National Institute of Fashion Technology, Gandhinagar
Summer Internship Report
Shahi Exports Pvt. Ltd. Faridabad
A summer Internship Report for Partial fulfilment of the Requirement
for the award of Degree in
Bachelor of Fashion Technology-Apparel Production
Department of Fashion Technology
We would like to thank Ms. Ameesha Mehta, Course Coordinator, UG-Technology, and
our faculty mentor Mr. Pawan Godiawala, Department of Fashion Technology for their
guidance and motivation throughout the duration of this internship.
This work is not a sole endeavour but rather an integrated effort of many individuals
directed towards the same goal. We feel very much proud at underlining the
magnanimous qualities of Mr. Raman Bhutani, Assistant Production Manager, Shahi
Exports, Faridabad for showing affection, enthusing zeal, germinating interest and
inspiring hard work.
We would like to extend my gratitude to Mr. Sunil Jasso, GM Production, Mr.Pardeep
Singh, IE Manager, Mr. Ankur Joshi, Cutting Manager and all the employees of Shahi
Exports for showing great concern & interest in our work and guided us throughout the
internship. They have been a constant source of inspiration to us throughout the duration
of the internship, constantly monitoring the work at close quarters and throwing light
on minute technicalities. It would be appropriate to say that this work would not have
seen the light of the day, but for their painstaking and unstinted cooperation.
SHAHI Exports Pvt. Ltd. is engaged in the manufacture and export of readymade garments in
the International market. It is one of the largest export houses in India. The company started its
operations in the form of a small fabrication unit with the help of 25 machines.
The company has grown from leaps to bounds from a simple fabrication unit to present turnover
of Rs. 2200 crore, around 55000 employees and spread over 27 locations. It has manufacturing
units in six different states of India viz. Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka
and Andhra Pradesh. The group is into manufacturing of a wide range of Men’s and Ladies wear
and also home products.
SHAHI group has all the modern units equipped with state-of-the-art technology giving the best
to its buyers.
Its manufacturing facilities includes Assembly line machines, Prima Vision system print/fabric
development, Meyer fusing press, Barudan and Tajima, Multi head computerized embroidery
machine, in house washing plant, automatic cutting machines (F.K. Systems).
SHAHI has a well-equipped sampling division where latest patterns/designs/styles of high
standards are developed with the assistance of experienced designers.
It has a training center for tailors at Faridabad and Bangalore each to train and develop them into
vital human resource for efficient operations.
As regards to quality, SHAHI has been ranked one of the best in Asia by J.C.Penny, the worldrenowned departmental stores.
Name: Shahi Exports Private Limited
Owner: Mrs. Sarla Ahuja
Managing Director: Mr. Harish Ahuja
Address: Industrial Plot-1, Sector 28 Faridabad, Haryana
Work Force: More than 30,000
Capacity: Over 2 million high quality garments per month
Retail House: At Last & Co. , New York
Fabric Processing: Sarla Fabrics, Ghaziabad
Annual Turnover: INR 2200 crore (Group Turnover)
Exploring new dimensions of excellence. A path, where there was none. A new horizon beyond
yesterday. Excellence beyond today, touching tomorrow. It’s a world of relentless quest for
quality. Its mindset, the action, and partners of Shahi are ever reaching further, never resting on
achievements. Yes! Milestone never takes one there; it is the road that we create to reach
excellence. Ever evolving excellence. Shahi believes that its main strength is its people. The
larger investments made in the manufacturing units will give the desired results only if backed
by a committed human effort. The result will directly give us a sense of pride for being a part of
Guiding principles illuminate the path that leads to their destination. SHAHI emphasizes on
some guiding principles, which are indicative of the values it believes in and would like to
continue in the organization. These are the building blocks of the organizational culture. The
company believes in:
High level of honesty and a sense of responsibility.
Two-way communication channel for all purposes of communication.
In sharing the fruit of growth, prosperity with its partners i.e. the employees.
In giving each individual room to contribute and grow.
The company firmly believes that team spirit is the hallmark of success.
Shahi Exports Private Limited (Shahi) is one of the largest vertically integrated garment
manufacturer and exporter in India.
India’s second largest apparel exporter by value of exports.
Shahi is one of the most successful professionally managed companies in India.
India’s largest exporter by installed capacity.
Well qualified trained and committed professionals with a shared vision.
Highly qualified Design team, Product development skills and a Design Studio.
High degree of adoption of advanced manufacturing technology MIS and IT systems.
All factories and offices are electronically linked to facilitate all time access to
Focus on quality and a proven track record :
Short shipment: 0.50%
On time delivery: 98%
Quality claims: Nil.
The following are based and operated in NCR
1. LSD – Ladies Speciality Division
2. LBAD – Ladies branded Apparel Division
3. LFD – Ladies Fashion Division (basically caters to Wal-Mart)
4. HFD – Home Furnishing Division
Abercrombie & Fitch (A
Hennes & Mauritz (H &
A merchandiser is an interface between the buyer and the supplier who has to ensure the quality of
production and timely delivery. Merchandising is a process through which products are planned,
developed, executed and presented to the buyers. It includes directing and overseeing the
development of product line from start to finish.
ROLE OF THE DEPARTMENT
To look for the appropriate market
To get the samples made according to the buyer’s specification
To estimate and quote the cost of the garment to the buyer and negotiate with them
Constant interaction with the buyer for the approval
To get the fabric and trims in-house for bulk production
Co-ordinating with the PPC and production
OBJECTIVE OF MERCHANDISER
To create market
Understanding buyers’ requirements
Sourcing of materials, fabrics
Select the range
Creating the product
Taking buyers approvals
Negotiation with buyer
Procuring the orders
Materializing the order
Execution the order
Coordination between production and production planning department
Dispatching the shipment
After shipment dispatching merchandiser is also responsible for buyer claims, profit and
subsequent orders. If buyer has any problem in quality of the product then it is the
responsibility of the merchandiser to resolve the problem with the buyer.
PROCESS OF MERCHANDISING:
The first stage of merchandising is when buyer sends either spec, sketch or any garment
pieces and asks for sample with costing or only costing using different fabrics. The specs
sent by the buyer are also called Tech Packs.
The merchandiser gets the approval of all things like fabric, trims, label, costing etc. and
either buyer gives the approval or gives the vendors’ name.
-The allocation chart and FTP directory is received by the merchant from the buyer online.
-The fabric CAD is also received from the buyer which has all the details of the pantone
shade and the repeat size.
-The prints are developed from their own mill, SFL (Sarla Fabric Limited) or are
-A CD is developed which has the color picture of the fabric. This is sent to the fabric
department for development.
-Sample piece is developed.
Next, costing is done on the basis of the spec, sketch and garment which are sent by the
buyer for making the sample. Merchandiser does the average costing/consumption of the
garment. The quotation is sent to the buyer/buying house and the approval is awaited. One
thing is to be noted that while giving the consumption, the cut-able width of the fabric to
be received (either mill made-developed in India or imported fabric) has to be considered
while costing. Also the marker utilization depends on the style, which may affect the
consumption greatly. The fabric characteristic also matters vis-à-vis nap etc.
The merchandiser monitors the design from sampling to production and then final
dispatch. They are a link between the buyer and the company. All correspondence that the
buyer wants to do regarding his style will be done through the merchandiser. Merchandiser
monitors the total sampling from development to the time the production sample is made
and goods go into actual production.
They also see that the fabric is developed on time and send it for approval to the buyer and
subsequently if all samples are made on time, send them to the buyer for approval too.
They are also in constant touch with production to know the status of their styles.
Merchandising activities include:
1. To get order: Buyer directly communicates with the merchandiser in order to place the order.
Fixed buyers are allotted to merchandisers and the communication is between the buyer an
that particular merchant.
2. Costing: Costing of the garment in bulk is calculated on the basis of quality of material and
their requirement in the garment. It is one of the most important activities of the merchandiser.
To arrive at a perfect price to be quoted to the buyer, following points are taken into
Costing is done considering these aspects of the cost.
1. Factory Cost - It is the fixed cost incurred for running the factory. It is different for
2. Standard Sewing Cost
Lubrication Oil, Needles , Cleaning Material
Staff & Maintenance Salary
Power, Depreciation Of The Machinery
The standard sewing cost per operator per hour defined by Shahi for its Faridabad unit is
1. YY (Yields/yards) – It is average consumption of the fabric. It is decided by preparing a
mini-marker which includes wastage of fabric due to laying, cutting, fabric defect, end
cutting loss, marker loss and the buffer that is maintained to avoid shortage in future.
2. Trims Cost – They are procured from local market as well as imported as per buyer’s
Calculation of cost of fabric per garment
Calculation of cost of trims and threads
Poly bag cost
Cost of carton box
Calculation of consumption of fabric (yields per yard) and threads to
produce one garment
3. Sampling: Merchandiser is involved in coordinating with the sampling department. Based on
the mutual agreement between the merchant and the buyer, sampling department is involved in
making samples. In every step of samples, buyer sends back comments along with the tech
4. Order confirmation: After the approval of all the samples, the order is confirmed by the
buyer. Merchandiser receives the PO sheet. Merchandising department communicates with
planning and production departments and decides for the possible PCD (production cut date)
for the required quantity. Then he fixes up the PCD and delivery date with the buyer.
