 5 permit host 172.1.13.1 These two ACLs perform the same task. Traffic matching the single IP address 172.1.13.1 will be permitted, with all other traffic denied by the implicit deny. The word “host” can be used in place of the wildcard mask 0.0.0.0. Exam Tip: Note that while a wildcard mask of 0.0.0.0 follows the address, the word “host” precedes it. R1#conf t R1(config)#access-list 5 permit any OR R1#conf t R1(config)#access-list 5 permit 172.1.13.1 255.255.255.255 These two ACLs perform the same task. All traffic will match. (You could put any address in for the source IP address as long as the wildcard mask is 255.255.255.255.) The word “any” can be used in place of the source IP address and wildcard mask 255.255.255.255. R1#conf t R1(config)#access-list 5 remark This ACL blocks telnet traffic. Use the remark command to add comments to your ACL. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 46 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  49. 49. Extended Access Lists Configuration and Application R1#conf t R1(config)#access-list 105 permit ip 172.50.50.0 0.0.0.255 210.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 R1(config)#interface serial0 R1(config-if)#ip access-group 105 out Exam Tips: Extended ACLs have numeric ranges of 100 – 199 and 2000 – 2699. Extended ACLs can match against source IP address, destination IP address, protocol type, and well-known port number (for example, port 80 to block web traffic). Extended ACLs run from top to bottom; once a match is found, the ACL stops running. Extended ACLs have an implicit deny at the end. Extended ACLs are applied in the same fashion as standard ACLs. Watch the “ip” that the command begins with, and that the direction of traffic this ACL will be matched against must be specified. Overall, you can have two ACLs applied on an interface – one applied to inbound traffic and the other to outbound traffic. The keywords host and any can be used for the source, destination, or both. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 47 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  50. 50. Named ACL Configuration And Application R1#conf t R1(config)#ip access-list extended NO_WEB_TRAFFIC R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny tcp any any eq www R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit ip any any R1(config-ext-nacl)#interface ethernet0 R1(config-if)#ip access-group NO_WEB_TRAFFIC in R1(config-if)#ip access-group NO_WEB_TRAFFIC out Named ACLs can be either standard or extended, and this is defined when the ACL is created. Here, an ACL blocking WWW traffic is created. The line “permit ip any any” will permit any traffic, regardless of source or destination, as long as the traffic didn’t match the first line. Named ACLs are applied to interfaces in much the same fashion as numbered ACLs. Note that this ACL was applied to both inbound and outbound traffic, which does require two separate lines; there’s no “both” option. Limiting Telnet Access With ACLs R1#conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R1(config)#access-list 99 permit host 110.1.1.1 R1(config)#line vty 0 4 R1(config-line)#login % Login disabled on line 5, until 'password' is set % Login disabled on line 6, until 'password' is set % Login disabled on line 7, until 'password' is set % Login disabled on line 8, until 'password' is set % Login disabled on line 9, until 'password' is set R1(config-line)#password cisco R1(config-line)#access-class 99 in Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 48 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  51. 51. ACLs can be applied to the VTY lines (used for Telnet) to limit who can telnet in to the router, regardless of whether they know the password or not. First, ACL 99 was written, and the “host” option is used to permit only the IP address 110.1.1.1. The implicit deny will deny all other source addresses. Login has been allowed and a password of cisco has been set. The ACL is now applied to the VTY lines with the access-class command. Note that command – it’s different than the command used to apply an ACL to interfaces. Tip: I entered “login” first to show you the message you’ll get if you enter that command before setting the required Telnet password. As long as you set a password after enabling login, there’s no problem. There is no “right” or “wrong” order to use the login and password commands. Route Summarization Commands R1#conf t R1(config)#interface serial0 R1(config-if)#ip summary-address rip 110.1.0.0 255.252.0.0 R1#conf t R1(config)#interface serial0 R1(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 100 110.1.0.0 255.252.0.0 Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 49 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  52. 