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162160659 satyam-shrey-shahityrr

  1. 1. National Institute of Fashion Technology, Gandhinagar Summer Internship Report at Shahi Exports Pvt. Ltd. Faridabad A summer Internship Report for Partial fulfilment of the Requirement for the award of Degree in Bachelor of Fashion Technology-Apparel Production BySatyam Singh Shrey Vij Department of Fashion Technology Batch 2008-2012
  2. 2. ACKNOWLDGEMENT We would like to thank Ms. Ameesha Mehta, Course Coordinator, UG-Technology, and our faculty mentor Mr. Pawan Godiawala, Department of Fashion Technology for their guidance and motivation throughout the duration of this internship. This work is not a sole endeavour but rather an integrated effort of many individuals directed towards the same goal. We feel very much proud at underlining the magnanimous qualities of Mr. Raman Bhutani, Assistant Production Manager, Shahi Exports, Faridabad for showing affection, enthusing zeal, germinating interest and inspiring hard work. We would like to extend my gratitude to Mr. Sunil Jasso, GM Production, Mr.Pardeep Singh, IE Manager, Mr. Ankur Joshi, Cutting Manager and all the employees of Shahi Exports for showing great concern & interest in our work and guided us throughout the internship. They have been a constant source of inspiration to us throughout the duration of the internship, constantly monitoring the work at close quarters and throwing light on minute technicalities. It would be appropriate to say that this work would not have seen the light of the day, but for their painstaking and unstinted cooperation. Satyam Singh Shrey Vij 2
  3. 3. SECTION- A Company Overview 3
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION SHAHI Exports Pvt. Ltd. is engaged in the manufacture and export of readymade garments in the International market. It is one of the largest export houses in India. The company started its operations in the form of a small fabrication unit with the help of 25 machines. The company has grown from leaps to bounds from a simple fabrication unit to present turnover of Rs. 2200 crore, around 55000 employees and spread over 27 locations. It has manufacturing units in six different states of India viz. Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The group is into manufacturing of a wide range of Men’s and Ladies wear and also home products. SHAHI group has all the modern units equipped with state-of-the-art technology giving the best to its buyers. Its manufacturing facilities includes Assembly line machines, Prima Vision system print/fabric development, Meyer fusing press, Barudan and Tajima, Multi head computerized embroidery machine, in house washing plant, automatic cutting machines (F.K. Systems). SHAHI has a well-equipped sampling division where latest patterns/designs/styles of high standards are developed with the assistance of experienced designers. It has a training center for tailors at Faridabad and Bangalore each to train and develop them into vital human resource for efficient operations. As regards to quality, SHAHI has been ranked one of the best in Asia by J.C.Penny, the worldrenowned departmental stores. 4
  5. 5. COMPANY PROFILE • Name: Shahi Exports Private Limited • Established: 1974 • Owner: Mrs. Sarla Ahuja • Managing Director: Mr. Harish Ahuja • Address: Industrial Plot-1, Sector 28 Faridabad, Haryana • Work Force: More than 30,000 • Capacity: Over 2 million high quality garments per month • Retail House: At Last & Co. , New York • Fabric Processing: Sarla Fabrics, Ghaziabad • Annual Turnover: INR 2200 crore (Group Turnover) COMPANY MISSION: Exploring new dimensions of excellence. A path, where there was none. A new horizon beyond yesterday. Excellence beyond today, touching tomorrow. It’s a world of relentless quest for quality. Its mindset, the action, and partners of Shahi are ever reaching further, never resting on achievements. Yes! Milestone never takes one there; it is the road that we create to reach excellence. Ever evolving excellence. Shahi believes that its main strength is its people. The larger investments made in the manufacturing units will give the desired results only if backed by a committed human effort. The result will directly give us a sense of pride for being a part of Shahi family. CORPORATE VALUES Guiding principles illuminate the path that leads to their destination. SHAHI emphasizes on some guiding principles, which are indicative of the values it believes in and would like to 5
  6. 6. continue in the organization. These are the building blocks of the organizational culture. The company believes in: • High level of honesty and a sense of responsibility. • Two-way communication channel for all purposes of communication. • In sharing the fruit of growth, prosperity with its partners i.e. the employees. • In giving each individual room to contribute and grow. The company firmly believes that team spirit is the hallmark of success. KEY STRENGTHS  Shahi Exports Private Limited (Shahi) is one of the largest vertically integrated garment manufacturer and exporter in India.  India’s second largest apparel exporter by value of exports.  Shahi is one of the most successful professionally managed companies in India.  India’s largest exporter by installed capacity.  Well qualified trained and committed professionals with a shared vision.  Highly qualified Design team, Product development skills and a Design Studio.  High degree of adoption of advanced manufacturing technology MIS and IT systems.  All factories and offices are electronically linked to facilitate all time access to information  Focus on quality and a proven track record : Short shipment: 0.50% On time delivery: 98% Quality claims: Nil. 6
  7. 7. PRODUCT PROFILE: The following are based and operated in NCR 1. LSD – Ladies Speciality Division 2. LBAD – Ladies branded Apparel Division 3. LFD – Ladies Fashion Division (basically caters to Wal-Mart) 4. HFD – Home Furnishing Division MAJOR BUYERS Tommy Hilfigher Armani Hugo Boss Liz Claiborn Abercrombie & Fitch (A & F)  J.C. Penny  Kohls      Gap Target Wal-mart Calvin Klein Espirit Hennes & Mauritz (H & M)  Nautica       7
  9. 9. Departments 115
  10. 10. MERCHANDISING DEPARTMENT A merchandiser is an interface between the buyer and the supplier who has to ensure the quality of production and timely delivery. Merchandising is a process through which products are planned, developed, executed and presented to the buyers. It includes directing and overseeing the development of product line from start to finish. ROLE OF THE DEPARTMENT • To look for the appropriate market • To get the samples made according to the buyer’s specification • To estimate and quote the cost of the garment to the buyer and negotiate with them • Getting orders • Constant interaction with the buyer for the approval • To get the fabric and trims in-house for bulk production • Co-ordinating with the PPC and production OBJECTIVE OF MERCHANDISER • To create market • Understanding buyers’ requirements • Sourcing of materials, fabrics • Select the range • Creating the product • Taking buyers approvals • Negotiation with buyer • Procuring the orders • Materializing the order • Execution the order 116
  11. 11. • Coordination between production and production planning department • Dispatching the shipment After shipment dispatching merchandiser is also responsible for buyer claims, profit and subsequent orders. If buyer has any problem in quality of the product then it is the responsibility of the merchandiser to resolve the problem with the buyer. (Fig 1.1) 117
  13. 13. PROCESS OF MERCHANDISING: • The first stage of merchandising is when buyer sends either spec, sketch or any garment pieces and asks for sample with costing or only costing using different fabrics. The specs sent by the buyer are also called Tech Packs. • The merchandiser gets the approval of all things like fabric, trims, label, costing etc. and either buyer gives the approval or gives the vendors’ name. -The allocation chart and FTP directory is received by the merchant from the buyer online. -The fabric CAD is also received from the buyer which has all the details of the pantone shade and the repeat size. -The prints are developed from their own mill, SFL (Sarla Fabric Limited) or are subcontracted. -A CD is developed which has the color picture of the fabric. This is sent to the fabric department for development. -Sample piece is developed. • Next, costing is done on the basis of the spec, sketch and garment which are sent by the buyer for making the sample. Merchandiser does the average costing/consumption of the garment. The quotation is sent to the buyer/buying house and the approval is awaited. One thing is to be noted that while giving the consumption, the cut-able width of the fabric to be received (either mill made-developed in India or imported fabric) has to be considered while costing. Also the marker utilization depends on the style, which may affect the consumption greatly. The fabric characteristic also matters vis-à-vis nap etc. • The merchandiser monitors the design from sampling to production and then final dispatch. They are a link between the buyer and the company. All correspondence that the buyer wants to do regarding his style will be done through the merchandiser. Merchandiser monitors the total sampling from development to the time the production sample is made 119
  14. 14. and goods go into actual production. • They also see that the fabric is developed on time and send it for approval to the buyer and subsequently if all samples are made on time, send them to the buyer for approval too. They are also in constant touch with production to know the status of their styles. Merchandising activities include: 1. To get order: Buyer directly communicates with the merchandiser in order to place the order. Fixed buyers are allotted to merchandisers and the communication is between the buyer an that particular merchant. 2. Costing: Costing of the garment in bulk is calculated on the basis of quality of material and their requirement in the garment. It is one of the most important activities of the merchandiser. To arrive at a perfect price to be quoted to the buyer, following points are taken into consideration: Costing is done considering these aspects of the cost. 120
  15. 15. FIXED COST 1. Factory Cost - It is the fixed cost incurred for running the factory. It is different for different floor. 2. Standard Sewing Cost  Direct Labour: Operators Salary  Indirect Material: Lubrication Oil, Needles , Cleaning Material  Indirect Labour: Staff & Maintenance Salary  Indirect Expenses: Power, Depreciation Of The Machinery  The standard sewing cost per operator per hour defined by Shahi for its Faridabad unit is Rs 62.83 VARIABLE COST 1. YY (Yields/yards) – It is average consumption of the fabric. It is decided by preparing a mini-marker which includes wastage of fabric due to laying, cutting, fabric defect, end cutting loss, marker loss and the buffer that is maintained to avoid shortage in future. 2. Trims Cost – They are procured from local market as well as imported as per buyer’s requirements.  Calculation of cost of fabric per garment  Calculation of cost of trims and threads  Cut-make cost  Poly bag cost  Cost of carton box  Calculation of consumption of fabric (yields per yard) and threads to produce one garment 121