5. Preparing the time and action plan: This is prepared by the merchant stating that all the
different activities associated with the order should be complete by the stipulated dates. It is
like making sub goals to accomplish the ultimate goal which is shipping of the order on the
pre- decided date.
6. Preparing the bill of material: This enlists all the different materials required for making the
7. Execution: Merchandising department communicates with the buyer QA during the
production. He gets the approval of the quality or any changes in the garment.
8. Shipment of goods: According to delivery date the goods are shipped on time.
Documentation department is informed about the delivery date, the quantity etc. In case of any
delay, goods are sent through air on the company’s cost.
For each order, the merchant has to prepare a file containing all the details and relevant documents
which is passed on to the subsequent stages in the production process for reference purposes.
DOCUMENTATION IN MERCHANDISING
File prepared by merchant has following details:
Style Specification: contains a brief description of the style.
Style # : as mentioned by the buyer
Movex item # : Item number of the style by Movex
Buyer: Name of the buyer
PCD: Production cut date for the style
Merchant: Name of the merchant handling the style
The file contains the following:
Purchase order for the style
Relevant communication with the buyer regarding proto, fit and pre production samples.
All the comments from the buyer for various samples are included.
Thread consumption report
Fabric Test Report
Fabric and trim cards: Contains swatches of the fabric and trims to be used
Mini marker with costing average
It consists of the general details like brand name, buyer’s name, size range and the drawing of the
1. Color / Trim Page: It consists of the details like description, size of the trims like button
size, material of which it is made of, no. of holes that it should have.
2. Fabric Page: It consists of the details of the fabric like the count of the yarn, construction
(EPI, PPI) and color specifications. It also states the value addition finishes and
3. Packing And Labeling Details: It consists of the details like type of packing, hanger type,
polybag type, clips type of labeling.
4. Label Placement: It describes with figures where the label, hang tag, spare button is to be
5. Correct Balance : Basic and important tips for correct fit
6. How to Measure: It shows how to measure the important dimensions of the garment.
7. Technical Sketch: It is a 2-D representation of the garment showing all the stitch lines,
panes, trims etc. symbolically.
8. Development Photos: It consists of the photos of the garment.
9. Specification Sheet: It consists of all the dimensions with tolerances and increments for
10. Bill Passing Reports: This is the report used in fabric receiving. It states details like type,
quantity, receipt no, item details, amount. It also has goods receipt note attached. It
contains fabric code, width, color, quantity, rate, value etc.
11. Feedback: The feedback comes in the form of comments and photographs of the garment
on the dummy with its errors highlighted like puckering and pinching.
12. Costing Sheet: Contains details like cost of fabric, trims, washing, embroidery, sampling,
testing, freight, duty, insurance etc.
13. Style Track Sheet: It is used to track the status of the order. It consists of details like style
no., merchant’s name, floor on which it is allocated, name of the floor manager.
14. Initial Marker Planning Sheet: It consists of fabric width, total pieces, pieces placed,
efficiency and length.
15. Approval Form : Approvals can be for fabric, trims, slight errors which are acceptable to
Workflow of the Merchandising Department
Buyer’s enquiry / Tech-pack
Purchase Order received
Fit approval process
Pre production sample
Regular tracking and updating buyer
Sampling department is the most vital department of the organization. It is the department that
develops the samples thus enabling the Product Development. This department prepares samples
on the basis of the requirements of the buyer. The sampling department here caters to the need of
all the other units of Shahi as it was centralized.
Sampling was self sufficient as it had its own stitching. washing, trimming, spotting, and ironing
etc dedicated for the construction of samples only. The fabric and trims are sourced from the in
house warehouse depending upon the availability. The fabric which is sourced for the sampling
purpose is called yardage and is 25-30mts in length.
The process of sampling goes through a series of sampling stages each of them are explained
1. PROTO SAMPLE: It is the reflection of the first techpack received from the buyer. The
sample is sent to the buyer for the design approval. Proto sample is made in the base size. Styling
is important. The comments and second tech pack is sent back referring changes in the sample.
2. FIT SAMPLE: The comments are received regarding the shape, size and fullness. The sample
is checked for fit on body forms. It is made in exact fabric, though print maybe different,
since the drape and fit are to be checked.
3. SECOND FIT SAMPLE: It is similar to the first fit sample made with a few changes
according to comments received from the buyer. Again a third or fourth fit sample may be
required to be made. After approval of fit sample, order is confirmed along with all the
4. PRE-PRODUCTION/SEALER SAMPLE: This sample is known as the bible of production.
It is done for the base size of any one color and actual fabric and actual trims are used.
5. SIZE-SET SAMPLE: The sample is made in actual fabric and trims in all sizes and is sent to
the buyer for approval.
6. GPT SAMPLE: These samples are made for garment testing for seam-slippage, tearing
strength, button pulling etc. it is the garment pack sample.
7. TOP (TOP OF PRODUCTION) SAMPLE: It is the best sample from first of bulk
8. SALESMAN SAMPLE: It is made for the buyer to find out the opinion of the store owners
whether the style would sell in the market or not, and the demand of that product.
WORKFLOW OF THE SAMPLING DEPARTMENT
Merchandiser orders for fabric Requisition
Patterns are made as per the PO
Raw material is issued on PO
Embroidery (if any)
Alteration (if any)
Final Checking (according to PO)
The sampling department has 9 lines with different machines. For details refer (Appendix 1.1 and
The average FOB is $8-$10 .
The most complex stage is getting the approval from the buyer on fabric, shades, print and
Since the lead time is less, therefore any delay at any stage can delay the entire order.
The operators in the sampling department are very experienced and highly skilled. They
are explained the construction of any new sample by the pattern master and the supervisor.
IT plays a crucial role in the merchandising department. All information regarding the
order status are fed into the ERP. This facilitates smooth flow in the department.
ORDER ANALYSIS DEPARTMENT
The Order Analysis Department (OAD) acts as the bridge between the merchandising and the
production functions of the unit. This department gives technical support to the production team.
They do a complete analysis of the style from all possible perspectives. A research or analysis
plays an important role before manufacturing any product. The role of this department starts when
the all the fit and sealer samples for the style have been approved and the order is ready for bulk
OAD receives two complete files containing all the details and documents from the concerned
merchant. Once the files are received by the department, they are checked for the following
Purchase Order (PO) – contains order quantity, colour and size ratio, destination,
delivery date etc
Product Style Details (PSD) – contains details about the fabric (count,
construction, colour), thread, labels, accessories, buttons, fusing etc.
Final mini marker (for interlinings as well if applicable)
Tech Pack (updated) – containing garment measurements with all the fit
comments by the buyer.
Sealed sample (buyer approved)
Embroidery design – with the placement and type of thread to be used
Swatches of fabric, fusing, threads etc
Operational breakdown of the style
Thread consumption report
Washing, ironing and packing instructions
The department checks if all the documents are present in the files and are complete. Once this is
established, one file is sent to the Industrial Engineering Department and the other is kept in OAD
and worked upon.
The following functions are carried out by the Order Analysis Department:
All the base patterns and the sealer sample are checked and the measurements are matched
with the specifications given by the buyer. It is also checked whether all the latest
comments related to the fit of the garment have been incorporated and the necessary
alterations are made to the patterns with the involvement of the merchant.
Size set patterns are developed according to the final corrected patterns. Size set samples
(two per size) are checked by OAD for measurements and construction.
OAD analyzes the fabric and what it demands while being used in manufacturing. The
impact of dyeing, processing and finishing on the fabric is considered, its shrinkage along
warp and weft is determined. Also it is determined if any special test should be done on the
Complete analysis of the trims is carried out. Their compatibility with each other and more
importantly with the fabric is checked through tests.
A thorough study of seams and stitches of the sample is done. This helps in maintaining the
quality of the garment and in reduction of unwanted operations.
OAD determines the spreading and cutting details like mode of spreading, grain on which
patterns are to be cut etc
All the stitching details like the different stitches and seams to be used, SPI to be used are
Based on the size set development, all the critical quality points and instructions to the
operator and checkers are determined.
Style Analysis Report
OAD prepares a report called the Style Analysis Report based on the studies carried out by them.
This is a 3-4 page report containing all the details which would be required by the subsequent
departments in a concise form so that they can be retrieved quickly and easily by anyone. This
report consists of details about the fabric, trims, spreading and cutting instructions, construction
details such as stitches and seams along with all seam diagrams, washing, ironing and packing
instructions and critical instructions to the sewing operators and quality checkers.
(Sample report attached in the appendix (Report 1)
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN DEPARTMENT
This department is centralized for all the NCR units of Shahi. Based on the nature of work, this
department is divided into four sections:
Embroidery section: It makes the punch cards according to the design of embroidery.
This punch card is fed into a floppy which is inserted into the embroidery machine for it to
understand the design.
In the remaining three sections, the software being used is OPTITEX
Pattern making section: Making the patterns using specification sheets and then checking
their fit on virtual dummies.
