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Paper presented in the Cogntive Science Workshop
Innovations in Information Technology
Al-Ain, UAE. December 17, 2008

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  1. 1. Examining visual attention of dyslexics on web navigation structures with eye tracking Areej Al-Wabil, Panayiotis Zaphiris, Stephanie Wilson Centre for Human-Computer Interaction Design City University London, UK
  2. 2. Human-Computer Interaction <ul><li>“ Human-Computer Interaction is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use with the study of major phenomena surrounding them ” Association for Computing Machinery </li></ul>Human /Behavioural Sciences Interactive Systems Psychology Social Sciences Cognitive Science
  3. 3. Eye tracking methodology Classification by Duchowski (2002). Eye tracking methodology: Theory and practice <ul><ul><li>Human Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ergonomics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dyslexia, ADHD, ADD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autism Spectrum Disorders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing and Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaze input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quadriplegics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaze-Contingent displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rendering virtual environments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue detection in vehicles </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. VISUAL ATTENTION <ul><li>Eye-Mind Hypothesis </li></ul>
  5. 5. Applications of Eye Tracking (1) <ul><li>Advertising and consumer behaviour </li></ul>How can visuals draw and drive attention? Image Source:
  6. 6. Applications of Eye Tracking (2) <ul><li>Advertising and consumer behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Product design, placement and packaging </li></ul>Source: Tannen (2007) Eye Tracking for Product Design
  7. 7. Applications of Eye Tracking (3) <ul><li>Advertising and consumer behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Product design, placement and packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Human performance: comparing novice/experts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flight simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Imaging </li></ul></ul>Source: Vision and Cognition Lab Drexel University
  8. 8. Eye Tracking & Web Interaction Attention deployment Target processing User response Video of eye gaze overlaid on a web site in a navigation session.
  9. 9. EXAMINING VISUAL ATTENTION OF DYSLEXICS ON THE WEB <ul><li>Study Context </li></ul>
  10. 10. Developmental Dyslexia <ul><li>C ognitive difficulty with written forms of language </li></ul><ul><li>N eurobiological in origin, persistent condition </li></ul><ul><li>I ndependent of intellectual, cultural, and emotional causation </li></ul><ul><li>H ighly individual condition, combination of difficulties and abilities that affect people to varying degrees of severity </li></ul>
  11. 11. Seeing through Dyslexics’ eyes <ul><li>It has been established that visual scan paths of dyslexics differ in reading and non-reading tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Dyslexic readers make longer fixations, more fixations, shorter saccades and more regressions than non-dyslexic readers </li></ul>
  12. 12. Visual processing difficulties Akiyoshi Kitaoka, Rotating Snakes (2003). This picture by Kitaoka appears to move due to the luminance contrast between the black, blue, white, and yellow.
  13. 13. Interface Design for Dyslexics <ul><li>Focused on interface design issues concerned with readability </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond readability, web navigation involves short-term memory , order perception skills, visual-spatial abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Design guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WCAG: W3C’s Web Content Accessibility Guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DYVI: Design guidelines for Dyslexic and Visually impaired users, Evett & Brown (2005) </li></ul></ul>SeeWord: Gregor et al. (2003) SpeakOut: Evans & Blenkhorn (2005)
  14. 14. DYSLEXIA AND WEB NAVIGATION <ul><li>Exploratory Experiment </li></ul>
  15. 15. Exploratory Experimental Design <ul><li>What is the effect of dyslexia-related deficits on web navigation? </li></ul><ul><li>Participants: Dyslexics and Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks: Navigation and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Stimuli: Accessible and inaccessible sites </li></ul><ul><li>Findings: dyslexics exhibited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer reaction times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More fixations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer fixations </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Viewing patterns: Strategic Visual Search Non-Dyslexic Controls Dyslexics Key finding: Dyslexic viewing patterns appear less strategic and more scattered than viewing patterns of controls.
  17. 17. Viewing patterns: Re-visiting regions Non-Dyslexic Controls Dyslexics Key finding: Controls exhibited more directed scans of navigation bars than dyslexics (exhibited more re-visits to areas of interest)
  18. 18. Examining Areas of Interest AOIs Non-Dyslexic Controls Dyslexics What is guiding eye movements? ..web page features, task, individual characteristics?
  19. 19. Closing Remarks <ul><li>This study </li></ul><ul><li>provided evidence of differences in web viewing behaviour of individuals with and without dyslexia in navigating multi-page sites </li></ul><ul><li>yielded insights about the nature of cognitive processing of people with dyslexia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer fixations  Difficulties in information processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More fixations  Difficulties in working memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulties in visual processing </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Examining visual attention of dyslexics on web navigation structures with eye tracking Thank you [email_address]