  16. 16. 3. Sampling: Merchandiser is involved in coordinating with the sampling department. Based on the mutual agreement between the merchant and the buyer, sampling department is involved in making samples. In every step of samples, buyer sends back comments along with the tech pack. 4. Order confirmation: After the approval of all the samples, the order is confirmed by the buyer. Merchandiser receives the PO sheet. Merchandising department communicates with planning and production departments and decides for the possible PCD (production cut date) for the required quantity. Then he fixes up the PCD and delivery date with the buyer. 5. Preparing the time and action plan: This is prepared by the merchant stating that all the different activities associated with the order should be complete by the stipulated dates. It is like making sub goals to accomplish the ultimate goal which is shipping of the order on the pre- decided date. 6. Preparing the bill of material: This enlists all the different materials required for making the garment. 7. Execution: Merchandising department communicates with the buyer QA during the production. He gets the approval of the quality or any changes in the garment. 8. Shipment of goods: According to delivery date the goods are shipped on time. Documentation department is informed about the delivery date, the quantity etc. In case of any delay, goods are sent through air on the company’s cost. For each order, the merchant has to prepare a file containing all the details and relevant documents which is passed on to the subsequent stages in the production process for reference purposes. 122
  17. 17. DOCUMENTATION IN MERCHANDISING File prepared by merchant has following details:  Style Specification: contains a brief description of the style.  Style # : as mentioned by the buyer  Movex item # : Item number of the style by Movex  Buyer: Name of the buyer  PCD: Production cut date for the style  Merchant: Name of the merchant handling the style The file contains the following:  Purchase order for the style  Garment techpack  Relevant communication with the buyer regarding proto, fit and pre production samples. All the comments from the buyer for various samples are included.  Thread consumption report  Fabric Test Report  Fabric and trim cards: Contains swatches of the fabric and trims to be used  Mini marker with costing average FOLDER SUMMARY It consists of the general details like brand name, buyer’s name, size range and the drawing of the garment. 1. Color / Trim Page: It consists of the details like description, size of the trims like button size, material of which it is made of, no. of holes that it should have. 123
  18. 18. 2. Fabric Page: It consists of the details of the fabric like the count of the yarn, construction (EPI, PPI) and color specifications. It also states the value addition finishes and embellishments. 3. Packing And Labeling Details: It consists of the details like type of packing, hanger type, polybag type, clips type of labeling. 4. Label Placement: It describes with figures where the label, hang tag, spare button is to be attached. 5. Correct Balance : Basic and important tips for correct fit 6. How to Measure: It shows how to measure the important dimensions of the garment. 7. Technical Sketch: It is a 2-D representation of the garment showing all the stitch lines, panes, trims etc. symbolically. 8. Development Photos: It consists of the photos of the garment. 9. Specification Sheet: It consists of all the dimensions with tolerances and increments for bigger sizes. 10. Bill Passing Reports: This is the report used in fabric receiving. It states details like type, quantity, receipt no, item details, amount. It also has goods receipt note attached. It contains fabric code, width, color, quantity, rate, value etc. 11. Feedback: The feedback comes in the form of comments and photographs of the garment on the dummy with its errors highlighted like puckering and pinching. 12. Costing Sheet: Contains details like cost of fabric, trims, washing, embroidery, sampling, testing, freight, duty, insurance etc. 13. Style Track Sheet: It is used to track the status of the order. It consists of details like style no., merchant’s name, floor on which it is allocated, name of the floor manager. 124
  19. 19. 14. Initial Marker Planning Sheet: It consists of fabric width, total pieces, pieces placed, efficiency and length. 15. Approval Form : Approvals can be for fabric, trims, slight errors which are acceptable to the buyer Workflow of the Merchandising Department Fig(1.3) Buyer’s enquiry / Tech-pack Costing Style finalization Purchase Order received Fit approval process 1st fit Fabric/Material approval 2nd fit Fabric/Material order Pre production sample Fabric/Material follow-up Size set Fabric/Material in-house Production Follow-up Regular tracking and updating buyer Order shipping 125
  20. 20. SAMPLING DEPARTMENT Sampling department is the most vital department of the organization. It is the department that develops the samples thus enabling the Product Development. This department prepares samples on the basis of the requirements of the buyer. The sampling department here caters to the need of all the other units of Shahi as it was centralized. Sampling was self sufficient as it had its own stitching. washing, trimming, spotting, and ironing etc dedicated for the construction of samples only. The fabric and trims are sourced from the in house warehouse depending upon the availability. The fabric which is sourced for the sampling purpose is called yardage and is 25-30mts in length. SAMPLING PROCESS: The process of sampling goes through a series of sampling stages each of them are explained below: 1. PROTO SAMPLE: It is the reflection of the first techpack received from the buyer. The sample is sent to the buyer for the design approval. Proto sample is made in the base size. Styling is important. The comments and second tech pack is sent back referring changes in the sample. 2. FIT SAMPLE: The comments are received regarding the shape, size and fullness. The sample is checked for fit on body forms. It is made in exact fabric, though print maybe different, since the drape and fit are to be checked. 3. SECOND FIT SAMPLE: It is similar to the first fit sample made with a few changes according to comments received from the buyer. Again a third or fourth fit sample may be required to be made. After approval of fit sample, order is confirmed along with all the specifications. 126
  21. 21. 4. PRE-PRODUCTION/SEALER SAMPLE: This sample is known as the bible of production. It is done for the base size of any one color and actual fabric and actual trims are used. 5. SIZE-SET SAMPLE: The sample is made in actual fabric and trims in all sizes and is sent to the buyer for approval. 6. GPT SAMPLE: These samples are made for garment testing for seam-slippage, tearing strength, button pulling etc. it is the garment pack sample. 7. TOP (TOP OF PRODUCTION) SAMPLE: It is the best sample from first of bulk production. 8. SALESMAN SAMPLE: It is made for the buyer to find out the opinion of the store owners whether the style would sell in the market or not, and the demand of that product. WORKFLOW OF THE SAMPLING DEPARTMENT Fig(1.4) Merchandiser orders for fabric Requisition Patterns are made as per the PO Raw material is issued on PO Cutting Embroidery (if any) Sewing Bar-tacking, B/H Washing 127 B/A, Riveting Alteration (if any) Thread Trimming
  22. 22. Measurement Checking Ironing Initial Checking Spotting Final Checking (according to PO) Packing MACHINERY DETAILS The sampling department has 9 lines with different machines. For details refer (Appendix 1.1 and Appendix 1.2) 128
  23. 23. Erudition:  The average FOB is $8-$10 .  The most complex stage is getting the approval from the buyer on fabric, shades, print and fit.  Since the lead time is less, therefore any delay at any stage can delay the entire order.  The operators in the sampling department are very experienced and highly skilled. They are explained the construction of any new sample by the pattern master and the supervisor.  IT plays a crucial role in the merchandising department. All information regarding the order status are fed into the ERP. This facilitates smooth flow in the department. 129
  24. 24. ORDER ANALYSIS DEPARTMENT The Order Analysis Department (OAD) acts as the bridge between the merchandising and the production functions of the unit. This department gives technical support to the production team. They do a complete analysis of the style from all possible perspectives. A research or analysis plays an important role before manufacturing any product. The role of this department starts when the all the fit and sealer samples for the style have been approved and the order is ready for bulk production. OAD receives two complete files containing all the details and documents from the concerned merchant. Once the files are received by the department, they are checked for the following details:  Purchase Order (PO) – contains order quantity, colour and size ratio, destination, delivery date etc  Product Style Details (PSD) – contains details about the fabric (count, construction, colour), thread, labels, accessories, buttons, fusing etc.  Final mini marker (for interlinings as well if applicable)  Tech Pack (updated) – containing garment measurements with all the fit comments by the buyer.  Sealed sample (buyer approved)  Embroidery design – with the placement and type of thread to be used  Swatches of fabric, fusing, threads etc  Operational breakdown of the style  Thread consumption report 130
  25. 25.  Base patterns  Washing, ironing and packing instructions The department checks if all the documents are present in the files and are complete. Once this is established, one file is sent to the Industrial Engineering Department and the other is kept in OAD and worked upon. FUNCTIONS The following functions are carried out by the Order Analysis Department:  All the base patterns and the sealer sample are checked and the measurements are matched with the specifications given by the buyer. It is also checked whether all the latest comments related to the fit of the garment have been incorporated and the necessary alterations are made to the patterns with the involvement of the merchant.  Size set patterns are developed according to the final corrected patterns. Size set samples (two per size) are checked by OAD for measurements and construction.  OAD analyzes the fabric and what it demands while being used in manufacturing. The impact of dyeing, processing and finishing on the fabric is considered, its shrinkage along warp and weft is determined. Also it is determined if any special test should be done on the fabric.  Complete analysis of the trims is carried out. Their compatibility with each other and more importantly with the fabric is checked through tests.  A thorough study of seams and stitches of the sample is done. This helps in maintaining the quality of the garment and in reduction of unwanted operations.  OAD determines the spreading and cutting details like mode of spreading, grain on which patterns are to be cut etc  All the stitching details like the different stitches and seams to be used, SPI to be used are determined. 131
  26. 26.  Based on the size set development, all the critical quality points and instructions to the operator and checkers are determined. Style Analysis Report OAD prepares a report called the Style Analysis Report based on the studies carried out by them. This is a 3-4 page report containing all the details which would be required by the subsequent departments in a concise form so that they can be retrieved quickly and easily by anyone. This report consists of details about the fabric, trims, spreading and cutting instructions, construction details such as stitches and seams along with all seam diagrams, washing, ironing and packing instructions and critical instructions to the sewing operators and quality checkers. (Sample report attached in the appendix (Report 1) 132