Grading section: Generally medium size patterns are developed and they are graded up to
the required number of sizes up and down.
Marker making section: Markers are made keeping in mind the following factors:
Mode of spreading
Width of the fabric available
Matching if required
Shrinkage along warp and weft
Size ratio required
The marker made is first taken out on the printer (miniature version markers). The
full size markers are printed through on the plotter. The computer aided design
department is also responsible for making mini for merchandiser for estimating the
The usual marker efficiency achieved is 75%-85%
Number of computer systems = 12
One digitizing screen for transferring manually made patterns into the system
One digital printing machine for printing prints on fabric for sampling purposes
20 pattern masters
10 marker makers
6 staff members
WORK PROCESS FLOW OF CAD
Receive spec sheets from merchant
Output to graphic plotter
Patterns sent to merchant
Cut ratio planning
Marker planning according to the cut ratio plan
Output marker to plotter
Send to cutting dept. for cutting
Output mini marker to printer
Send to merchandiser for costing
PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL DEPARTMENT
This department has two parts: production planning and production control.
The production planning department at Shahi Exports, Faridabad is a centralized planning
department for all the units in the NCR. So, primarily the planning of the following six units takes
The number of lines and number of machines per line in each of the six units are as follows:
Number of lines
Faridabad 2 (LFD)
LSD& HFD (all H&M and
Target orders executed here
The planning is done for all the lines of all the above units. While planning, they consider a
planned efficiency slab for the purpose of estimating output. This efficiency slab is based on the
order quantity and is as follows:
Style wise order quantity Efficiency to be considered:
Style wise order quantity
Efficiency to be considered
More than 50000
Based on this, they book the capacity for fulfilling the upcoming orders on time. The roles and
responsibilities of the production planning people include:
Analyzing the available capacity and communicating to the merchandiser whether it will
be possible to complete a particular order on the delivery date quoted by the buyer.
To ensure that the lines are continuously fed and in case of sliding of orders, the orders
must be reshuffled so that the lines are never idle. In short, they are responsible for
optimum utilization of the available capacity.
For the purpose of production control, there are five teams in this department segregated buyer
wise. These people are responsible for the execution of order in the unit. The roles and
responsibilities of production control people are:
To supervise smooth execution of the order in the unit.
Organizing a pre-production meeting prior to production to discuss critical issues.
Complete fabric follow up with merchant and the fabric store.
Complete accessory follow up with merchant and sub store.
Supervising the entire production process to ensure timely execution of the order.
WORKING OF PPC-
A style sheet is received which has a style no., pictures, order quantity, and ex factory.
This is received by the product development department.
Next, unit is allocated i.e. it is determined in which factory unit, the particular style is
going to be made on basis of the order quantity. Also, the ex factory dates are decided.
A final chart is prepared and the PD team then divides the order quantity to the production
A style number is decided upon. This number is used by the merchant to communicate
Production team specifies the item number and then the production structure is developed.
Final sample received from the buyer and PDS is updated.
Next, production team and the merchandiser prepares details about the item. i.e. trims,
Through movex, any item can be checked by the other department but cannot be altered.
Industrial engineering specifies the costing through the run through time. Thus the total
cost is achieved.
After the cost sheet is signed, ordering is done.
The PCD (Planned Cut Date) is decided and 40% of all the materials should be enclosed by this
date. If the order quantity is less than 5000 pcs, the 100% of the materials should be enclosed.
7- 10 days before the planned cut date, 2 samples and 2 files are received sealed from the buyer.
Production File (It has details about the marker, tech pack, color of thread, trims, hanger,
specification sheets etc.) is given to the OAD (Order analysis department). The OAD checks the
patterns and other techniques. If it is approved, the garment is sealed and sent to the I.E.D.
DOCUMENTS MAINTAINED Daily production reports
Internal Movex reports
Conversion costs for units
Planned vs. HO reports
Production Variance Reports (PVR)
Proper feeding in the lines must be done
Follow up of the processes is very important
Regular flow of materials in a line must be maintained
No line must stay idle
Urgent orders can be given priority over others
All the raw material must arrive on time to meet the delivery dates
FABRIC SOURCING DEPARTMENT
Sourcing of the fabric is the responsibility of this department. They source fabric for sampling as
well, except for Target and Walmart which have a separate sampling sourcing division. Unlike in
other industries, this department is segregated according to the areas from which the fabric is
purchased rather than being segregated buyer wise.
CENTRAL SOURCING DIVISION: It is responsible for sourcing of greige fabric like
cambric, voile, poplin etc.
PROCESSING DIVISION: It is responsible for getting the greige fabric processed. It
works in coordination with the central sourcing division.
SALEM DIVISION: It is responsible for sourcing of yarn dyed fabrics. The checking of
yarn dyed fabrics is done at Salem only by an office of Shahi set up there before it is
IMPORTS AND MILL MADE DIVISION: It is responsible for sourcing of imported
and mill made fabric (from Surat). Only finished fabric is imported. 90% of the fabric
imported is from China and 5% each from Korea and Pakistan. About 20-25% of the total
fabric is imported and for 60-70% of outhouse production, imported fabric is used.
Outhouse production facilities are available at Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Fabrics that are
Linen and its blends
Silk and its blends
Bottom weight fabrics
Fine quality polyester etc.
Shahi has its own fabric dyeing and processing unit in Ghaziabad by the name of Sarla Fabric
Limited (earlier known by the name of Palm Prints). It is a vertically integrated unit with facilities
of weaving, dyeing, printing and finishing.
Approximately 40000 meter fabric is procured from here. However there are certain constraints:
Limitation on the colors and prints that Sarla Fabrics can do.
Fabrics like georgette etc. cannot be processed here as they do not have jet dyeing
Sometimes, greige fabric is purchased and then it is processed at Sarla Fabrics.
Shahi is renowned for making all shipments on time. One of the significant reasons for this is that
it has its own fabric unit where it can prioritize its work according to the need. Most of the
exporters face this problem of receiving the fabric late and hence facing delayed shipments.
Automatic and power looms
Mill made fabric
The main markets for fabric supply for Shahi are Delhi, Panipat, Amritsar, Salem, Mumbai.
Some of the fabric suppliers of Shahi ( for both sampling & Production) are:
Muthu Corp, Erode
Picanova fabrics pvt ltd, Mumbai
New Diamond Woollen mills, Amritsar
Mafatlal Industries Ltd, Nadia
Ramkumar Mills Pvt Ltd, Bangalore
Netflex India Pvt Ltd, Mumbai
Priyanka Fabrics, Salem
Bhuvana Fabrics, Erode
Vincord Textiles, Delhi
Vijai Fabric Connection, Erode
L.K Woollen & Silk Mills, Amritsar
A.P Khanna & Sons Pvt Ltd, New Delhi
Himgiri Textiles, Faridabad
Rajindra Handloom Pvt Ltd, Panipat
Shiv Shakti Furnishing Pvt Ltd
KCS Fabrics Pvt Ltd (handloom, jacquard upholstery & curtains)
Parkash textile Mills, New Delhi
Charu Enterprises, New Delhi
R.G Jindal & sons pvt Ltd.
The thread suppliers are:
Shahi has an in-house testing lab for measuring GSM, color fastness, rubbing fastness,
Dimensional Stability, stretchability and testing others properties of fabrics
For labdips, strikeoffs and other approvals, fabrics are sent to testing laboratories like:
ITS-International Testing service
PROCESS FLOW FOR ORDERING OF FABRIC
- Buyer specifies fabric quality and specifications
- Requirements of designers
Approval of quality
(count, construction, look, hand feel) through lab dips, strike offs and desk looms
Before placing an order, the sourcing department analyses all the vendors and selects the best one.
All the fabric purchases need an approval from the Managing Director before placing of the
Take quotation and delivery from all vendors
Check past records for quality of
vendors in case of similar prices
Price negotiations with
Approval from MD
Based on the lead times for procurement of fabrics, it is decided whether it is feasible to complete
the order on time or not.
Merchant places order to fabric sourcing
Production cut date (PCD) asked
According to PCD (on PCD, 40% fabric should be in house) and lead times, feasibility is decided
Greige fabric: If it is of regular quality like 60’s cambric or voile, it can directly be picked
from the market otherwise the average lead time in India is 40-45 days.
Processing of fabric: It takes around 10-20 days. So after purchase of greige fabric and its
processing, fabric is in house after about 50 days.
Yarn dyed fabrics: Yarn dyed fabrics have a lead time of about 30-40 days.
Mill made fabrics: Lead times are from 35-60 days.
Imported fabrics: If greige fabric is available then it takes 10-15 days (for processing) + 20
days (for clearances shipping etc.) and if greige fabric is unavailable, it takes 30-35 days +
PURCHASE & LOGISTICS DEPARTMENT
The Purchase & Logistics Department is responsible for the sourcing of all the accessories
required by the company. This ranges from trims that go into the making of a garment to items
required for the general functioning of the unit.
