The Professional Identity of Indonesian English Teachers
The Professional Identity of Indonesian English Teachers Ardian Wahyu Setiawan Dr. Ian Green, Dr. Linda Westphalen & Dr. Cally Guerin
English and Its Speakers• Used in 75 territories in the world (Crystal, 2003)• A lingua franca → about 1.5 billion speakers ± 375 million native speakers• Non-native : native speakers ratio → 4:1 (Crystal, 2003)• 80% of English teachers in the world are non-native speakers (Braine, 1999; Canagarajah, 2005; Graddol, 2006)
Discrimination against Nonnative English Teachers The majority of English teachers → Non-native speakers (Braine, 1999; Canagarajah, 2005; Graddol, 2006) THEY ARE DISCRIMINATED AGAINST Non-native English teachers → treated unequally (Amin, 1997; Braine, 1999; Thomas, 1999; Kamhi-Stein, 2000; Mahboob, 2004; Clark & Paran, 2007) Less preferred (Braine, 1999; Thomas, 1999; Kamhi- Stein, 2000; Mahboob, 2004; Holliday, 2009) Discrimination → racial (Amin, 2004; Kubota & Lin, 2006; Lee, 2007; Aboshiha, 2008; Holliday, 2008 )
What causes? DISCRIMINATION Native English teachers → Ideal teachersNon-native English teachers → less competent teachers (Kamhi-Stein, 2000; Lee, 2000; McKay, 2002; Ali, 2009)
Unequal Views → Why?• The Legacy of Colonialism Colonial discourse → operates → today Affects linguists, applied linguists, and teachers (Pennycook, 1994) English Language Teaching → Images of the speakers• Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) too much emphasis on native competence as its goal (Preston,1989; Berns, 1990)
The Professional Identity of Indonesian English Teachers Discrimination → Non-native English teachers’ identity Identity is socially constructed and contextually related to sociocultural discourse (Duff & Uchida, 1997; Norton, 1997; Varghese, Morgan, Johnston, & Johnson; 2005) Students’ perception H Parents’ perception O Other subject teachers’ perception W Indonesian English teachers’ self-perception • How do the stakeholders see Indonesian English teachers? • How do these perceptions arise? • How do the perceptions align? • What impact might these perceptions have on educational outcomes?
Research on Teacher Identity100 Social Science Citation 90 Index – SSCI Journal 80 70 HOWEVER 60 The concept of identity 50 40 30 20 10 not clearly defined (Beijaard, Meijer, & Verloop, 2004; Beauchamp & Thomas, 2009; 0 Mockler, 2011) 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
My Approach EDUCATION Identity → not clearly defined Education (Beijaard, Meijer, & Verloop, 2004; Beauchamp & Thomas, 2009) SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY WHO ARE YOU? WHO AM I? (Vignoles, Schwartz, & Luyckx, 2011) IDENTITY IMAGE – REPRESENTATION Criticized → ahistorical Social (Hook, 2005; Okazaki, David, & Abelmann, 2008)Postcolonial Psychology POSTCOLONIAL THEORY History, Space, Discourse
Theoretical Frameworks• POSTCOLONIAL THEORY How colonial discourse operates; how stereotypes work• SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY How individuals attempt to maintain their identity positively valued / perceived• DIALOGICAL SELF THEORY Individuals have multiple voices; the others are intrinsic part of the self
POSTCOLONIAL THEORY The perceptions of the stakeholders The Other Questions Homi Bhabha FixityCOLONIAL DISCOURSE STEREOTYPES Cultural – Historical – Racial Fixed stereotypes of Non-native English teachers Stereotype works by using cultural – historical racial differences
SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY INGROUP OUTGROUP Social Social Psychological Social IdentityCategorization Comparison Distinctiveness Useful concepts: prototypes, psychological distinctiveness How do the teachers perceive their identity?
SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY An example: Black is beautiful movement 1960s
SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY INGROUP OUTGROUP Focuses on intergroup behaviourWhat happens within the self?
DIALOGICAL SELF THEORY The Theatre of MetaphorThe Multiplicity of the Self The Significant Others Useful concepts: the multiplicity of the self, the significant others
Context • A senior high school • Access to dataMALANG, INDONESIA
Methodology A Qualitative Exploratory Case Study Exploring Perceptions A Series of Focus Group Discussions (8 – 12 students/session; themes: ideal English teachers, and Indonesian English teachers) Semi-Structured Interviews(At least 12 students, 6 parents, 6 other subject teachers and 6 English teachers) FaceGen Software - interviews
FaceGen SoftwareCommonly used in psychology, also for biometric security and police applications
SignificancePersonal Significance• Research problem → Indonesia• Professional background → An Indonesian English teacherPractical Significance• An in-depth understanding → Professional identity• The result → useful for teacher training institutions• Inform the policies → related to Indonesian English teachersResearch Significance• Dealing with a problematic issue faced by non-native English teachers• Addressing the gap → EFL context• Multi dimensional study → Involving multi-groups of participants
THANK YOUMy Research Journal: http://www.indonesianenglishteachers.tk/