  27. 27. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN DEPARTMENT This department is centralized for all the NCR units of Shahi. Based on the nature of work, this department is divided into four sections: SECTIONS  Embroidery section: It makes the punch cards according to the design of embroidery. This punch card is fed into a floppy which is inserted into the embroidery machine for it to understand the design. In the remaining three sections, the software being used is OPTITEX  Pattern making section: Making the patterns using specification sheets and then checking their fit on virtual dummies.  Grading section: Generally medium size patterns are developed and they are graded up to the required number of sizes up and down.  Marker making section: Markers are made keeping in mind the following factors: • Mode of spreading • Width of the fabric available • Matching if required • Shrinkage along warp and weft • Size ratio required The marker made is first taken out on the printer (miniature version markers). The full size markers are printed through on the plotter. The computer aided design department is also responsible for making mini for merchandiser for estimating the costing average. 133
  28. 28. The usual marker efficiency achieved is 75%-85% Machinery details  Number of computer systems = 12  One digitizing screen for transferring manually made patterns into the system  One digital printing machine for printing prints on fabric for sampling purposes Workforce  20 pattern masters  4 graders  2 digitizers  10 marker makers  6 staff members 134
  29. 29. WORK PROCESS FLOW OF CAD (Fig: 1.5) Receive spec sheets from merchant Make pattern Digitize pattern Pattern correction Output to graphic plotter Pattern grading Patterns sent to merchant for sampling Cut ratio planning Marker planning according to the cut ratio plan Output marker to plotter Send to cutting dept. for cutting Output mini marker to printer Send to merchandiser for costing 135
  30. 30. PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL DEPARTMENT This department has two parts: production planning and production control. PRODUCTION PLANNING The production planning department at Shahi Exports, Faridabad is a centralized planning department for all the units in the NCR. So, primarily the planning of the following six units takes place here:  Faridabad  Faridabad 2  Sarai  Okhla  A-5  E-10 The number of lines and number of machines per line in each of the six units are as follows: (Table 1.1) Unit Number of lines Machines/Line 21 40 Faridabad 2 (LFD) 22 40 Sarai 9 33 Okhla 12 40 A-5 8 45 Faridabad LSD& HFD (all H&M and Target orders executed here only) 136
  31. 31. The planning is done for all the lines of all the above units. While planning, they consider a planned efficiency slab for the purpose of estimating output. This efficiency slab is based on the order quantity and is as follows: Style wise order quantity Efficiency to be considered: (Table 1.2) Style wise order quantity Efficiency to be considered 1500-3000 30% 3001-10000 40% 10001-20000 51% 20001-30000 58% 30001-50000 63% More than 50000 65% Based on this, they book the capacity for fulfilling the upcoming orders on time. The roles and responsibilities of the production planning people include:  Analyzing the available capacity and communicating to the merchandiser whether it will be possible to complete a particular order on the delivery date quoted by the buyer.  To ensure that the lines are continuously fed and in case of sliding of orders, the orders must be reshuffled so that the lines are never idle. In short, they are responsible for optimum utilization of the available capacity. PRODUCTION CONTROL 137
  32. 32. For the purpose of production control, there are five teams in this department segregated buyer wise. These people are responsible for the execution of order in the unit. The roles and responsibilities of production control people are:  To supervise smooth execution of the order in the unit.  Organizing a pre-production meeting prior to production to discuss critical issues.  Complete fabric follow up with merchant and the fabric store.  Complete accessory follow up with merchant and sub store.  Supervising the entire production process to ensure timely execution of the order. WORKING OF PPC-  A style sheet is received which has a style no., pictures, order quantity, and ex factory. This is received by the product development department.  Next, unit is allocated i.e. it is determined in which factory unit, the particular style is going to be made on basis of the order quantity. Also, the ex factory dates are decided.  A final chart is prepared and the PD team then divides the order quantity to the production team.  A style number is decided upon. This number is used by the merchant to communicate with buyer.  Production team specifies the item number and then the production structure is developed. Final sample received from the buyer and PDS is updated.  Next, production team and the merchandiser prepares details about the item. i.e. trims, thread etc.  Through movex, any item can be checked by the other department but cannot be altered.  Industrial engineering specifies the costing through the run through time. Thus the total cost is achieved.  After the cost sheet is signed, ordering is done. 138
  33. 33. The PCD (Planned Cut Date) is decided and 40% of all the materials should be enclosed by this date. If the order quantity is less than 5000 pcs, the 100% of the materials should be enclosed. 7- 10 days before the planned cut date, 2 samples and 2 files are received sealed from the buyer. Production File (It has details about the marker, tech pack, color of thread, trims, hanger, specification sheets etc.) is given to the OAD (Order analysis department). The OAD checks the patterns and other techniques. If it is approved, the garment is sealed and sent to the I.E.D. DOCUMENTS MAINTAINED Daily production reports  Production File  Internal Movex reports  Conversion costs for units  Planned vs. HO reports  Production Variance Reports (PVR) Erudition:  Proper feeding in the lines must be done  Follow up of the processes is very important  Regular flow of materials in a line must be maintained  No line must stay idle  Urgent orders can be given priority over others  All the raw material must arrive on time to meet the delivery dates FABRIC SOURCING DEPARTMENT Sourcing of the fabric is the responsibility of this department. They source fabric for sampling as well, except for Target and Walmart which have a separate sampling sourcing division. Unlike in other industries, this department is segregated according to the areas from which the fabric is purchased rather than being segregated buyer wise. 139
  34. 34. DIVISIONS  CENTRAL SOURCING DIVISION: It is responsible for sourcing of greige fabric like cambric, voile, poplin etc.  PROCESSING DIVISION: It is responsible for getting the greige fabric processed. It works in coordination with the central sourcing division.  SALEM DIVISION: It is responsible for sourcing of yarn dyed fabrics. The checking of yarn dyed fabrics is done at Salem only by an office of Shahi set up there before it is dispatched.  IMPORTS AND MILL MADE DIVISION: It is responsible for sourcing of imported and mill made fabric (from Surat). Only finished fabric is imported. 90% of the fabric imported is from China and 5% each from Korea and Pakistan. About 20-25% of the total fabric is imported and for 60-70% of outhouse production, imported fabric is used. Outhouse production facilities are available at Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Fabrics that are imported include:  Stretch fabrics  Linen and its blends  Silk and its blends  Bottom weight fabrics  Cotton, poly-spandex  Fine quality polyester etc. Shahi has its own fabric dyeing and processing unit in Ghaziabad by the name of Sarla Fabric Limited (earlier known by the name of Palm Prints). It is a vertically integrated unit with facilities of weaving, dyeing, printing and finishing. Approximately 40000 meter fabric is procured from here. However there are certain constraints:  Limited capacity.  Limitation on the colors and prints that Sarla Fabrics can do. 140
  35. 35.  Fabrics like georgette etc. cannot be processed here as they do not have jet dyeing machines. Sometimes, greige fabric is purchased and then it is processed at Sarla Fabrics. Shahi is renowned for making all shipments on time. One of the significant reasons for this is that it has its own fabric unit where it can prioritize its work according to the need. Most of the exporters face this problem of receiving the fabric late and hence facing delayed shipments. (Fig 1.6) SARLA FABRICS LIMITED OTHERS Other sources  Automatic and power looms • Salem • Coimbatore • Erode  Mill made fabric • Vardhman • Arvind • Nahar 141
  36. 36. • Shyam Tex • Ashima SUPPLIERS The main markets for fabric supply for Shahi are Delhi, Panipat, Amritsar, Salem, Mumbai. Some of the fabric suppliers of Shahi ( for both sampling & Production) are:  Muthu Corp, Erode  Picanova fabrics pvt ltd, Mumbai  New Diamond Woollen mills, Amritsar  Mafatlal Industries Ltd, Nadia  Ramkumar Mills Pvt Ltd, Bangalore  Netflex India Pvt Ltd, Mumbai  Priyanka Fabrics, Salem  Bhuvana Fabrics, Erode  Vincord Textiles, Delhi  Vijai Fabric Connection, Erode  L.K Woollen & Silk Mills, Amritsar  A.P Khanna & Sons Pvt Ltd, New Delhi  Himgiri Textiles, Faridabad  Rajindra Handloom Pvt Ltd, Panipat  Shiv Shakti Furnishing Pvt Ltd  KCS Fabrics Pvt Ltd (handloom, jacquard upholstery & curtains)  Maurya’s, Delhi  Parkash textile Mills, New Delhi  Charu Enterprises, New Delhi  R.G Jindal & sons pvt Ltd. The thread suppliers are:  Coats 142
  37. 37.  Vardhaman  Pashupati  Oswal Shahi has an in-house testing lab for measuring GSM, color fastness, rubbing fastness, Dimensional Stability, stretchability and testing others properties of fabrics For labdips, strikeoffs and other approvals, fabrics are sent to testing laboratories like:  MTL  ITS-International Testing service PROCESS FLOW FOR ORDERING OF FABRIC (Fig 1.7) Development - Buyer specifies fabric quality and specifications - Requirements of designers Quality selected Approval of quality (count, construction, look, hand feel) through lab dips, strike offs and desk looms Before placing an order, the sourcing department analyses all the vendors and selects the best one. Fabric ordered All the fabric purchases need an approval from the Managing Director before placing of the order. (Fig 1.8) 143
  38. 38. Take quotation and delivery from all vendors Check past records for quality of vendors in case of similar prices being offered Price negotiations with selected vendor Approval from MD LEAD TIMES Order placed Based on the lead times for procurement of fabrics, it is decided whether it is feasible to complete the order on time or not. (Fig 1.9) Merchant places order to fabric sourcing Production cut date (PCD) asked According to PCD (on PCD, 40% fabric should be in house) and lead times, feasibility is decided  Greige fabric: If it is of regular quality like 60’s cambric or voile, it can directly be picked from the market otherwise the average lead time in India is 40-45 days.  Processing of fabric: It takes around 10-20 days. So after purchase of greige fabric and its processing, fabric is in house after about 50 days.  Yarn dyed fabrics: Yarn dyed fabrics have a lead time of about 30-40 days.  Mill made fabrics: Lead times are from 35-60 days. 144
  39. 39.  Imported fabrics: If greige fabric is available then it takes 10-15 days (for processing) + 20 days (for clearances shipping etc.) and if greige fabric is unavailable, it takes 30-35 days + 20 days. PURCHASE & LOGISTICS DEPARTMENT The Purchase & Logistics Department is responsible for the sourcing of all the accessories required by the company. This ranges from trims that go into the making of a garment to items required for the general functioning of the unit. Divisions  Purchase: responsible for sourcing of the following accessories from domestic markets: – Cartons – Carton tapes – Stationary – Chemicals – Fusing – Elastics – Thread – Labels (domestic) – Other daily requirement items  Logistics: responsible for the sourcing of the following: 145
  40. 40. – Buttons (both domestic and imported) – Laces – Tapes – Sequins, beads etc from local markets – Polybags – All imported trims (hangers, labels, zippers etc) WORKFLOW OF THE PURCHASE AND LOGISTICS DEPARTMENT: (Fig 1.10) 146