Purchase: responsible for sourcing of the following accessories from domestic markets:
Other daily requirement items
Logistics: responsible for the sourcing of the following:
Buttons (both domestic and imported)
Sequins, beads etc from local markets
All imported trims (hangers, labels, zippers etc)
Requirements sent by merchandiser
Requisition sent by the system
Items counter sourced, options submitted with prices
Items are approved by the merchandiser or by the buyer
Once the order is confirmed, options are chosen
Quality, price and lead time play an important role in sourcing
All the requirements related to production department are taken into consideration. These
requirements are forwarded to the Purchase & Logistics department through MOVEX.
With the help of MOVEX it comes to know the requirements of the production department
and the order is placed accordingly.
The codes are generated against each order in MOVEX and according to these codes
requirements are generated.
Purchase & Logistics department checks the quantity of accessories in its previous record
to see if there is any balance. It then orders the remaining quantity.
The items are received by the Accessories Store.
The discounts received on the purchase are
NON FABRIC STORE
Accessory Store of Shahi is centralized, for all fabrication units.
They have their main accessory store at the Faridabad Unit, from where accessories are
issued to all other units (substores).
Purchasing of Accessories is also centralized.
The accessory store is sometimes referred as Non-Fabric Store because it does not only
store accessories, but also various requirements like stationary, machines, spare parts,
grains, sugar, etc.
Basic procedure for receipt of goods at the accessories store is as follows:
Marketing prepares BOM (Bill of Materials) when order is finalized
The entries are fed in Movex
These entries are reflected in purchase
Sourcing is done on the basis of costing given by marketing
According to the delivery date material is sought (Average lead time is 45
day before PCD i.e. planned cut date)
Accessories are received at central accessory store.
Likewise, when need of other items arises, it is communicated to the purchase department which
places the order and the goods are then received at the non fabric store.
The central accessories store (non fabric store) has direct contact only with the sampling
department otherwise individual departments contact the sub-stores only and are not allowed any
direct contact with the central store.
Any of the accessories which fails to pass the quality checking is returned to the supplier. Also in
case excess trims are accessories are left over after their requirement is fulfilled, they are disposed
to suppliers or are sold at discounted prices.
Supplier invoice received with
the goods (bill +PO)
Random checking (visual) at gate by
physical receiver and security
Checking of trims by quality checkers (Checked
according to specification. Min 5% checked, 10%,
System entry done in movex
Observations of quality checking
maintained in material receipt cum
Accessories stored in particular bin
(location so that they are easy to track)
PROCESS FLOW OF AT THE NON FABRIC STORE
Requirement of material arises
Material issued to substore
TESTING LABORATORY DEPARTMENT
Shahi has an in house testing laboratory where the following equipments are available for the
testing to be carried out:
Paramount Digi strength
Purpose: Finding the tensile strength of fabric. Also it is used for testing seam strength and
Suitable for: Wovens only (Minimum sample size = 6” X 4”)
Capacity: 250 kg
UBIQUE Bursting strength tester
Purpose: Finding the tensile strength of fabric
Suitable for: Knits only
Capacity: 250 kg
FB push-pull scale
Purpose: It is a pull strength tester for determining the pulling strength of trims attached to
Suitable for: Trims like buttons, hooks, loops, snaps etc. Different types of grippers are
available for different purposes.
For example: The buttons must be able to withstand the recommended strength of pull for
about 10 seconds which is 15 pounds for garments meant for adults and 17 pounds for kids
Paramount tearing strength tester (as per ASTM D1424)
Purpose: It is used for determining the strength a fabric can withstand before tearing after
an initial cut has been introduced
Purpose: It is used for determining the rubbing fastness of fabric.
Process: Bleached white fabric is mounted on the machine which is rubbed against the
darkest area of fabric for about ten cycles and the staining on the white fabric is measure
with the help of grayscale.
Purpose: It is used to measure small amount of weights with precision for eg: yarn count,
gsm etc. It has a sensitivity of 0.0001g.
GSM sample cutter – Paramount
Purpose: It is used to cut a fabric sample with a fixed diameter i.e. 11.56 cm which is used
for measuring the gsm of the fabric. The sample cut (represents 0.01 metre square) is
weighed on the digital balance and the reading observed is multiplied by 100 to get the
gsm of the fabric.
Purpose: It is for finding the fibre content of the fabric. Different fibers have a particular
structure by which they can be identified.
PHAN pH meter
Purpose: It is used to find the pH of the fabric. Acceptable range of pH is 5-8. However
the acceptable range varies from buyer to buyer.
Process: 250 ml of water is boiled and 10 g sample is put in it. Boiling is further continued
for 10 minutes. The water is cooled to room temperature and sample is removed. pH meter
is dipped in this water and pH button is pressed. It then displays the pH. Wet processing is
redone in case pH is not within the prescribed range.
Purpose: It is for heating purposes.
IFB front loading washing machine
Purpose: It is for determining the response to washing for garments or fabrics. It helps in
testing the dimensional stability (shrinkage, extension).
Process: Washing cycles are introduced for garments for 45 minutes as per wash care
instructions and after that the sample is viewed for physical changes of color, size and
appearance. Multifiber cloth is attached to determine color fastness.
Purpose: It is used for washcare development. It is a stronger machine and is five times
more effective as compared to the IFB washing machine which is milder.
Purpose: It is used for testing the light fastness property of the fabric/garment.
Hot air oven
Purpose: It is used for drying or calculating moisture regain etc
Lexus steam line steam iron
Purpose: It is used for pressing the fabrics swatches when calculating shrinkage.
A TRF form is to be filled and the sample is to be sent for testing to the lab. Fiber content,
GSM, Color fastness etc can be teated in-house only.
FABRIC STORE AND INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
Fabric store at Shahi, Faridabad is a centralized store for all units in the NCR.
When the fabric is sourced and brought to the company, they are stored in the factory’s
fabric storage area and it is the responsibility of fabric stores department.
From here, the fabric is taken for inspection and then stored in specific locations from
where it is issued for cutting.
The fabric is stored lot-wise.
Rolls of fabric that are of similar shade are kept together.
After the fabric sourcing department places order for fabric, the production fabric is
received by the fabric stores.
When the goods come in, supplier invoice is received. It has the following details: 1. PO number
2. Number of rolls, color, length, width
3. Dispatch quantity
The goods are then offloaded and stored in receiving location.
The fabrics are then sent for inspection after which they are stored in separate racks
according to whether the fabric is accepted or rejected.
The rejected fabric is returned back to the supplier.
The accepted fabric is also stored in specific locations.
They are allotted a bin number and are stored accordingly so that they can be easily
located whenever required.
Also a bin card is maintained which has details of the fabric received, where it has been
issued, how much is issued and how much is left with the store.
After receiving, the fabric inspection is carried out. The fabric is checked 100% barring the
following situations in case of which it is checked only 10%:
1. If it is from some buyer nominated vendor.
2. If it is imported.
3. If it is from SFL. In this case, only 10% of fabric is checked because the fabric is
checked at Sarla Fabrics before it is dispatched.
DOCUMENTATION DONE DURING RECEIVING
ICR – Incoming Receiving
GRN – Goods Reeceiving Number
Bin no. – Place of storage like racks
Bin Card – It tells us about the detail of the fabric received, to whom which has been
issued, how much is issued and how much is left with the store.
Once the fabric is received, the quality department inspect the fabric for defects.
The fabric is checked 100% barring the following situations in case of which it is checked only
1. If it is from some buyer nominated vendor.
2. If it is imported.
3. If it comes from SFL.
(The fabric procured from SFL is checked 100% before it is dispatched.
On reaching Shahi, only 10% of it is checked.)
Fabric Inspection is very crucial.
Proper Lot separation must be done.
Center to selvedge is a major constraint for cutting.
The operators who do shade sorting undergo a hue eye-test.
Fabric in-house in store
Uploaded in system by floor
WORKFLOW OF THE
Goods Received Note provided by
Physical and technical counter
check by goods received note
Test by lab
Report to DMM/Fabric
Report to fabric store
10% random audit
of each lot
of each lots
Report to fabric store
Report to DMM
Uploaded in system
Uploaded in system
Ready to cut
Return fabric to party
For the purpose of inspection of fabric, four point system is followed which allots different points
for different lengths of defects. The defects are marked by different stickers as shown in the
0 to 3”
3 to 6”
6 to 9”
9” to above (Full Width)
Total points per 100 square yard are calculated. Different types of fabrics have different passing
points. They are as follows:
Grey fabric – 20 points/100 m
Powerloom fabric – 44 points/100 m
Imported/millmade fabric – 25 points/100 m
The inspection is carried out manually as well as by machines. They have the following machines
12 tables to check the fabric manually with the provision of 4 tube-lights horizontal to the
2 automatic machines (RAMSONS) which had a provision of light at the base of surface
and on the top.
4 staff member
COMMON FABRIC DEFECTS WHICH OCCURRED IN THE FABRICS:
Length wise color variation
o Double pick
o Double end
o Broken end
o Missing end
o Thin place
o Thick place
Fabric Audit Procedure
Receive the fabric from fabric store.
Compare the fabric with original/buyer approved swatch for design, shade etc.
Audit 10% Fabric in case of imported/millmade fabrics and 100% otherwise.
