Bridging the gap part 2
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  • 1. BRIDGING THE GAP: Part 2CPR – Avilés2011 – 2012
  • 2. 2. Fluency vs. Complexity “She is perfectly fluent in awful English” Lita Lessa
  • 3. Fluency The ability to produce To foster complexity language with ease. The ability to speak with a Opportunities for good, but not necessarily “restructuring” * should be perfect command of present through addressing intonation, vocabulary , language prior, during and syntax and grammar. after completing the activity The ability to express ideas coherently The ability to use continuous * ”restructuring” = accommodation of intake to fit in with the speech without causing existing data (adapted from Van comprehension difficulties, Patten, 1993) with minimum breakdowns and disruptions
  • 4. Addressing language ...... prior ... during ... after the activityPre-teaching linguistic Participation (dyads) Public performanceforms Resources (materials Repeat performanceReducing complexity to carry out theof activity (rehearsal/ activity) Other performancesample) (other more advanced Procedure (subtasks) ss doing the same)Allowing for time toplan Order (sequencing) Product (written/ spoken
  • 5. 3. Vocabulary RangeSome interesting figures• Lower-intermediate  3,000 words min.• Receptive threshold intermediate  5,000-6,000 words• First-year university materials  10,000 words
  • 6. Short-term Long-term Memory • Guided discovery • Contextual guesswork • Monolingual dictionary (learning strategy + learner autonomy) • Collocations
  • 7. COLLOCATIONS CHANCE OCCASION OPPORTUNITY POSSIBILITYSource: Unit 10, p.101 Complete CAE (Brook-Hart, G. And Haines, S., 2009, CUP.)
  • 8. 4. Natural Speech Conversational routines and fixed expressions
  • 9. Where might these occurand what is their function?•This one’s on me •I’ll be making a move•It was lovely to see you then•Thanks for coming •I see what you mean•I don’t believe a word •Let me think about itof it •Just looking, thanks•I dont get the point •I’ll be with you in a•You look great today minute•As I was saying •It doesn’t matter
  • 10. 5. Fossilized language errors More frequent in programmes where fluency is developed at the expense of accuracy (Higgs & Clifford, 1982)
  • 11. Explicit treatment of grammarNoticing Focus on form Comprehensible Restructuring output
  • 12. Making informed decisions• But first choose words you don’t know form the box and decide which you find useful for the topic• Then read this info about dyslexia and fill in the blanks• Now focus on content, make a list of the things you agree with and another with what you disagree with• Analyse the source and compare the styles (more or less formal/ more or less conversational)• Spot and highlight any other interesting words or expressions that you don’t normally use
  • 13. COMPREHENSIBLE OUTPUTDEBATEGroup A: In favour of catering for dyslexic learners in the school contextGroup B: “Dyslexia doesn’t exist and if it did it’s not the teacher’s problem” Smile you are being recorded 
  • 14. To recap: Aim of each activity RESTRUCTURINGP NOTICING Key vocabulary to speak about Foreign Language Learning NOTICING Natural English expressions and input info about English spelling reform triggering off concept of Dyslexia COMPREHENSIBLE OUTPUT Dialogue using expressions VOCABULARY RANGE Vocabulary: collocations to express possibility NATURAL ENGLISH Explain the use of these expressions VOCABULARY RANGE Reading texts, input on content to raise awareness/ awaken opinionsD COMPREHENSIBLE OUTPUT Recorded debateA NOTICING – FOSSILIZED ERRORS Watch recording
  • 15. • Expand their grammatical competence, including acquiring newC ways of using known forms, as well as adding more complexo language resources to their linguistic repertoire. • Become more fluent and accurate language users.n • Develop the capacity to monitor their own language use as well as that of others, and to notice the gap between theirc productivel competence and those of more advanced language users. • Continue to develop their vocabulary, particularly at the 5,000u to 6,000 word range.s • Develop a greater awareness of and familiarity with patterns of lexical collocation.i • Master the use of conversational routines and other meanso of participating actively in conversation and other forms of spoken discourse.n • Further develop their proficiency in listening, reading, and writing.
  • 16. “Everyone is a genius;but if you judge a fishon its ability to climb atree, it will live itswhole life believing thatit’s stupid.” Albert Einstein
  • 17. Thank youfor comingCU nxt Wed