  41. 41. Requirements sent by merchandiser Requisition sent by the system Items counter sourced, options submitted with prices Items are approved by the merchandiser or by the buyer Once the order is confirmed, options are chosen buyer Sourcing buyer Quality, price and lead time play an important role in sourcing PROCESS : buyer  All the requirements related to production department are taken into consideration. These requirements are forwarded to the Purchase & Logistics department through MOVEX. With the help of MOVEX it comes to know the requirements of the production department and the order is placed accordingly.  The codes are generated against each order in MOVEX and according to these codes requirements are generated.  Purchase & Logistics department checks the quantity of accessories in its previous record to see if there is any balance. It then orders the remaining quantity.  The items are received by the Accessories Store. The discounts received on the purchase are  Cash discounts  Bulk discounts 147
  42. 42. NON FABRIC STORE  Accessory Store of Shahi is centralized, for all fabrication units.  They have their main accessory store at the Faridabad Unit, from where accessories are issued to all other units (substores).  Purchasing of Accessories is also centralized.  The accessory store is sometimes referred as Non-Fabric Store because it does not only store accessories, but also various requirements like stationary, machines, spare parts, grains, sugar, etc. Basic procedure for receipt of goods at the accessories store is as follows: (Fig 1.11) Marketing prepares BOM (Bill of Materials) when order is finalized The entries are fed in Movex These entries are reflected in purchase Sourcing is done on the basis of costing given by marketing According to the delivery date material is sought (Average lead time is 45 day before PCD i.e. planned cut date) Accessories are received at central accessory store. Likewise, when need of other items arises, it is communicated to the purchase department which PCT places the order and the goods are then received at the non fabric store. The central accessories store (non fabric store) has direct contact only with the sampling department otherwise individual departments contact the sub-stores only and are not allowed any direct contact with the central store. 148
  43. 43. Any of the accessories which fails to pass the quality checking is returned to the supplier. Also in case excess trims are accessories are left over after their requirement is fulfilled, they are disposed to suppliers or are sold at discounted prices. Supplier invoice received with the goods (bill +PO) Random checking (visual) at gate by physical receiver and security Checking of trims by quality checkers (Checked according to specification. Min 5% checked, 10%, 15%......100%) System entry done in movex Observations of quality checking maintained in material receipt cum inspection report Accessories stored in particular bin (location so that they are easy to track) PROCESS FLOW OF AT THE NON FABRIC STORE (Fig 1.12) Requirement of material arises PCT Challan issued PCT Material issued to substore 149
  44. 44. PCT TESTING LABORATORY DEPARTMENT Shahi has an in house testing laboratory where the following equipments are available for the testing to be carried out: 150
  45. 45. Paramount Digi strength Purpose: Finding the tensile strength of fabric. Also it is used for testing seam strength and seam slippage. Suitable for: Wovens only (Minimum sample size = 6” X 4”) Capacity: 250 kg UBIQUE Bursting strength tester Purpose: Finding the tensile strength of fabric Suitable for: Knits only Capacity: 250 kg FB push-pull scale Purpose: It is a pull strength tester for determining the pulling strength of trims attached to the garment Suitable for: Trims like buttons, hooks, loops, snaps etc. Different types of grippers are available for different purposes. For example: The buttons must be able to withstand the recommended strength of pull for about 10 seconds which is 15 pounds for garments meant for adults and 17 pounds for kids wear. Paramount tearing strength tester (as per ASTM D1424) Purpose: It is used for determining the strength a fabric can withstand before tearing after an initial cut has been introduced Paramount Crockmeter Purpose: It is used for determining the rubbing fastness of fabric. Process: Bleached white fabric is mounted on the machine which is rubbed against the 151
  46. 46. darkest area of fabric for about ten cycles and the staining on the white fabric is measure with the help of grayscale. Digital Balance Purpose: It is used to measure small amount of weights with precision for eg: yarn count, gsm etc. It has a sensitivity of 0.0001g. GSM sample cutter – Paramount Purpose: It is used to cut a fabric sample with a fixed diameter i.e. 11.56 cm which is used for measuring the gsm of the fabric. The sample cut (represents 0.01 metre square) is weighed on the digital balance and the reading observed is multiplied by 100 to get the gsm of the fabric. Projection balance Purpose: It is for finding the fibre content of the fabric. Different fibers have a particular structure by which they can be identified. PHAN pH meter Purpose: It is used to find the pH of the fabric. Acceptable range of pH is 5-8. However the acceptable range varies from buyer to buyer. Process: 250 ml of water is boiled and 10 g sample is put in it. Boiling is further continued for 10 minutes. The water is cooled to room temperature and sample is removed. pH meter is dipped in this water and pH button is pressed. It then displays the pH. Wet processing is redone in case pH is not within the prescribed range. Hotplate Purpose: It is for heating purposes. IFB front loading washing machine 152
  47. 47. Purpose: It is for determining the response to washing for garments or fabrics. It helps in testing the dimensional stability (shrinkage, extension). Process: Washing cycles are introduced for garments for 45 minutes as per wash care instructions and after that the sample is viewed for physical changes of color, size and appearance. Multifiber cloth is attached to determine color fastness. Paramount Launderometer Purpose: It is used for washcare development. It is a stronger machine and is five times more effective as compared to the IFB washing machine which is milder. Paramount Digilight Purpose: It is used for testing the light fastness property of the fabric/garment. Hot air oven Purpose: It is used for drying or calculating moisture regain etc Lexus steam line steam iron Purpose: It is used for pressing the fabrics swatches when calculating shrinkage. A TRF form is to be filled and the sample is to be sent for testing to the lab. Fiber content, GSM, Color fastness etc can be teated in-house only. 153
  48. 48. FABRIC STORE AND INSPECTION DEPARTMENT  Fabric store at Shahi, Faridabad is a centralized store for all units in the NCR.  When the fabric is sourced and brought to the company, they are stored in the factory’s fabric storage area and it is the responsibility of fabric stores department.  From here, the fabric is taken for inspection and then stored in specific locations from where it is issued for cutting.  The fabric is stored lot-wise.  Rolls of fabric that are of similar shade are kept together.  After the fabric sourcing department places order for fabric, the production fabric is received by the fabric stores.  When the goods come in, supplier invoice is received. It has the following details: 1. PO number 2. Number of rolls, color, length, width 3. Dispatch quantity  The goods are then offloaded and stored in receiving location.  The fabrics are then sent for inspection after which they are stored in separate racks according to whether the fabric is accepted or rejected.  The rejected fabric is returned back to the supplier.  The accepted fabric is also stored in specific locations.  They are allotted a bin number and are stored accordingly so that they can be easily located whenever required.  Also a bin card is maintained which has details of the fabric received, where it has been issued, how much is issued and how much is left with the store.  After receiving, the fabric inspection is carried out. The fabric is checked 100% barring the following situations in case of which it is checked only 10%: 154
  49. 49. 1. If it is from some buyer nominated vendor. 2. If it is imported. 3. If it is from SFL. In this case, only 10% of fabric is checked because the fabric is checked at Sarla Fabrics before it is dispatched. DOCUMENTATION DONE DURING RECEIVING  ICR – Incoming Receiving  GRN – Goods Reeceiving Number  Bin no. – Place of storage like racks  Bin Card – It tells us about the detail of the fabric received, to whom which has been issued, how much is issued and how much is left with the store. Once the fabric is received, the quality department inspect the fabric for defects. The fabric is checked 100% barring the following situations in case of which it is checked only 10%. 1. If it is from some buyer nominated vendor. 2. If it is imported. 3. If it comes from SFL. (The fabric procured from SFL is checked 100% before it is dispatched. On reaching Shahi, only 10% of it is checked.) Erudition: • Fabric Inspection is very crucial. • Proper Lot separation must be done. 155
  50. 50. • Center to selvedge is a major constraint for cutting. • The operators who do shade sorting undergo a hue eye-test. Fabric in-house in store Start Uploaded in system by floor incharge WORKFLOW OF THE DEPARTMENT(Fig 1.13) FABRIC STORE AND INSPECTION Goods Received Note provided by store incharge Physical and technical counter check by goods received note Test by lab Rejected Accepted Report to DMM/Fabric sourcing department Yes If acceptable Is fabric imported/ mill made? No Report to fabric store Yes No 100% lotting 100% lotting 10% random audit of each lot 100% audit of each lots Report consolidation Report to fabric store Report to DMM Uploaded in system Report accepted? Yes Uploaded in system Ready to cut No Return fabric to party 156 End
  51. 51. FABRIC INSPECTION For the purpose of inspection of fabric, four point system is followed which allots different points for different lengths of defects. The defects are marked by different stickers as shown in the following table: Table 1.3 Points Defect Sticker 1 0 to 3” Green 2 3 to 6” Yellow 3 6 to 9” Blue 4 9” to above (Full Width) Arrow sticker Total points per 100 square yard are calculated. Different types of fabrics have different passing points. They are as follows: 1 Grey fabric – 20 points/100 m 2 Powerloom fabric – 44 points/100 m 3 Imported/millmade fabric – 25 points/100 m MACHINERIES: The inspection is carried out manually as well as by machines. They have the following machines for inspection: • 12 tables to check the fabric manually with the provision of 4 tube-lights horizontal to the table • 2 automatic machines (RAMSONS) which had a provision of light at the base of surface and on the top. 157
  52. 52. WORKFORCE  13 checkers  13 assistants  13 helpers • 4 staff member COMMON FABRIC DEFECTS WHICH OCCURRED IN THE FABRICS: Centre selvedge  Length wise color variation  Haziness  Patchiness  Stains  Color fly  Crease marks  Fold marks • Weaving defects o Double pick o Double end o Broken end o Missing end o Slubs o Thin place o Thick place o Neps  Chalk marks  Holes 158
  53. 53. Patta  Fabric Audit Procedure Non denim 1. Receive the fabric from fabric store. 2. Compare the fabric with original/buyer approved swatch for design, shade etc. 3. Audit 10% Fabric in case of imported/millmade fabrics and 100% otherwise. 4. 4 points system is followed for marking of defects, which is as follows: 5. Colored stickers are used for defects of different points: 6. Mention the face & back of audited fabric with stickers on one swatch which is to be attached to be given to cutting. 7. Prepare the shade band of printed & solid fabric. 8. Swatches of shade wise lots of every fabric that is being audited is shown to concerned authorities. 9. If both fabric audit & lab audit reports are ok fabric will be issued to cutting. Denim 1. 50 X 50 cm. Swatches are received by Q.A.D. through fabric store. 2. Marking is done by fabric store person with the help of templates. 3. After this marking, 10% to 15% swatches are cross checked for correct marking. 4. These swatches are sent for over locking & after that to washing dept. 5. On receiving swatches (which had been cross-checked for correct marking) is done with the help of shrinkage scale. 6. After this, ironing shrinkage is also considered for the above mentioned swatches. 7. Acceptable shrinkage value are from 0/0 to –3/-3% (warp/weft) 8. No positive shrinkage value is acceptable in both warp/weft. 9. Swatches, which do not have shrinkage value between 0/0 to –3/-3 is sent for re-washing. 159