4 points system is followed for marking of defects, which is as follows:
Colored stickers are used for defects of different points:
Mention the face & back of audited fabric with stickers on one swatch which is to be
attached to be given to cutting.
Prepare the shade band of printed & solid fabric.
Swatches of shade wise lots of every fabric that is being audited is shown to concerned
If both fabric audit & lab audit reports are ok fabric will be issued to cutting.
50 X 50 cm. Swatches are received by Q.A.D. through fabric store.
Marking is done by fabric store person with the help of templates.
After this marking, 10% to 15% swatches are cross checked for correct marking.
These swatches are sent for over locking & after that to washing dept.
On receiving swatches (which had been cross-checked for correct marking) is done with
the help of shrinkage scale.
After this, ironing shrinkage is also considered for the above mentioned swatches.
Acceptable shrinkage value are from 0/0 to –3/-3% (warp/weft)
No positive shrinkage value is acceptable in both warp/weft.
Swatches, which do not have shrinkage value between 0/0 to –3/-3 is sent for re-washing.
Re-washed swatches are again marked & rest of procedure as mentioned above is
Finally those swatches which do not have shrinkage between 0/0 to –3/-3 even after rewashing are rejected & reports carrying these roll numbers (rejected swatches) are
forwarded to concerned authorities.
FABRIC QUALITY CONTROL INSPECTION REPORT
It is the inspection report of the fabric when it is received in Shahi.
It consists of supplier name, fabric code, meterage received, meterage inspected,
construction etc. it has the following details:
1) Bale no.
2) Meterage in stickers.
3) Actual meterage
4) Actual width (min, max)
7) Penalty points in Weaving faults
8) Penalty points in dyeing and printing faults
9) Penalty points in weft bars/ shade defects
10) Penalty points in stubs/stains/holes.
With this information it is decided whether the fabric it to be accepted or rejected, or if some
compensation is to be taken.
FABRIC AUDIT SOP
Received fabric from store with p.o no and grn no.
Cut 1 meter fabric from each lot/color for lab testing.
Cut 6” pieces across the width and fabric shading checked side to side and end to end.
Fabric checked as per 4 point system basis:
0” to 3” ------------------- 1 point – green sticker
3” to 6” ------------------- 2 point – yellow sticker
6” to 9” ------------------- 3 point – blue sticker
9” to above ---------- 4 point – arrow sticker any hole
-------------- 4 point – arrow sticker
Pass point per 100 meter:For greige fabric --------------------------- 20 point
For power loom fabric ----------------- 44 point
For mill made fabric --------------------- 25 point
Make the audit report and issue to cutting if audit and lab report are pass
Keep fabric swatches for reference.
Lot no. 100 shows rejection and red sticker put on reject fabric.
White sticker put on pass fabric and item no, roll qty,
Width, lot/shade no, roll no are marked on each sticker.
The cutting department at SHAHI , Faridabad is a centralized cutting department for
all the units in the NCR.
Automating spreading and cutting facilities are available here.
After the confirmation of the order, merchant send two reference files containing all
details of the order to the order analysis department.
The OAD department, after studying the styles and making the style analysis report,
hands over one file to IED and other to cutting for production.
The Cutting floor of SHAHI Exports is one of the largest in India.
The Cutting floor is in the lower basement and includes the following departments:
• The Fabric Store
• Central Accessory Store
• The Spreading & Cutting Area
• The Fusing Area
• The Bundling and Ticketing Area
• The Computer Embroidery Department
• Thread Cutting Area (for Embroidery)
• Total Area: 16878sq ft.
WORKFLOW OF THE CUTTING DEPARTMENT:
File, sample received from OAD
Fabric receiving from stores
Recording of fabric as per
Cut order issue
Receiving of marker
Embroidery (if required)
Fusing (if required)
Re-cutting (if required)
Dispatch to stitching unit
Technical Specifications (Appendix 1.3)
Machine Details (Appendix 1.4)
Workforce Details (Appendix 1.5)
Infrastructure Details (Appendix 1.6)
The markers for the purpose of cutting are made by the CAD department. This marker is made
keeping in view the costing average quoted by the merchant to the buyer. In case patterns have
been made manually, the patterns are digitized to transfer them to the system and then a marker is
In case of CAM cutting, marker is sent to the cutting floor in floppy and in case of manual cutting,
actual size marker is obtained through the plotter available. The specifications of the plotter
Wind Jet Plotter
Windjet/ Plo/ 180
The spreading of the fabric was being done manually as well as using an automatic
Brown paper was laid and taped before spreading for all fabrics in both types of spreading.
This was to protect the fabric from rough spots on the table surface. It also enabled the
spread to be moved as required (due to low friction) and also it prevented the lower plies
from distortion by straight knife while cutting.
Only one operator could carry out the spreading using the automatic spreader whereas
three operators were involved in manual spreading.
In manual spreading, one operator pulled the fabric from roll and the two others took this
fabric to the required length (of spread). On reaching the required length, they aligned the
edges and placed a weight on it. Both these operators return back and while balancing the
fabric and the third operator balance the fabric near the roll and in the end he cuts the
fabric with scissors or end cutter.
In automatic spreading, the spreader fixed the ply of fabric with the help of movable
catcher. Laying then started with the spreader smoothening the layer with the help of a
stick as he traveled on the traveler attached to the machine. The end cutter cut the fabric
and fixed end catcher caught the ends of the ply at the other end
During the spreading process, a layer chart was maintained which kept a track of meterage
consumed and end bits left. The spreading process is followed by placement of the marker
on the top ply.
To secure the marker on the lay, it was torn at different places and a tape was put there.
ERUDITION: Quality considerations for spreading
There were check points for inspection of spreading quality for the QCs where they check
spreading defects such as leaning, uneven tension, and misalignment of plies, bowing,
skewness, & fabric defects.
Fabric where stripe or check matching has to be done is done along the lines of the thread
which are tied exactly perpendicular to the table length.
For napped fabrics like corduroy, twill weave, denim, velvet, some prints & plaid, the
spreaders were instructed to take extra care while spreading and were spread manually.
In case of fabric defects, the fabrics were sent marked with stickers in colors contrasting to
the fabric color. If the defect was minor it was ignored. However in case of major defect
they remove the flaw.
In case shade variation within the roll, part with the varied shade was removed.
In case of narrow width fabrics, if the defect was within the roll, they aligned the selvedges
of one side while the other end across the width was left as it was. For too many
inconsistencies, the QC in charge was informed & according to the severity of the
problem, CAD marker of the shorter width was ordered.
Before the starting of the cutting process the marker setting was done.
The cutting of fabric was done manually as well as by machine (Computer Aided
Manual cutting was done with a straight knife for all fabrics. For smaller parts like collars,
pockets, collar bands etc. blocks were cut which were then recut using a band knife. Two
cutters were involved in cutting a lay.
There was helper alongside who collected the waste bits of fabric in a bin in order to
prevent the floor from getting dirty and to create enough free movable space for the cutting
The cut parts were shifted & tied by a helper. The tied parts then collected in a polybag ,
and then they were sent for ticketing. These were later dispatched to the production floor
upstairs through a lift specially meant for carrying cut parts.
Drill machine is also used if marking like pocket marking on front is required.
In case of CAM cutting, since there is no marker on the cut parts, marking of parts prior to
cutting becomes essential to have a reference after cutting. Each part on the CAD marker
was torn off neatly from the centre to accommodate pasting of small stickers which had
info such as:
No. Of plies
No. Of parts
2 air channels on the bottom side of the table surface along on the bottom side of the table
surface along with 112 air nozzles per square meter.
Five blow motors per table, each supplying air to a particular zone of the table
ERUDITION: Quality considerations for cutting
The QC compared the hard pattern to marker paper to ensure the accuracy of the marker. The
tolerance for this was nil.
The cut parts from top ply & the bottom ply were matched in order to see whether they had
been cut properly. The bottom ply sometimes got distorted due to constrained movement of
the knife. In such cases the plies were later cut with hand shears.
There was also a check for ragged or uneven cutting. The QC instructed the cutter to correct it
there & then.
The notch location was supposed to be checked by placing patterns over top ply. The tolerance
for this was +/- 1/8 of inch.
Lot Size or Quality Being Audited
Less than 151
151 – 280
281 – 500
501 – 1200
1201 – 3200
3201 – 10000
10001 – 35000
35001 – 150000
150001 – 500000
500001 and Above
Requisition Slip: This was issued by the cutting Dept to the fabric stores specifying the
quantity of fabric they required for the Dept. It specified info such as:
Quantity in pieces
Cutting Order: This document contained information about cutting order for a particular
style. It has information about item number, country, style number, delivery date, size,
color, and order quantity and fabric width.
CUTTING AUDIT PROCEDURE
Auditing procedure in cutting starts from the stage when the sample is given by production for
Following are the documents required for the sample audit.
Lab test report of fabric
Fabric audit report
Patterns are checked as per the spec sheet and style analysis. Fabric audit report & lab test report
are analysed to foresee the problems that can come in any of the garment manufacturing process.