52. Route summarization is covered thoroughly in my Ultimate CCNA Study Guide. It’s the process of taking several network numbers and summarizing them into one single routing update statement. It must be done carefully. If you’re not familiar with the subject, please refer to Section Ten of my CCNA Study Guide, which contains several clearly illustrated examples. The command to send the summarization is a little odd. It does not go under the routing process configuration; it’s an interface-level command. Know how to perform this summarization before taking the CCNA exams, and be familiar with the syntax as well. NAT Static and dynamic NAT Pre-Configuration R1#conf t R1(config)#interface serial0 R1(config-if)#ip nat outside R1(config-if)#interface ethernet0 R1(config-if)#ip nat inside Whether you’re configuring static or dynamic NAT, you’ve got to define your inside and outside addresses. The inside NAT interface is the one closest to the devices using RFC 1918 addresses; usually, that’s going to be an Ethernet interface. The outside NAT interface is the one facing the Internet from the organization’s point of view; that’s going to be a Serial interface. Exam Tip: The addresses on the inside segment, represented by RFC 1918 addresses, are referred to as Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 50 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  53. 53. inside local addresses; the address on the outside interface is the inside global address. Static NAT configuration R1#conf t R1(config)#interface serial0 R1(config-if)#ip nat outside R1(config-if)#interface ethernet0 R1(config-if)#ip nat inside R1#conf t R1(config)#ip nat inside source static 10.5.5.5 210.1.1.2 R1(config)#ip nat inside source static 10.5.5.6 210.1.1.3 R1(config)#ip nat inside source static 10.5.5.7 210.1.1.4 Static mappings first name an inside local address, and map that address directly to a inside global address. No other addresses will use NAT (you often hear this referred to as an address or user being “natted out”). To view the mappings, run show ip nat translations . R3#show ip nat translations Pro Inside global Inside local --- 210.1.1.2 10.5.5.5 --- 210.1.1.3 10.5.5.6 --- 210.1.1.4 10.5.5.7 Outside local ------- Outside global ------- To view the active translations and number of static and dynamic mappings, run show ip nat statistics. R3#show ip nat statistics Total active translations: 3 (3 static, 0 dynamic; 0 extended) Outside interfaces: Serial0 Inside interfaces: Ethernet0 Hits: 0 Misses: 0 Expired translations: 0 Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 51 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  54. 54. Dynamic NAT Configuration R1#conf t R1(config)#interface serial0 R1(config-if)#ip nat outside R1(config-if)#interface ethernet0 R1(config-if)#ip nat inside R1#conf t R1(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool NATPOOL R1(config)#ip nat pool NATPOOL 200.1.1.2 200.1.1.5 netmask 255.255.255.0 R1(config)#access-list 1 permit 10.5.5.0 0.0.0.255 This looks like an intimidating configuration, but by taking it apart piece by piece, you will see it’s not really complicated. First, as with static NAT, the inside and outside addresses had to be defined. Next, the NAT inside addresses are defined by the ip nat inside source command. The next part of that command, “list 1”, refers to access-list 1. In this example, any inside host with an IP address in the 10.5.5.0 /24 network can use NAT. Finally, the pool of NAT addresses to be used is named – the pool NATPOOL. On the next line, the pool of NAT addresses is defined. The two addresses listed are the first and last addresses in the range to be used. Here, the valid NAT outside addresses are 200.1.1.2, 200.1.1.3, 200.1.1.4, and 200.1.1.5. The subnet mask for these addresses is defined with the netmask command. Exam Tip: Take care not to include the actual IP address of the NAT outside interface in the NAT pool. Make sure you know NAT inside and out before taking the CCNA exams. It’s an important concept for both the exam room and the real world, and judging from internet posts Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 52 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  55. 55. and my email, most CCNA books do a poor job of explaining NAT, if they explain it at all. I do have a free NAT tutorial on my website, www.thebryantadvantage.com, and NAT is covered in detail in my Ultimate CCNA Study Guide. PAT – Port Address Translation Configuration R3#conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R3(config)#interface ethernet0 R3(config-if)#ip nat inside R3(config-if)#interface serial0 R3(config-if)#ip nat outside R3(config-if)#ip nat inside source list 1 interface serial0 overload R3(config)#access-list 1 permit 10.5.5.0 0.0.0.255 PAT uses a single outside IP address to allow multiple NAT session. (PAT uses port numbers to keep the conversations separate.) The configuration for PAT is almost the same as it is for dynamic NAT; the difference is that a NAT pool is not created; instead, the outside interface is indicated and the “overload” keyword is added. Telnet Password Creation R1#conf t R1(config)#line vty 0 4 R1(config-line)#login R1(config-line)#password CCNA You add the login command and configure a password on the VTY lines to protect Telnet with a password. Tip: Telnet connections are required to be password protected. If a user attempts to connect to a router that does not have a VTY password set, the user will receive a message that says “password required, but none set”. Tip: Telnet allows five simultaneous connections, not four. (The lines are 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 – that’s five! Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 53 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  56. 56. Setting The Enable Password And Enable Secret R1#conf t R1(config)#enable password cisco R1(config)#enable secret ccna Both the enable password and enable secret protect privileged exec mode, more commonly referred to as enable mode. There are several keys to remember: • The enable secret is encrypted in the runningconfiguration by default, where the enable password is not. • If both are configured, the enable secret takes precedence over the enable password. • The enable password exists primarily for backwards compatibility. Creating An IP Host Table R2#conf t R2(config)#ip host R1 172.12.123.1 R2#R1 Trying R1 (172.12.123.1)... Open User Access Verification Username: CBRYANT Password: R1# IP Host tables allow you to Telnet to devices by using a name or word rather than typing the full IP address in. They’re created with the ip host command. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 54 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  57. 57. DNS Commands Ip name-server R1#configure terminal R1(config)#ip name-server 10.1.1.1 The ip name-server command tells the router where a DNS server can be found. By default, a Cisco router will perform a DNS lookup on anything that typed in at the console that is not an IOS command. This means that if you mistype a command, the router will attempt to find a DNS server to translate this mistyped entry: R2#abcdef Translating "abcdef"...domain server (255.255.255.255) % Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address This default behavior can be turned off with the no ip domain-lookup command. Once turned off, it can be reenabled with the ip domain-lookup command. It’s a good idea to turn this behavior off in a lab environment, but be careful about doing this at work ! R2#conf t R2(config)#no ip domain-lookup R2#abcdef Translating "abcdef" % Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address The router is no longer sending out a broadcast to find a DNS server. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 55 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  58. 58. Password Protecting The Console R1#configure terminal R1(config)#line con 0 R1(config-line)#login % Login disabled on line 0, until 'password' is set R1(config-line)#password cisco The first line of defense is password protecting your router console. To do so, configure “login” and the password on line con 0. Encrypting All Passwords In The Running-Config R1#show config ! enable secret 5 $1$F0NM$qmLAeyofJm/MxmeawGkEI1 enable password cisco Notice that the enable password is in clear text. The enable secret is always encrypted. R1(config)#service password-encryption R1#show config Using 1842 out of 32762 bytes ! enable secret 5 $1$F0NM$qmLAeyofJm/MxmeawGkEI1 enable password 7 070C285F4D06 To encrypt all passwords in the running configuration, run service password-encryption. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 56 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  59. 59. Cisco Discovery Protocol Cdp enable Cdp run No cdp enable No cdp run You need to have these four commands down cold. You must know how to enable and disable CDP at the interface level as well as globally. CDP is enable globally and on all interfaces by default. Interface-level commands: R1#conf t R1(config)#interface serial0 R1(config-if)#no cdp enable R1(config)#cdp enable Global commands: R1#conf t R1(config)#no cdp run R1(config)#cdp run Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 57 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!
  60. 60. Show commands: R1#show cdp neighbor Capability Codes: R - Router, T - Trans Bridge, B - Source Route Bridge S - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP, r - Repeater Device ID R3 Local Intrfce Ser 1 Holdtme Capability Platform Port ID 159 R 2500 Ser 1 R1#show cdp neighbor detail ------------------------Device ID: R3 Entry address(es): IP address: 172.12.13.2 Platform: cisco 2500, Capabilities: Router Interface: Serial1, Port ID (outgoing port): Serial1 Holdtime : 154 sec Version : Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software IOS (tm) 2500 Software (C2500-D-L), Version 12.2(13), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Copyright (c) 1986-2002 by cisco Systems, Inc. Compiled Tue 19-Nov-02 20:25 by pwade advertisement version: 2 Note that while both show the directly connected devices, only the “detail” command reveals the IP address of the directly connected device. Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933 © 2005 The Bryant Advantage 58 www.thebryantadvantage.com Free CCNA and CCNP tutorials!

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