  54. 54. 10. Re-washed swatches are again marked & rest of procedure as mentioned above is followed. 11. Finally those swatches which do not have shrinkage between 0/0 to –3/-3 even after rewashing are rejected & reports carrying these roll numbers (rejected swatches) are forwarded to concerned authorities. FABRIC QUALITY CONTROL INSPECTION REPORT • It is the inspection report of the fabric when it is received in Shahi. • It consists of supplier name, fabric code, meterage received, meterage inspected, construction etc. it has the following details: 1) Bale no. 2) Meterage in stickers. 3) Actual meterage 4) Actual width (min, max) 5) E.P.I 6) P.P.I 7) Penalty points in Weaving faults 8) Penalty points in dyeing and printing faults 9) Penalty points in weft bars/ shade defects 10) Penalty points in stubs/stains/holes. With this information it is decided whether the fabric it to be accepted or rejected, or if some compensation is to be taken. 160
  55. 55. FABRIC AUDIT SOP • Received fabric from store with p.o no and grn no. • Cut 1 meter fabric from each lot/color for lab testing. • Cut 6” pieces across the width and fabric shading checked side to side and end to end. • Fabric checked as per 4 point system basis: • Points system: 0” to 3” ------------------- 1 point – green sticker  3” to 6” ------------------- 2 point – yellow sticker  6” to 9” ------------------- 3 point – blue sticker  9” to above ---------- 4 point – arrow sticker any hole -------------- 4 point – arrow sticker • Pass point per 100 meter:For greige fabric --------------------------- 20 point For power loom fabric ----------------- 44 point For mill made fabric --------------------- 25 point • Make the audit report and issue to cutting if audit and lab report are pass • Keep fabric swatches for reference. • Lot no. 100 shows rejection and red sticker put on reject fabric. 161
  56. 56. • White sticker put on pass fabric and item no, roll qty, • Width, lot/shade no, roll no are marked on each sticker. CUTTING DEPARTMENT • The cutting department at SHAHI , Faridabad is a centralized cutting department for all the units in the NCR. • Automating spreading and cutting facilities are available here. • After the confirmation of the order, merchant send two reference files containing all details of the order to the order analysis department. • The OAD department, after studying the styles and making the style analysis report, hands over one file to IED and other to cutting for production. • The Cutting floor of SHAHI Exports is one of the largest in India. • The Cutting floor is in the lower basement and includes the following departments: • The Fabric Store • Central Accessory Store • The Spreading & Cutting Area • The Fusing Area • The Bundling and Ticketing Area • The Computer Embroidery Department • Thread Cutting Area (for Embroidery) • Total Area: 16878sq ft. 162
  57. 57. WORKFLOW OF THE CUTTING DEPARTMENT: (Fig 1.14) File, sample received from OAD Fabric receiving from stores Recording of fabric as per lot/shrinkage/width Sample cutting Cutting approval Cut order issue Receiving of marker Layering Cutting (CAM/manual) Checking Numbering Embroidery (if required) Fusing (if required) Re-cutting (if required) Bundling Quality audit Pass Dispatch to stitching unit 163
  58. 58. Technical Specifications (Appendix 1.3) Machine Details (Appendix 1.4) Workforce Details (Appendix 1.5) Infrastructure Details (Appendix 1.6) Marker making The markers for the purpose of cutting are made by the CAD department. This marker is made keeping in view the costing average quoted by the merchant to the buyer. In case patterns have been made manually, the patterns are digitized to transfer them to the system and then a marker is made. In case of CAM cutting, marker is sent to the cutting floor in floppy and in case of manual cutting, actual size marker is obtained through the plotter available. The specifications of the plotter available are: Machine Model Make Number Wind Jet Plotter Windjet/ Plo/ 180 Algotex 1 164
  59. 59. SPREADING  The spreading of the fabric was being done manually as well as using an automatic spreader.  Brown paper was laid and taped before spreading for all fabrics in both types of spreading. This was to protect the fabric from rough spots on the table surface. It also enabled the spread to be moved as required (due to low friction) and also it prevented the lower plies from distortion by straight knife while cutting.  Only one operator could carry out the spreading using the automatic spreader whereas three operators were involved in manual spreading.  In manual spreading, one operator pulled the fabric from roll and the two others took this fabric to the required length (of spread). On reaching the required length, they aligned the edges and placed a weight on it. Both these operators return back and while balancing the fabric and the third operator balance the fabric near the roll and in the end he cuts the fabric with scissors or end cutter.  In automatic spreading, the spreader fixed the ply of fabric with the help of movable catcher. Laying then started with the spreader smoothening the layer with the help of a stick as he traveled on the traveler attached to the machine. The end cutter cut the fabric and fixed end catcher caught the ends of the ply at the other end  During the spreading process, a layer chart was maintained which kept a track of meterage consumed and end bits left. The spreading process is followed by placement of the marker on the top ply.  To secure the marker on the lay, it was torn at different places and a tape was put there. ERUDITION: Quality considerations for spreading  There were check points for inspection of spreading quality for the QCs where they check spreading defects such as leaning, uneven tension, and misalignment of plies, bowing, skewness, & fabric defects. 165
  60. 60.  Fabric where stripe or check matching has to be done is done along the lines of the thread which are tied exactly perpendicular to the table length.  For napped fabrics like corduroy, twill weave, denim, velvet, some prints & plaid, the spreaders were instructed to take extra care while spreading and were spread manually.  In case of fabric defects, the fabrics were sent marked with stickers in colors contrasting to the fabric color. If the defect was minor it was ignored. However in case of major defect they remove the flaw.  In case shade variation within the roll, part with the varied shade was removed.  In case of narrow width fabrics, if the defect was within the roll, they aligned the selvedges of one side while the other end across the width was left as it was. For too many inconsistencies, the QC in charge was informed & according to the severity of the problem, CAD marker of the shorter width was ordered. CUTTING  Before the starting of the cutting process the marker setting was done.  The cutting of fabric was done manually as well as by machine (Computer Aided Manufacturing.  Manual cutting was done with a straight knife for all fabrics. For smaller parts like collars, pockets, collar bands etc. blocks were cut which were then recut using a band knife. Two cutters were involved in cutting a lay. There was helper alongside who collected the waste bits of fabric in a bin in order to prevent the floor from getting dirty and to create enough free movable space for the cutting knife. The cut parts were shifted & tied by a helper. The tied parts then collected in a polybag , and then they were sent for ticketing. These were later dispatched to the production floor upstairs through a lift specially meant for carrying cut parts. Drill machine is also used if marking like pocket marking on front is required. 166
  61. 61.  In case of CAM cutting, since there is no marker on the cut parts, marking of parts prior to cutting becomes essential to have a reference after cutting. Each part on the CAD marker was torn off neatly from the centre to accommodate pasting of small stickers which had info such as: • Job order • Style Number • No. Of plies • Lot number • Size • Layer number • Emb number • No. Of parts  2 air channels on the bottom side of the table surface along on the bottom side of the table surface along with 112 air nozzles per square meter.  Five blow motors per table, each supplying air to a particular zone of the table ERUDITION: Quality considerations for cutting  The QC compared the hard pattern to marker paper to ensure the accuracy of the marker. The tolerance for this was nil.  The cut parts from top ply & the bottom ply were matched in order to see whether they had been cut properly. The bottom ply sometimes got distorted due to constrained movement of the knife. In such cases the plies were later cut with hand shears.  There was also a check for ragged or uneven cutting. The QC instructed the cutter to correct it there & then. 167
  62. 62.  The notch location was supposed to be checked by placing patterns over top ply. The tolerance for this was +/- 1/8 of inch. (Table 1.4) Lot Size or Quality Being Audited 1.5 A.Q.L. Inspect Accept Less than 151 8 0 151 – 280 8 0 281 – 500 32 1 501 – 1200 32 1 1201 – 3200 50 2 3201 – 10000 80 3 10001 – 35000 125 5 35001 – 150000 200 7 150001 – 500000 315 10 500001 and Above 500 14 168
  63. 63. DOCUMENTS USED  Requisition Slip: This was issued by the cutting Dept to the fabric stores specifying the quantity of fabric they required for the Dept. It specified info such as: • Quantity in pieces • Ratio required • PO/Style.  Cutting Order: This document contained information about cutting order for a particular style. It has information about item number, country, style number, delivery date, size, color, and order quantity and fabric width. CUTTING AUDIT PROCEDURE Auditing procedure in cutting starts from the stage when the sample is given by production for auditing. Sample Audit Following are the documents required for the sample audit.  Pattern  Original sample  Spec sheet  Style analysis  Lab test report of fabric  Fabric audit report 169
  64. 64. Patterns are checked as per the spec sheet and style analysis. Fabric audit report & lab test report are analysed to foresee the problems that can come in any of the garment manufacturing process. Cutting is checked as per the patterns. Pattern of all the sizes is checked to counter any errors in grading. Online auditing  When the layer is being layed fabric is inspected for any possible fabric defect that can affect the appearance of the garment. Lab test report & fabric audit report is checked.  Parts of fabric with major defects are removed  While spreading check that there are no creases.  Check that layer length is 2 cms more than marker length  Check that fabric cuttable width is ½” more than marker width and lay height is as requires layer height, width of layer & the marker width.  Marker is checked for missing part, direction of part, marker width as per the fabric width & any other possible discrepancy.  Cutting quality is checked for the following defects. o Measurements o Miscut o Check plies o Check matching o Rugged edges o Weaving defects o Selvedges o Notches Final auditing 170