Cutting is checked as per the patterns. Pattern of all the sizes is checked to counter any errors in
When the layer is being layed fabric is inspected for any possible fabric defect that can
affect the appearance of the garment. Lab test report & fabric audit report is checked.
Parts of fabric with major defects are removed
While spreading check that there are no creases.
Check that layer length is 2 cms more than marker length
Check that fabric cuttable width is ½” more than marker width and lay height is as requires
layer height, width of layer & the marker width.
Marker is checked for missing part, direction of part, marker width as per the fabric width
& any other possible discrepancy.
Cutting quality is checked for the following defects.
o Check plies
o Check matching
o Rugged edges
o Weaving defects
First step in final auditing is to verify the bundle & the layer chart details
Layer numbering is cross-checked & po, style is confirmed.
Cutting quality audit is done with the help of patterns, specs & original sample.
Checking of fabric flaws.
SYSTEMS FOLLOWED IN CUTTING
Marker checking before cutting.
Part changing of fabric flaw pieces during numbering.
Checking of cutting by production after numbering for bundling.
Cross- checking of weight variation by auditors.
Putting of main sticker on the layer before cutting.
Send product file to units along with first cutting.
Sending of fabric audit & lab test report to unit.
Sending of shade band to units.
BUNDLING AND TICKETING
Ticketing is done with the help of ticketing guns.
Tickets carry information regarding the lot no, layer no, ply no etc.
Ticketing is done manually.
Every bundle has a tag which contains the entire description of the garment.
In case of fabric when the ticket can not be stuck to the parts, extra space is left in the
pattern for ticketing purposes.
In case of cut parts going for embroidery or re-cutting, which require excessive
handling, ticketing is done in with ink in empty area of the block.
The color of the sticker is according to the fabric shrinkage %, which is as follows:
Shrinkage Percentage Sticker Color
After ticketing is complete, cut parts go through an audit and finally are tied into
bundles of 20 pieces each
No. of Machines : 2
Make : Fiblon, Hashima
Voltage: 449 V, 3P 50/60 Hz
E/Power: 15 KwH
Pressure: 1-5 kg/cm³
NX-100 and FX-100 are available in different colors – black, charcoal, white and off white.
FLOW PROCESS FOR FUSING
Style Information as Production File
Mock Preparation of Fusing Sample
Mock Washing of Fusing Sample
Make Internal Test Report
Check Machine Parameters
Inform QA Executive
Parts Replacement for Rejects
Audit Fused Parts
100% Checking of Lot Again
Inform All Concerned
Issue to Dispatch
COMPUTERIZED EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENT
The computer embroidery department is centralized. Shahi has largest embroidery facility in
The manual embroidery is mainly outsourced.
The merchandiser takes the art work from the buyer
Pieces to be embroidered are first cut and ticketed and then they come for embroidery.
The cut pieces bear the lot number, size and serial number of that style so that after
embroidery it can be rearranged to avoid shade variation problems in the garment.
In case the panel to be embroidered is too small to fit into the frame, strips of fabric are
stitched around it to make it fit into the frame. This is done before the pieces are sent to
The design is punched into a floppy by the CAD department which is the loaded on the
computerized embroidery machine. This is done using the WINGS software.
Stitching as well as embroidery threads are used which come from reputed
manufacturers like Vardhman and Coats.
For different types of patterns and different sizes of cut pieces, different sizes of
frames are used
Rough fabric is attached with the main fabric and some buffer is taken to save fabric
and to avoid puckering due to looseness.
COSTINGIt is done on the basis of the number of stitches. (approx 1Re per 1000 stitches)
For small logos the costing is done frame wise.
Depending on the style the stitches are done.
WORKFLOW OF THE EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENT:
Received embroidery swatch/ thread shade card & placement
Receiving trims and cutting
Sample making and OAD approval
Machine room planning of machines
Bulk cutting receiving
Parts sewing and patch cutting (if required)
Machine room loading
No. of m/c No. of heads
Multi head machine specifications
Number of needles per head = 9 (Therefore it can process 9 colors)
Distance b/w heads: 30 cm
Speed of machine = 750 rpm (average), 900 rpm (maximum)
Capacity: 5200 million stitches/ month
Software used: WINGS
Some of the features of the machinery are listed below:
Top thread sensors
Split pressure foot for easy threading
Individual thread clamping system to hold thread in place to prevent pull outs
Automatic thread/needle break detector
Under head light
Automatic colour change
Automatic thread trimmer
Built – in 3.5” disk drive
Automatic speed control ensure optimum stitch quantity
Frames are used for holding the garment from all sides firmly so as to prevent the fabric
from going down with the needle or accumulating into folds. They are of different sizes
and shapes. They may be:
Maximum Dimensions of design frame: 59cm x 25cm
Minimum dimensions of design frame: 7cm x 7cm
Bobbin used: IIGM, a franchisee of Barudan
Thread: Polyester trilobal, sometimes rayon, spun polyester (Vardhman, Madura Coats)
Backing: This is a non-woven layer to support the fabric so that it is able to bear the stress of
Water soluble: It dissolves while ironing and steaming
Paper foam: It dissolves in a single wash.
Needles used: DBK X 5
Manufacturer: Groz Beckert, Bissel, Schmitz
Size: 8, 9 - for voile, cotton and poplin fabric
Size: 11- for corduroy fabric
Size: 14, 16- for denims
Sequence sizes: 3mm, 4mm, 5mm, 7mm, 9mm. Most production feasible are 4mm and 5mm.
One advantage of the machine is its individual head controlling. If embroidery has left at some
place then the embroidery program at a particular head can be rewound and executed until it
reaches the state of other head. Then embroidery is recommended for all the heads together at the
end of the embroidery the panels are passed through needle detector, as there is a high risk of
needle breakage in embroidery machines.
One operator and framer each for one machine
1 supervisor for every 6 machines
EMBROIDERY AUDIT PROCEDURE
Following cross checks are performed by the quality auditor on the machines in computerized
-Cross-checking of blunt needle on the framing table
-Presence of embroidery design on the framing table.
-Cross-checking of the framing needle distance on the framing table.
-Cross-checking of the starting point of embroidery on machine for the conformance of the
-Visual inspection of pieces on the machine for the detection & rectification of alteration thread
-Checking of the final pieces.
At this stage auditor inspects the units not only for all the defects, which were audited in online
audit, but also cross checks.
-Embroidery thread shades with approved shade card.
-Audit 10% of production pieces with reference to the approved swatch for the design &
-Audit of the pass pieces of the checkers for analyzing percentage of defects passed by the
-Auditing of the numbering in the layer for any discrepancy. Fortnightly, audit of thread cutting in
embroidery is checked. At this stage auditor checks for numbering on the embroidery panels also.
Lot Size or Quality Being Audited
Less than 151
151 – 280
281 – 500
501 – 1200
1201 – 3200
3201 – 10000
10001 – 35000
35001 – 150000
150001 – 500000
500001 and Above
Production charts that detail about time, style and the stitches.
Broken needle Report
INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Industrial engineering department is considered the backbone of any garment factory. It plays
a vital role in production of the garment. It involves all other production departments and is
responsible for monitoring performance of the same. It gives technical solutions to the
problems faced during the garment production. It is responsible for improving productivity
and efficiency of different departments
The Industrial Engineering Department, has been divided into two levels according to the functions
performed. First is the PDS department which deals with product development stage. The other one is
Floor I.E. which is concerned with production stage of the garment.
Functions of the PDS department are:
Calculating SAM from tech-pack
Calculating SAM from the sample
Preparing an operation bulletin by using oracle
PDS updating in ERP software
Making layout according to the OB
Suggesting changes to make the production of the garment easier
i.e. performing R&D
Deciding machines and manpower
Suggesting attachments and folders
Making Pitch diagrams
Functions of the Floor I.E. department are:
Arrangement of folders and attachments
Arrangement of machine and manpower a/c to the style i.e. line setting and line balancing
Calculating manpower, efficiency
Setting production targets by helping the PPC Department
Carrying out regular time studies to check whether the planned SAM is being achieved or
Undertaking Motion studies & method
Monitoring production & providing solutions
Checking the hourly production
The formulae used in calculation are:
Productivity (per operator)
Output / No. of operators used
(SAM * Production / No. of operators used*480)*10
• Line Balancing is very crucial to attain on time delivery.
• WIP management is very important.
• Folders and attachments must be used to increase efficiency
• SAM calculation at PDS stage is crucial as it directly affects the costing.
DEPARTMENT WORKFLOW (Fig 1.17):
Merchandiser gives samples
Sample arrives again to make O.B. & changes
Total SAM for costing purpose
Revised O.B. prepared
Requirement of the machines & attachments
is provided to maintenance department 5
days before loading
Line setting according to layout
Additional operations added
Target production is projected for next 5
days @ 12.5%, 25%, 35%, 45%, 55%
As per the time study, line balancing is done
3 days after loading the line, time study is
Method study is done simultaneously
Critical operations are sorted out
Sewing department can be termed as the heart and soul of any garment manufacturing unit. This
department is responsible for the conversion of cut panels into actual garments.