  65. 65.  First step in final auditing is to verify the bundle & the layer chart details compatibility.  Layer numbering is cross-checked & po, style is confirmed.  Cutting quality audit is done with the help of patterns, specs & original sample.  Checking of fabric flaws. SYSTEMS FOLLOWED IN CUTTING  Marker checking before cutting.  Part changing of fabric flaw pieces during numbering.  Checking of cutting by production after numbering for bundling.  Cross- checking of weight variation by auditors.  Putting of main sticker on the layer before cutting.  Send product file to units along with first cutting.  Sending of fabric audit & lab test report to unit.  Sending of shade band to units. BUNDLING AND TICKETING  Ticketing is done with the help of ticketing guns.  Tickets carry information regarding the lot no, layer no, ply no etc.  Ticketing is done manually.  Every bundle has a tag which contains the entire description of the garment. 171
  66. 66.  In case of fabric when the ticket can not be stuck to the parts, extra space is left in the pattern for ticketing purposes.  In case of cut parts going for embroidery or re-cutting, which require excessive handling, ticketing is done in with ink in empty area of the block.  The color of the sticker is according to the fabric shrinkage %, which is as follows: (Table 1.5) Shrinkage Percentage Sticker Color 0.5 White 1.0 Yellow 1.5 Blue 2.0 Pink 2.5 Green 3.0 Orange 3.5 Grey 4.0 Red  After ticketing is complete, cut parts go through an audit and finally are tied into bundles of 20 pieces each FUSING: MACHINE DETAILS: 172
  67. 67.  No. of Machines : 2  Make : Fiblon, Hashima  Voltage: 449 V, 3P 50/60 Hz  E/Power: 15 KwH  Pressure: 1-5 kg/cm³ FUSING USED: Thick  KF- 36  KF- 79  KF- 546  KF-246 Light  FX-1008 NX-100 and FX-100 are available in different colors – black, charcoal, white and off white. 173
  68. 68. FLOW PROCESS FOR FUSING (Fig 1.15) Style Information as Production File Mock Preparation of Fusing Sample Mock Washing of Fusing Sample Make Internal Test Report Internal Test OK Production Starts Check Machine Parameters If Correct Yes No Inform QA Executive Call Maintenance Continue Production Reset Machine Parts Replacement for Rejects Audit Fused Parts 100% Checking of Lot Again Inform All Concerned No Is Audit Pass? Yes Issue to Dispatch 174
  69. 69. COMPUTERIZED EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENT The computer embroidery department is centralized. Shahi has largest embroidery facility in ASIA. The manual embroidery is mainly outsourced.  The merchandiser takes the art work from the buyer  Pieces to be embroidered are first cut and ticketed and then they come for embroidery. The cut pieces bear the lot number, size and serial number of that style so that after embroidery it can be rearranged to avoid shade variation problems in the garment.  In case the panel to be embroidered is too small to fit into the frame, strips of fabric are stitched around it to make it fit into the frame. This is done before the pieces are sent to the CED.  The design is punched into a floppy by the CAD department which is the loaded on the computerized embroidery machine. This is done using the WINGS software.  Stitching as well as embroidery threads are used which come from reputed manufacturers like Vardhman and Coats.  For different types of patterns and different sizes of cut pieces, different sizes of frames are used  Rough fabric is attached with the main fabric and some buffer is taken to save fabric and to avoid puckering due to looseness. 175
  70. 70. COSTINGIt is done on the basis of the number of stitches. (approx 1Re per 1000 stitches) For small logos the costing is done frame wise. STITCHES• E Stitch • Zig Zag • Lockstitch • Satin • Chain • Cross • Run Depending on the style the stitches are done. 176
  71. 71. WORKFLOW OF THE EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENT: (Fig 1.16) Received embroidery swatch/ thread shade card & placement Receiving trims and cutting Sample making and OAD approval Machine room planning of machines Design analysis Bulk cutting receiving Layer numbering Parts sewing and patch cutting (if required) Machine room loading Framing Machine running 177 Inline checking
  72. 72. Sorting Thread cutting Checking and alteration Bundling Quality audit Fail Recheck Pass Dispatch 178
  73. 73. MACHINERY DETAILS Make Model No. of m/c No. of heads Area Barudan BENSH-YN18 20 machines 20 30x60 cm2 Barudan BENSH-YN18 6 18 40x80 cm2 Multi head machine specifications Number of needles per head = 9 (Therefore it can process 9 colors) Distance b/w heads: 30 cm Speed of machine = 750 rpm (average), 900 rpm (maximum) Capacity: 5200 million stitches/ month Stitches/hour: 20000-25000 Software used: WINGS Some of the features of the machinery are listed below: • Top thread sensors • Split pressure foot for easy threading • Individual thread clamping system to hold thread in place to prevent pull outs • Automatic thread/needle break detector • Under head light • Automatic colour change • Automatic thread trimmer • Built – in 3.5” disk drive • Automatic speed control ensure optimum stitch quantity Miscellaneous 179
  74. 74. Frames are used for holding the garment from all sides firmly so as to prevent the fabric from going down with the needle or accumulating into folds. They are of different sizes and shapes. They may be: -Circular or -Rectangular Maximum Dimensions of design frame: 59cm x 25cm Minimum dimensions of design frame: 7cm x 7cm Bobbin used: IIGM, a franchisee of Barudan Thread: Polyester trilobal, sometimes rayon, spun polyester (Vardhman, Madura Coats) Backing: This is a non-woven layer to support the fabric so that it is able to bear the stress of embroidery. Water soluble: It dissolves while ironing and steaming Paper foam: It dissolves in a single wash. Needles used: DBK X 5 Manufacturer: Groz Beckert, Bissel, Schmitz Size: 8, 9 - for voile, cotton and poplin fabric Size: 11- for corduroy fabric Size: 14, 16- for denims Sequence sizes: 3mm, 4mm, 5mm, 7mm, 9mm. Most production feasible are 4mm and 5mm. One advantage of the machine is its individual head controlling. If embroidery has left at some place then the embroidery program at a particular head can be rewound and executed until it reaches the state of other head. Then embroidery is recommended for all the heads together at the 180
  75. 75. end of the embroidery the panels are passed through needle detector, as there is a high risk of needle breakage in embroidery machines. WORKFORCE One operator and framer each for one machine 1 supervisor for every 6 machines EMBROIDERY AUDIT PROCEDURE Online auditing Following cross checks are performed by the quality auditor on the machines in computerized embroidery. -Cross-checking of blunt needle on the framing table -Presence of embroidery design on the framing table. -Cross-checking of the framing needle distance on the framing table. -Cross-checking of the starting point of embroidery on machine for the conformance of the placement correctness. -Visual inspection of pieces on the machine for the detection & rectification of alteration thread shade. -Checking of the final pieces. Final auditing 181
  76. 76. At this stage auditor inspects the units not only for all the defects, which were audited in online audit, but also cross checks. -Embroidery thread shades with approved shade card. -Audit 10% of production pieces with reference to the approved swatch for the design & placement. -Audit of the pass pieces of the checkers for analyzing percentage of defects passed by the checkers. -Auditing of the numbering in the layer for any discrepancy. Fortnightly, audit of thread cutting in embroidery is checked. At this stage auditor checks for numbering on the embroidery panels also. Lot Size or Quality Being Audited 1.5 A.Q.L. Inspect Accept Less than 151 8 0 151 – 280 8 0 281 – 500 32 1 501 – 1200 32 1 1201 – 3200 50 2 3201 – 10000 80 3 10001 – 35000 125 5 35001 – 150000 200 7 150001 – 500000 315 10 500001 and Above 500 14 182
  77. 77. DOCUMENTS MAINTAINED Production charts that detail about time, style and the stitches. Broken needle Report WINGS software It gives     Average thread Stitches Y/Y Physical check 183
  78. 78. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Industrial engineering department is considered the backbone of any garment factory. It plays a vital role in production of the garment. It involves all other production departments and is responsible for monitoring performance of the same. It gives technical solutions to the problems faced during the garment production. It is responsible for improving productivity and efficiency of different departments The Industrial Engineering Department, has been divided into two levels according to the functions performed. First is the PDS department which deals with product development stage. The other one is Floor I.E. which is concerned with production stage of the garment. Functions of the PDS department are:  Calculating SAM from tech-pack  Calculating SAM from the sample  Preparing an operation bulletin by using oracle  PDS updating in ERP software  Making layout according to the OB  Suggesting changes to make the production of the garment easier  i.e. performing R&D  Deciding machines and manpower  Suggesting attachments and folders  Making Pitch diagrams Functions of the Floor I.E. department are:  Planning review  Arrangement of folders and attachments  Arrangement of machine and manpower a/c to the style i.e. line setting and line balancing  Calculating manpower, efficiency 184
  79. 79.  Setting production targets by helping the PPC Department  Carrying out regular time studies to check whether the planned SAM is being achieved or not.  Undertaking Motion studies & method  Monitoring production & providing solutions  Checking the hourly production The formulae used in calculation are: Productivity (per operator) Output / No. of operators used Efficiency (SAM * Production / No. of operators used*480)*10 ERUDITION: • Line Balancing is very crucial to attain on time delivery. • WIP management is very important. • Folders and attachments must be used to increase efficiency • SAM calculation at PDS stage is crucial as it directly affects the costing. 185
  80. 80. DEPARTMENT WORKFLOW (Fig 1.17): Merchandiser gives samples Order approval Sample arrives again to make O.B. & changes recommended Total SAM for costing purpose Revised O.B. prepared Requirement of the machines & attachments is provided to maintenance department 5 days before loading Loading Line setting according to layout Additional operations added Target production is projected for next 5 days @ 12.5%, 25%, 35%, 45%, 55% efficiencies respectively As per the time study, line balancing is done again 3 days after loading the line, time study is performed Method study is done simultaneously Critical operations are sorted out 186
  81. 81. SEWING DEPARTMENT Sewing department can be termed as the heart and soul of any garment manufacturing unit. This department is responsible for the conversion of cut panels into actual garments.  Shahi Exports, Faridabad has a floor set up comprising of 21 lines of around 40 machines each.  The whole floor is divided into two sub floors, namely; floor A and floor B. The production capacity of the floors is 2,50,000 units of garment per month. When a new style comes over; the various information like operation breakdown, sewing details, critical operations etc is put up on the display board. A sample of the garment is also put up in front of the sewing line for any type of reference.  Line is set as per line layout plan.  Operations are assigned to the operators according to their skill set.  Required SPI, thread tension and needle no. is set by supervisors and mechanic as per requirement.  Line in charge & supervisor give the direction to the operators about their respective jobs.  In line checkers and QC’s ensure that the quality coming out of each operation is as per the quality specification.  Industrial Engineer do the study of operators and their respective operations again. If any change is needed in the layout and working method for maintaining the quality and production, immediate action is taken. 187
  83. 83. Size Set Approval Pre Production Meeting Pilot Run Bulk Cutting Lot Bundling in 20 Pieces Production & QA Meeting Operation Breakdown Line Setting Line Layout Line Feeding 189
  84. 84. Manual Operation Sewing Process Machine Operation Ironing Operation Inline Checking 100% Auditing Checking Process Final Checking 100% Audit as per AQL 2.5 Finishing QUALITY ASSURANCE FOLLOWED ON THE STITCHING FLOOR  The bundles of 20 garment pieces each comes from the cutting department along with the pattern, product file, product sample and fit sample.  Patterns are checked by a roaming QC ,QA or production technician  3 inline checkers (at each critical operation)  1 final checkers (checks for basic measurements, stitching faults, balancing problems100% checking)  Lots are made  Sent for auditing(2.5 AQL system followed by the auditor) 190
  85. 85.  If defects found, sent back for 100% checking and alteration (Table 1.6) MEASUREMENT AUDIT AQL 2.5 LOT SIZE SAMPLE SIZE PASS FAIL 1 COLOR 20 1 2 2 COLOR 32 2 3 3 COLOR 50 3 4 4 COLOR 80 5 6 5 COLOR 80 5 6 >5 COLOR 125 7 8 Workforce Details (Appendix 1.7) Machine details (Appendix 1.8) 191
  86. 86. DOCUMENTATION DONE DURING STITCHING  BROKEN NEEDLE MAINTENANCE RECORD Replacement of broken needles is done by the feeder only. If any needle gets broken during the sewing process and the tip of needle is not found, the garment is taken away from the line for careful metal detection and the broken needle is submitted to maintenance department where one person is specifically employed to maintain this record.  NEEDLE DISPOSAL LOG It is used to keep the record of the no. of needle broken by a particular operator, on a particular machine. The signature of the operator is taken against any such entry. The idea of returning the deformed needle to get a new one from maintenance is really helpful in ensuring the needle is not left in any of the garments. If the broken part is not detected by the needle detector as well, that piece is discarded. Date Time Order No. Operato r Needle Found Reject ND/F ND/R Sign (broken) Found : all needle parts are found and registered. Rejected : all needle parts not found, product rejected. ND/F : product checked by needle detector, all parts found and registered. ND/R : product checked by needle detector, all parts not found, product discarded 192
  87. 87.  MACHINE MAINTENANCE RECORD Machine Maintenance card is put up on each and every machine. The machines are maintained properly on weekly and monthly basis. An immediate corrective action is taken by maintenance department in case of any type of breakdown. Every machine is cleaned and checked by the operators before starting the work on machine. On an average, each line has:  40 machines  8 tables  41 operators  10 helpers  2 supervisors  1 line charge  4 inline checkers  1 line QC STYLE WISE SAM UTILIZED PER FLOOR This report tells us the total SAM utilized per line, per style. It utilizes the following format. Date: __/__/__ S. NO. STYLE FLOOR: OUTPUT M/C SAM M/N SAM TOT SAM 1. 2. 3. TOTAL  LINE FEED FORM 193
  88. 88. The feeder of the line maintains a regular record of the no. of pieces loaded per hour. It also includes the batch no, size and grand total per day.This gives an idea of the no. of pieces of a particular style fed per hour in a line. If we compare it with the hourly output of the line we can get WIP of that line per hour or per day. It also helps us in identifying bottlenecks based on the comparison of no. of pieces as input and that as of output.  PRODUCTION REPORT This report tells us the no. of pieces from cutting, input pieces in the line, output from the line and dispatched pieces. Line Styl Order Cutting No. Qty e Input Output Line Dispatch WIP No. 18 8899 6786 Today Cumm Today Cumm Today Cumm 967 Today Cumm 234 100 400 56 450 65 312 213  INLINE CHECK POINT REPORT The format given to the inline quality checkers consisted of defects like stain, pencil mark, color variation, wrong stitch, damage, bowing, weaving, puckering, wrong sized panels, improper tension, run off, imbalance, joint out, center out, uneven stitch etc. To report any other defect appropriate space is provided. 194
  89. 89. OPERATOR RECRUITMENT Operator And Helper Recruitment Procedure • Operator Sewing Test • Operator and Helper Skill Test • Marks Allotment System • Format Operator Sewing Test Standards a. High Skill Operator: Should have knowledge of all the machines and should be working @ 85% efficiency. b. Senior Operator: Should know at least 2 machines and can perform four operations @ 85% efficiency. c. Operator: Should know 1 machine and can perform @ 75% efficiency. 195
  90. 90. SECTION CATEOGARY GRADE OPERATION SEWING TAILORS A Attach collar and neck band Attach and top stitch sleeve placket Collar attach Collar finish Top stitch armhole Should know all sewing machines and each operation should be done at Kansai front placket attach Pocket attach 85% efficiency Bottom hem Feed of arm SEWING TAILORS B Top stitch side seam Top stitch pocket flap Back yoke attach Join front and back Side seam over lock Hem sleeve Should know at least 2 machines and 4 operations of each @ 85% Hem left and right front placket efficiency Attach label on 4 sides Run collar/cuff stitch SEWING TAILORS C Top stitch yoke and back Top stitch shoulder Should know at least 1 machine and all operations of that machine @ 85% Hem pocket Hem cuff efficiency Make pleats SEWING TAILORS D Should know 1 machine and 1 operation @ 75% efficiency Attach loop label to body Make loops Make pleats on sleeves Bottom stay stitch All parts stay stitch 196
  91. 91. Incentive Scheme Incentives are an important part of any labor based organization. It helps boost the morale of operators and gives them a reason to work. A fair incentive scheme can work wonders for the organization. In the following manner incentive was calculated: The planned and actual efficiency for each style and each line is compared and the incentive earned per line is calculated as per below: Up to 5% Eff 5%-10% 25% of the gross saving 10%-15% For Actual Eff > Planned 20% of the gross saving 30% of the gross saving Above 15% 35% of the gross saving Appropriate parameter is selected from the table and incentive amount is calculated using the following formula: (Rate of Incentive) x (Actual Runtime) x (Manpower Used) 197
  92. 92. WASHING DEPARTMENT • Shahi's washing department is capable of imparting different finishes such as: hard/caustic wash, enzyme wash, acid wash, stone wash, bleaching, and softener wash. • The washing machines used are equipped for garment dyeing as well as normal washing. Thus garment dyeing is also done when required. Dip-dyeing, tie-and-dye is also done here. • An Intranet challan is issued to the washing department by the dispatch department while sending the pieces for washing. • The washing department issues a hand written challan upon returning the goods after washing. • The recipes for washing and dyeing etc are developed by the testing lab during the testing of the fabric and then handed to the washing department. • The capacity of the washing department is 1800 kg/day. RECIPES OF MOST COMMONLY USED WASHING TECHNIQUES: Normal Wash: Wetting, 20-20 mins, 40-45 C Hydro Tumble dry, 40-45 mins, 60 –70C 198
  93. 93. Enzyme Wash: Desizing, 20mins, 50C, Desizing agent – 2.5% OWF Rinse (2 cycles) Maintain pH (4.5 – 5.5) by acetic acid Enzyme wash, 30mins, 55-60 C, enzyme – 3.5% OWF Bleach using hypo (if required to strip the color) Rinse (2 cycles) Neutralize with hypo crystal (sodium thio-sulphate) – 1% OWF, 10mins Rinse (2 cycles) Softener (silicon 0.7% + cationic 1.0%), 5mins running, 15 mins dip, 45-50 C Hydro 199
  94. 94. Tumble dry, 60-70 C, 40-45mins Softener, silicones, enzymes, anti-satin agents, neutralizers, lubricating agents, de-aerating agents, water softener etc are other chemicals used in washing. TYPES OF WASHING: PERC or Dry Cleaning (DC) : Every product is not subjected to PERC or DC process. Only those products which have stubborn stains like that of oil and rust undergo this process. Mostly white or light coloured products that are more vulnerable to staining are dry –cleaned. PERC gives them whiteness as well as shiny appearance also. Stone Wash: This wash uses volcanic rock or pumice stones added during the washing of products to act as an abradant. A more or less uniform and prominent fading is seen in this wash. The degree of fading depends upon the product to stone ratio, washing time, size of stones and load of product. Rotary type of drum is used for about 1-2 hrs. Generally, 1-2 kgs. of stones is used for 1kg of product. It is usually carried out with enzyme wash. Acid Wash: Acid wash is done in a large rotating wooden cylinder filled with thermacol balls that are coated with solution of HYPO, Zinc and Calcium. These balls rub against the fabric to give it an overall grainy which is characteristic of denim. Size of ball depends upon the degree of required effect & type of fabric (for e.g. for knit small size of ball is used while for denim large ones are added.) For a mixed designer effect, different sizes of balls are used together. The process takes about 1015mins and is done at 35-40 oC. This process is also known by names like Moon Wash, Blat Wash, and Ice Wash. 200
  95. 95. Spray Wash: This wash is used to fade put the color randomly in from the garment which is hung over vertical Penequins or pneumatic brushing robo balloons. Spray gun is used to spray KMnO4 to make out the required design. KMnO4 oxidizes the dye from the applied area hence fading of color takes place. Hand Sanding (Scrapping): It is done with the help of an abrader which scrap of the surface indigo dye from the fabric. This process is used to create the different sharp line faded effects on the denim products using a mould. The mould made according to design is put inside he product oh an inflated penequin (horizontal or vertical). This raises the fabric surface such that it takes the shape engraved in the mould, which can now be precisely rubbed with aluminum oxide paper manually. During this the fiber loss of upper surface takes place and hence the required worn out design is created. Grinder Grinder is an innovative technique to give the denim a very prominent worn n torn out look by carefully cutting away either the warp as the weft threads as per the need of the design. Machinery Details (Appendix 1.9) Capacity: 2000 kg/day Shifts: 2 shifts /day Types of Washes: Hard/Caustic wash, Enzyme wash, Acid wash, Stone wash, Bleaching Softener washes etc. 201
  96. 96. An internal challan is issued by the dispatch department to the washing department when garments are sent for washing. Garments after wash are returned along with a hand written challan. WASHING WORK FLOW Fig 1.19 Desizing Enzyme Wash Detergent Wash Bleaching Neutralization Softening QUALITY ASSURANCE 202
  97. 97. 100% inspection of the washed garments takes place. Once the garments have been dried, they are checked on the following aspects:  Color  Hand/feel  Measurements (to determine shrinkage)  Stains, etc Since some variation in the shades is inevitable due to batch processing of garments, the garments are separated into 3-4 shade lots during the inspection process according to recurring shade. If a garment has a drastic change in shade, or shrinkage is outside expected range, it is not accepted and may be reprocessed if possible. 203
  98. 98. FINISHING DEPARTMENT The finishing floor at Shahi has been divided into five sections: floors A, B, C and D and HFD (Home Furnishing Department finishing). These floors were almost similar in layout. Capacity: 1200 pcs/day/floor Shift: 8 hours Manpower Status (Appendix 1.10) Details per Floor (Appendix 1.11) 204
  99. 99. Receive goods from sewing Kaj / Button marking (manually) Bartacking Measurement check (10%) Button hole stitching Final checking Washing Re-pressing Button attaching WORKFLOW OF THE FINISHING DEPARTMENT (Fig 1.20) Tagging Thread Cutting Shade matching Thread suctioning Folding and putting in poly bags Ironing Quality Audit Initial Checking Dispatching to packing section Alteration (if any) 205