Shahi Exports, Faridabad has a floor set up comprising of 21 lines of around 40 machines
The whole floor is divided into two sub floors, namely; floor A and floor B. The
production capacity of the floors is 2,50,000 units of garment per month.
When a new style comes over; the various information like operation breakdown, sewing details,
critical operations etc is put up on the display board. A sample of the garment is also put up in
front of the sewing line for any type of reference.
Line is set as per line layout plan.
Operations are assigned to the operators according to their skill set.
Required SPI, thread tension and needle no. is set by supervisors and mechanic as per
Line in charge & supervisor give the direction to the operators about their respective jobs.
In line checkers and QC’s ensure that the quality coming out of each operation is as per the
Industrial Engineer do the study of operators and their respective operations again. If any
change is needed in the layout and working method for maintaining the quality and
production, immediate action is taken.
WORK FLOW OF THE SEWNG DEPARTMENT(Fig 1.18)
Size Set Approval
Pre Production Meeting
Lot Bundling in 20 Pieces
Production & QA Meeting
Inline Checking 100%
Final Checking 100%
Audit as per AQL 2.5
QUALITY ASSURANCE FOLLOWED ON THE STITCHING FLOOR
The bundles of 20 garment pieces each comes from the cutting department along with the
pattern, product file, product sample and fit sample.
Patterns are checked by a roaming QC ,QA or production technician
3 inline checkers (at each critical operation)
1 final checkers (checks for basic measurements, stitching faults, balancing problems100% checking)
Lots are made
Sent for auditing(2.5 AQL system followed by the auditor)
If defects found, sent back for 100% checking and alteration
MEASUREMENT AUDIT AQL 2.5
Workforce Details (Appendix 1.7)
Machine details (Appendix 1.8)
DOCUMENTATION DONE DURING STITCHING
BROKEN NEEDLE MAINTENANCE RECORD
Replacement of broken needles is done by the feeder only. If any needle gets broken during the
sewing process and the tip of needle is not found, the garment is taken away from the line for
careful metal detection and the broken needle is submitted to maintenance department where one
person is specifically employed to maintain this record.
NEEDLE DISPOSAL LOG
It is used to keep the record of the no. of needle broken by a particular operator, on a particular
machine. The signature of the operator is taken against any such entry.
The idea of returning the deformed needle to get a new one from maintenance is really helpful in
ensuring the needle is not left in any of the garments. If the broken part is not detected by the
needle detector as well, that piece is discarded.
Date Time Order
Reject ND/F ND/R Sign
Found : all needle parts are found and registered.
Rejected : all needle parts not found, product rejected.
ND/F : product checked by needle detector, all parts found and registered.
ND/R : product checked by needle detector, all parts not found, product discarded
MACHINE MAINTENANCE RECORD
Machine Maintenance card is put up on each and every machine. The machines are maintained
properly on weekly and monthly basis. An immediate corrective action is taken by maintenance
department in case of any type of breakdown. Every machine is cleaned and checked by the
operators before starting the work on machine.
On an average, each line has:
1 line charge
4 inline checkers
1 line QC
STYLE WISE SAM UTILIZED PER FLOOR
This report tells us the total SAM utilized per line, per style. It utilizes the following format.
LINE FEED FORM
The feeder of the line maintains a regular record of the no. of pieces loaded per hour. It also
includes the batch no, size and grand total per day.This gives an idea of the no. of pieces of a
particular style fed per hour in a line. If we compare it with the hourly output of the line we can
get WIP of that line per hour or per day. It also helps us in identifying bottlenecks based on the
comparison of no. of pieces as input and that as of output.
This report tells us the no. of pieces from cutting, input pieces in the line, output from the line and
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INLINE CHECK POINT REPORT
The format given to the inline quality checkers consisted of defects like stain, pencil mark, color
variation, wrong stitch, damage, bowing, weaving, puckering, wrong sized panels, improper
tension, run off, imbalance, joint out, center out, uneven stitch etc. To report any other defect
appropriate space is provided.
Operator And Helper Recruitment Procedure
Operator Sewing Test
Operator and Helper Skill Test
Marks Allotment System
Operator Sewing Test Standards
a. High Skill Operator: Should have knowledge of all the machines and should be
working @ 85% efficiency.
b. Senior Operator: Should know at least 2 machines and can perform four operations
@ 85% efficiency.
c. Operator: Should know 1 machine and can perform @ 75% efficiency.
Attach collar and neck band
Attach and top stitch sleeve
Top stitch armhole
Should know all sewing machines and each operation should be done at Kansai front placket attach
Feed of arm
Top stitch side seam
Top stitch pocket flap
Back yoke attach
Join front and back
Side seam over lock
Should know at least 2 machines and 4 operations of each @ 85% Hem left and right front
Attach label on 4 sides
Run collar/cuff stitch
Top stitch yoke and back
Top stitch shoulder
Should know at least 1 machine and all operations of that machine @ 85%
Should know 1 machine and 1 operation @ 75% efficiency
Attach loop label to body
Make pleats on sleeves
Bottom stay stitch
All parts stay stitch
Incentives are an important part of any labor based organization. It helps boost the morale of
operators and gives them a reason to work. A fair incentive scheme can work wonders for the
In the following manner incentive was calculated:
The planned and actual efficiency for each style and each line is compared and the incentive
earned per line is calculated as per below:
Up to 5%
25% of the gross saving
For Actual Eff > Planned
20% of the gross saving
30% of the gross saving
Above 15% 35% of the gross saving
Appropriate parameter is selected from the table and incentive amount is calculated using the
(Rate of Incentive) x (Actual Runtime) x (Manpower Used)
• Shahi's washing department is capable of imparting different finishes such as: hard/caustic
wash, enzyme wash, acid wash, stone wash, bleaching, and softener wash.
• The washing machines used are equipped for garment dyeing as well as normal washing. Thus
garment dyeing is also done when required. Dip-dyeing, tie-and-dye is also done here.
• An Intranet challan is issued to the washing department by the dispatch department while
sending the pieces for washing.
• The washing department issues a hand written challan upon returning the goods after washing.
• The recipes for washing and dyeing etc are developed by the testing lab during the testing of
the fabric and then handed to the washing department.
• The capacity of the washing department is 1800 kg/day.
RECIPES OF MOST COMMONLY USED WASHING TECHNIQUES:
Wetting, 20-20 mins, 40-45 C
Tumble dry, 40-45 mins, 60 –70C
Tumble dry, 60-70 C, 40-45mins
Softener, silicones, enzymes, anti-satin agents, neutralizers, lubricating agents, de-aerating agents,
water softener etc are other chemicals used in washing.
TYPES OF WASHING:
PERC or Dry Cleaning (DC) :
Every product is not subjected to PERC or DC process. Only those products which have stubborn
stains like that of oil and rust undergo this process. Mostly white or light coloured products that
are more vulnerable to staining are dry –cleaned. PERC gives them whiteness as well as shiny
This wash uses volcanic rock or pumice stones added during the washing of products to act as an
abradant. A more or less uniform and prominent fading is seen in this wash. The degree of fading
depends upon the product to stone ratio, washing time, size of stones and load of product. Rotary
type of drum is used for about 1-2 hrs. Generally, 1-2 kgs. of stones is used for 1kg of product. It
is usually carried out with enzyme wash.
Acid wash is done in a large rotating wooden cylinder filled with thermacol balls that are coated
with solution of HYPO, Zinc and Calcium. These balls rub against the fabric to give it an overall
grainy which is characteristic of denim. Size of ball depends upon the degree of required effect &
type of fabric (for e.g. for knit small size of ball is used while for denim large ones are added.) For
a mixed designer effect, different sizes of balls are used together. The process takes about 1015mins and is done at 35-40 oC. This process is also known by names like Moon Wash, Blat
Wash, and Ice Wash.
This wash is used to fade put the color randomly in from the garment which is hung over vertical
Penequins or pneumatic brushing robo balloons. Spray gun is used to spray KMnO4 to make out
the required design. KMnO4 oxidizes the dye from the applied area hence fading of color takes
Hand Sanding (Scrapping):
It is done with the help of an abrader which scrap of the surface indigo dye from the fabric. This
process is used to create the different sharp line faded effects on the denim products using a
mould. The mould made according to design is put inside he product oh an inflated penequin
(horizontal or vertical). This raises the fabric surface such that it takes the shape engraved in the
mould, which can now be precisely rubbed with aluminum oxide paper manually. During this the
fiber loss of upper surface takes place and hence the required worn out design is created.
Grinder is an innovative technique to give the denim a very prominent worn n torn out look by
carefully cutting away either the warp as the weft threads as per the need of the design.
Machinery Details (Appendix 1.9)
Capacity: 2000 kg/day
Shifts: 2 shifts /day
Types of Washes: Hard/Caustic wash, Enzyme wash, Acid wash, Stone wash, Bleaching Softener
An internal challan is issued by the dispatch department to the washing department when
garments are sent for washing. Garments after wash are returned along with a hand written
WASHING WORK FLOW
100% inspection of the washed garments takes place. Once the garments have been dried, they are
checked on the following aspects:
Measurements (to determine shrinkage)
Since some variation in the shades is inevitable due to batch processing of garments, the garments
are separated into 3-4 shade lots during the inspection process according to recurring shade. If a
garment has a drastic change in shade, or shrinkage is outside expected range, it is not accepted
and may be reprocessed if possible.