  100. 100. PROCESSES Size Sorting Button and buttonhole position in a ladies top can be same for different sizes or different for different sizes. So, if the button and buttonhole position is different for different sizes, then it is necessary that the lot should be sorted as per the specified sizes. At this stage the bundles are done away with and all the garments of a particular style are made into a single lot which may or may not be sorted size wise. There are separate sorting tables for this purpose. Buttonhole Marking After the size sorting has been done, the garment pieces are brought to the Kaj marking tables. The kaj marking is done with a white colored pencil using a cardboard template. A template has 206
  101. 101. been stuck near the edges of the marking tables with the help of a cello tape. This template helps in marking the button hole position. Templates may be different for different sizes. Buttonholing The pieces on which kaj marking has been made are put in a plastic basket and brought in the buttonholing section and buttonholes are made at the marked kaja position. An hourly production record is maintained for each of these operators and to check the production and backlog. Button Position Marking Garment pieces are sent for button position marking after the buttonholing. There are separate tables allocated for this purpose. The button position-marking worker picks up a garment and aligns the two front plackets. The worker then places the shirt on the table and lifts the kaj placket and taking kajs made as reference points, marks the position for button attaching. The position of button is marked with the help of a white pencil. Button Attaching The button position has been marked and now the button are attached. Pieces from the button position marking tables are brought to button attaching section and separated as per the kind of button attaching stitch to be made. These separated pieces are sent to the respective machines. Button attaching stitch is of two types namely lockstitch and chain stitch. Each of these stitches could be further of two types namely cross and straight button stitch. The kind of stitch to be provided is specified by the buyer. An hourly production check is kept for the button-attaching operators. As soon as a particular P.O. is received for button attaching, the machines are allocated for the purpose taking into consideration the type of stitch required. Thread Cutting 207
  102. 102. Uncut threads affect the presentation of finished and packed garments. Therefore, it is necessary to cut and trim the loose and uncut threads. As soon as button is attached the garments pieces are brought to tables meant for the purpose of thread cutting. Thread Suction Loose thread hampers the presentation of the final packed garments. Hence, to remove these loose threads the garments are fed into the thread suction machine. To operate this machine one person holds the garment in the suction area and the loose cut threads are sucked in. Ironing Garments are sent for initial ironing after thread cutting. Seam ironing takes place. Rough Checking This section plays a very crucial role in ensuring the quality of end garment. Each quality checker is provided stickers for marking defects, thread clippers etc. Each checker is instructed to check the garments thoroughly, mark the defects with arrow stickers and also to cut the uncut threads if found. Every checker puts the pass piece in the plastic basket below the inspection table. It is the responsibility of the quality checker to take the defective pieces for correction and after correction put it in the pass pieces basket. The defects found at this stage could be broadly of the following types a) Stitching defects b) Stains c) Weaving defects d) Button/buttonholing defects Checker puts his allotted number on each of the garment piece passed by him. Each checker is monitored for performance. Every time a defective piece is found at a later stage, it is traced back to the checker who passed it. This checker is then shown his mistake and taught the correct method so that this is not repeated again. . All these checkers are given regular on-the-job training. Finishing in charge or supervisors teach checkers the correct method of garment checking. 208
  103. 103. Alterations and Stain Removal As soon as the quality checkers comes across a defect, he brings the defective piece to the operators meant for the purpose of trouble shooting. An hourly and daily record of the number of pieces altered is maintained. This helps in keeping a track on the quality of garments being sent to finishing by the production floor. 20-30% is normally the alteration and stain removal rate. In case of defects like button/buttonhole and embroidery the pieces are taken back to the respective department. The stain removal section has facility to remove the following type of stains: oil, yellow, black and paint spots, stains due to color bleeding, ink, rust, tracing marks, yellow stains, and hard stains. Final Checking In this section the overall look of the garment is seen. For the purpose of removal of stains detected during this stage, each table is provided with a spot washing stain removal gun. Also, each table is provided with thread clipper to cut the uncut threads. All the defective pieces are sent for alteration and necessary corrections. Final Ironing The ironing supervisors analyze the style as per the critical instructions given in the OAD folder. Based on the ironing instructions, instructions are given to the ironing operators about the correct way of ironing the garments of a particular style. The hanging trolleys from where the garments were retrieved for ironing and placed after ironing are ergonomically designed, keeping in mind the ironing operator’s movement. Tagging and Packing The passed pieces are brought to the tagging and packing section on the hanging wheeled trolleys. It is the responsibility of the packing supervisors to provide the tagging operators with the 209
  104. 104. appropriate price and brand ticket or tags. As soon as a new style arrives in the tagging section, the packing supervisor places the necessary tags in the racks provided for this purpose. The tagging operator is instructed as to where and how the tag has to be placed. The most important thing to be kept in mind while placing the tag is to match the size mentioned on the main label and the size on tag or ticket. Quality Audit A quality audit is done after the garment is finished. This is one of the most important steps. AQL of 4 is followed. AUDIT PROCEDURES Pre Final Audit After the garment is ironed and checked by the production checkers the lot is then offered to the auditor for prefinal audit. Auditor picks up random units from the given lot as per AQL sample lot size. If it is with in the acceptable limits of AQL then the lot is sent for packing and if the defected pieces exceed the acceptable limit then the lot is sent for rework along with the defect classification. 210
  105. 105. Visual audit chart Table Lot size 0-280 281-500 501-1200 1201-3200 3201-10000 10001-35000 35001-150000 150001-500000 >500001 Sample size 13 20 32 50 80 125 200 315 500 2.5 Accept 0 1 2 3 5 7 10 14 21 Fit audit Fit audit is done at the finishing audit stage. In this audit auditor has to measure pieces of each size of an order. The measurement going beyond the tolerance limit is then highlighted and corrective action is taken on the same. (Refer format 13 of annexure) Measurement audit chart Lot size 1 color 2 colors 3 colors 4 colors 5 colors >5 colors Sample size 20 32 50 80 80 125 Pass 1 2 3 5 5 7 Fail 2 3 4 6 6 8 Packing audit Packing audit is done based on the following chart: Lot size 3-15 16-25 26-50 51-90 91-150 Sample size 3 5 8 13 20 Pass 0 0 0 0 0 Fail 1 1 1 1 1 211
  106. 106. 151-280 281-500 501-1200 >1201 32 50 80 125 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 SYSTEM FOLLOWED IN FINISHING  Audit at various stages of ironing, finishing, kaj-button, packing.  For new style initial pieces are studied in all respects along with product file.  All critical points are mentioned on QAD auditing table related to running style.  Feedback/communication to production on regular basis regarding problems in style.  Audit of packing quality. FINAL AUDIT PROCEDURE  Final statistical audit is performed on a given number of randomly selected boxes from an identifiable lot.  In final audit auditor selects number of boxes from identifiable lot to inspect. This selection is based on the square root of the total lot offered for the inspection.  Auditor checks for accessories in a garment with the help of product file of that specified style i.e. hang tag, main lable, wash care lable, button, hanger, sizers, polybag etc.  Auditor also checks carton marking, weight, dimensions, ratio & packing instruction.  All the final audits are done on AQL 4.0 if auditor finds the lot size with in the acceptable limits of AQL then the complete lot is passed, otherwise in case of defect more than the acceptable limits, the lot is sent for rework 212
  107. 107. Erudition: • Finishing is one of the most important departments where the final appearance of the garment is achieved. • Loose threads are deterrent to business • It is better to remove as many unwanted threads at the sewing stage as possible • Proper carton packing needs to be done for avoiding problems in shipping PACKAGING AND DISPATCH DEPARTMENT 213
  108. 108. As Shahi Faridabad is the corporate office, it plans and controls all the shipments of it styles in NCR as well as its Bangalore and Hyderabad branches. The goods from Delhi – NCR Region are sent from the Mumbai and Kolkata Port and of Bangalore Branch are sent from Chennai port. PACKAGING Packaging is the most crucial department product. The packaging has to be very good as it attracts the customer. Thus the presentation to the customer is very crucial. Also the packaging department is in a separate area so that there is no common access to it. The records maintained by this department are essential as the loss of even one piece can cause a major problem. Records of pieces received from various units which are issued to packaging include the following.  Fabric codes  Swatch codes  Delivery schedules  Records of number of pieces received from finishing department along with their style number, ratio etc.  Records of pieces shipped along with date, quantity, ratio, mode of shipment, style no, PO etc. Each of the carton shipped is labeled with the following information printed on each: • • • • Carton no. Style no. Measurement of the carton Weight • • • • Buyer’s logo Customer code Address of the buyer Size ratio chart • • • • Company name PO No. Date of Delivery Country of origin 214
  109. 109. Every country has a different type of sticker. Thus stickers are put on the cartons depending on to which country the order is going to. Packages containing the first sample, salesman sample, fabric swatches etc are dispatched to buyers almost every alternate day. DISPATCH The responsibility of this department is to monitor the inflow and the outflow of the material to and from the company. It does the work of receiving and issuing of the material. Some of the records maintained by this department on the on line system are:  Checklist  Finishing pending  Records  Dispatch receipt  Dispatch issue Documents which need to be carried by the driver of vehicle carrying company’s goods are:  Form – 31: It is required while crossing state borders. It carries driver’s name, description of goods, quantity, issuing company’s name and date.  Challan: It carries the PO number, style number and number of pieces. Stickers Put on the Cartons Information regarding the carton are printed on a sticker which is then stuck on the carton so that it can be identified. The information on the stickers was mentioned earlier. 215