The finishing floor at Shahi has been divided into five sections: floors A, B, C and D and HFD
(Home Furnishing Department finishing). These floors were almost similar in layout.
Capacity: 1200 pcs/day/floor
Shift: 8 hours
Manpower Status (Appendix 1.10)
Details per Floor (Appendix 1.11)
Receive goods from sewing
Kaj / Button marking (manually)
Measurement check (10%)
Button hole stitching
WORKFLOW OF THE FINISHING DEPARTMENT (Fig 1.20)
Folding and putting in poly bags
Dispatching to packing section
Alteration (if any)
Button and buttonhole position in a ladies top can be same for different sizes or different for
different sizes. So, if the button and buttonhole position is different for different sizes, then it is
necessary that the lot should be sorted as per the specified sizes. At this stage the bundles are done
away with and all the garments of a particular style are made into a single lot which may or may
not be sorted size wise. There are separate sorting tables for this purpose.
After the size sorting has been done, the garment pieces are brought to the Kaj marking tables.
The kaj marking is done with a white colored pencil using a cardboard template. A template has
been stuck near the edges of the marking tables with the help of a cello tape. This template helps
in marking the button hole position. Templates may be different for different sizes.
The pieces on which kaj marking has been made are put in a plastic basket and brought in the
buttonholing section and buttonholes are made at the marked kaja position. An hourly production
record is maintained for each of these operators and to check the production and backlog.
Button Position Marking
Garment pieces are sent for button position marking after the buttonholing. There are separate
tables allocated for this purpose. The button position-marking worker picks up a garment and
aligns the two front plackets. The worker then places the shirt on the table and lifts the kaj placket
and taking kajs made as reference points, marks the position for button attaching. The position of
button is marked with the help of a white pencil.
The button position has been marked and now the button are attached. Pieces from the button
position marking tables are brought to button attaching section and separated as per the kind of
button attaching stitch to be made. These separated pieces are sent to the respective machines.
Button attaching stitch is of two types namely lockstitch and chain stitch. Each of these stitches
could be further of two types namely cross and straight button stitch. The kind of stitch to be
provided is specified by the buyer.
An hourly production check is kept for the button-attaching operators. As soon as a particular P.O.
is received for button attaching, the machines are allocated for the purpose taking into
consideration the type of stitch required.
Uncut threads affect the presentation of finished and packed garments. Therefore, it is necessary
to cut and trim the loose and uncut threads. As soon as button is attached the garments pieces are
brought to tables meant for the purpose of thread cutting.
Loose thread hampers the presentation of the final packed garments. Hence, to remove these loose
threads the garments are fed into the thread suction machine. To operate this machine one person
holds the garment in the suction area and the loose cut threads are sucked in.
Garments are sent for initial ironing after thread cutting. Seam ironing takes place.
This section plays a very crucial role in ensuring the quality of end garment. Each quality checker
is provided stickers for marking defects, thread clippers etc. Each checker is instructed to check
the garments thoroughly, mark the defects with arrow stickers and also to cut the uncut threads if
found. Every checker puts the pass piece in the plastic basket below the inspection table. It is the
responsibility of the quality checker to take the defective pieces for correction and after correction
put it in the pass pieces basket. The defects found at this stage could be broadly of the following
Checker puts his allotted number on each of the garment piece passed by him. Each checker is
monitored for performance. Every time a defective piece is found at a later stage, it is traced back
to the checker who passed it. This checker is then shown his mistake and taught the correct
method so that this is not repeated again. . All these checkers are given regular on-the-job training.
Finishing in charge or supervisors teach checkers the correct method of garment checking.
Alterations and Stain Removal
As soon as the quality checkers comes across a defect, he brings the defective piece to the
operators meant for the purpose of trouble shooting.
An hourly and daily record of the number of pieces altered is maintained. This helps in keeping a
track on the quality of garments being sent to finishing by the production floor. 20-30% is
normally the alteration and stain removal rate. In case of defects like button/buttonhole and
embroidery the pieces are taken back to the respective department.
The stain removal section has facility to remove the following type of stains: oil, yellow, black
and paint spots, stains due to color bleeding, ink, rust, tracing marks, yellow stains, and hard
In this section the overall look of the garment is seen. For the purpose of removal of stains
detected during this stage, each table is provided with a spot washing stain removal gun. Also,
each table is provided with thread clipper to cut the uncut threads. All the defective pieces are sent
for alteration and necessary corrections.
The ironing supervisors analyze the style as per the critical instructions given in the OAD folder.
Based on the ironing instructions, instructions are given to the ironing operators about the correct
way of ironing the garments of a particular style. The hanging trolleys from where the garments
were retrieved for ironing and placed after ironing are ergonomically designed, keeping in mind
the ironing operator’s movement.
Tagging and Packing
The passed pieces are brought to the tagging and packing section on the hanging wheeled trolleys.
It is the responsibility of the packing supervisors to provide the tagging operators with the
appropriate price and brand ticket or tags. As soon as a new style arrives in the tagging section,
the packing supervisor places the necessary tags in the racks provided for this purpose. The
tagging operator is instructed as to where and how the tag has to be placed. The most important
thing to be kept in mind while placing the tag is to match the size mentioned on the main label and
the size on tag or ticket.
A quality audit is done after the garment is finished. This is one of the most important steps. AQL
of 4 is followed.
Pre Final Audit
After the garment is ironed and checked by the production checkers the lot is then offered to the
auditor for prefinal audit. Auditor picks up random units from the given lot as per AQL sample lot
size. If it is with in the acceptable limits of AQL then the lot is sent for packing and if the defected
pieces exceed the acceptable limit then the lot is sent for rework along with the defect
Visual audit chart
Fit audit is done at the finishing audit stage. In this audit auditor has to measure pieces of each
size of an order. The measurement going beyond the tolerance limit is then highlighted and
corrective action is taken on the same. (Refer format 13 of annexure)
Measurement audit chart
Packing audit is done based on the following chart:
SYSTEM FOLLOWED IN FINISHING
Audit at various stages of ironing, finishing, kaj-button, packing.
For new style initial pieces are studied in all respects along with product file.
All critical points are mentioned on QAD auditing table related to running style.
Feedback/communication to production on regular basis regarding problems in style.
Audit of packing quality.
FINAL AUDIT PROCEDURE
Final statistical audit is performed on a given number of randomly selected boxes from an
In final audit auditor selects number of boxes from identifiable lot to inspect. This
selection is based on the square root of the total lot offered for the inspection.
Auditor checks for accessories in a garment with the help of product file of that specified
style i.e. hang tag, main lable, wash care lable, button, hanger, sizers, polybag etc.
Auditor also checks carton marking, weight, dimensions, ratio & packing instruction.
All the final audits are done on AQL 4.0 if auditor finds the lot size with in the acceptable
limits of AQL then the complete lot is passed, otherwise in case of defect more than the
acceptable limits, the lot is sent for rework
Finishing is one of the most important departments where the final appearance of the
garment is achieved.
Loose threads are deterrent to business
It is better to remove as many unwanted threads at the sewing stage as possible
Proper carton packing needs to be done for avoiding problems in shipping
PACKAGING AND DISPATCH DEPARTMENT
As Shahi Faridabad is the corporate office, it plans and controls all the shipments of it styles in
NCR as well as its Bangalore and Hyderabad branches. The goods from Delhi – NCR Region are
sent from the Mumbai and Kolkata Port and of Bangalore Branch are sent from Chennai port.
Packaging is the most crucial department product. The packaging has to be very good as it attracts
the customer. Thus the presentation to the customer is very crucial. Also the packaging
department is in a separate area so that there is no common access to it. The records maintained by
this department are essential as the loss of even one piece can cause a major problem.
Records of pieces received from various units which are issued to packaging include the
Records of number of pieces received from finishing department along with their style
number, ratio etc.
Records of pieces shipped along with date, quantity, ratio, mode of shipment, style no, PO
Each of the carton shipped is labeled with the following information printed on each:
Measurement of the carton
Address of the buyer
Size ratio chart
Date of Delivery
Country of origin
Every country has a different type of sticker. Thus stickers are put on the cartons depending on to
which country the order is going to. Packages containing the first sample, salesman sample, fabric
swatches etc are dispatched to buyers almost every alternate day.
The responsibility of this department is to monitor the inflow and the outflow of the material to
and from the company. It does the work of receiving and issuing of the material.
Some of the records maintained by this department on the on line system are:
Documents which need to be carried by the driver of vehicle carrying company’s goods are:
Form – 31: It is required while crossing state borders. It carries driver’s name, description of
goods, quantity, issuing company’s name and date.
Challan: It carries the PO number, style number and number of pieces.
Stickers Put on the Cartons
Information regarding the carton are printed on a sticker which is then stuck on the carton so that
it can be identified. The information on the stickers was mentioned earlier.