The Professional Identity of Indonesian English Teachers                       Ardian Wahyu Setiawan        Dr. Ian Green,...
English and Its Speakers• Used in 75 territories in the world (Crystal, 2003)• A lingua franca → about 1.5 billion speaker...
Discrimination against Nonnative English Teachers  The majority of English teachers → Nonnative speakers                  ...
Native speakers will be given preference
It is racial                   Blonde hair               Blue or green eyes?
What causes?                DISCRIMINATION      Native English teachers → Ideal teachersNonnative English teachers → less ...
Unequal Views → Why?• The Legacy of Colonialism Colonial discourse → operates → today Affects linguists, applied linguists...
Discrimination in Indonesia                       IT IS PREVALENT
Discrimination in Indonesia               NOT Indonesian?
Discrimination in Indonesia                National school?
The Professional Identity of Indonesian English Teachers      The discrimination → Nonnative English teachers’ identity   ...
Research on Teacher Identity100                                                            Social Science Citation 90     ...
Approach                                                           EDUCATION                                         Ident...
Context                              • Many educational institutions                              • Access to dataMALANG, ...
Theoretical Frameworks• POSTCOLONIAL THEORY  How colonial discourse operates; how stereotype works• SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY...
POSTCOLONIAL THEORY                                    The Other Questions                                          Homi B...
SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY                      INGROUP                   OUTGROUP         Social                             ...
SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY                   An example:                   Black is beautiful movement
SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORYINGROUP                  OUTGROUP   Focus on intergroup behaviour      Individual level?
DIALOGICAL SELF THEORY                               The Theatre of MetaphorThe Multiplicity of the Self                  ...
Methodology         Qualitative → Perceptions / Voices     An exploratory case study → How and Why12 students, 5 parents, ...
SignificancePersonal Significance• Research problem → Indonesia• Professional background → An Indonesian English teacherPr...
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Ardian ibp presentation_25012012

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Ardian ibp presentation_25012012

  1. 1. The Professional Identity of Indonesian English Teachers Ardian Wahyu Setiawan Dr. Ian Green, Dr. Linda Westphalen & Dr. Cally Guerin
  2. 2. English and Its Speakers• Used in 75 territories in the world (Crystal, 2003)• A lingua franca → about 1.5 billion speakers ± 375 million native speakers• Nonnative-native speakers ratio → 4:1 (Crystal, 2003)• 80% of English teachers in the world: nonnative speakers (Braine, 1999; Canagarajah, 2005; Graddol, 2006)
  3. 3. Discrimination against Nonnative English Teachers The majority of English teachers → Nonnative speakers (Braine, 1999; Canagarajah, 2005; Graddol, 2006) THEY ARE DISCRIMINATED AGAINST Nonnative English teachers → treated unequally (Amin, 1997; Braine, 1999; Thomas, 1999; Kamhi-Stein, 2000; Mahboob, 2004; Clark & Paran, 2007) Less preferred (Braine, 1999; Thomas, 1999; Kamhi- Stein, 2000; Mahboob, 2004) The discrimination → racial (Amin, 2004; Lee, 2007)
  4. 4. Native speakers will be given preference
  5. 5. It is racial Blonde hair Blue or green eyes?
  6. 6. What causes? DISCRIMINATION Native English teachers → Ideal teachersNonnative English teachers → less competent teachers (Kamhi-Stein, 2000; Lee, 2000; McKay, 2002)
  7. 7. Unequal Views → Why?• The Legacy of Colonialism Colonial discourse → operates → today Affects linguists, applied linguists, and teachers (Pennycook, 1994) English Language Teaching → Images of the speakers• Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) too much emphasis on native competence as its goal (Preston,1989; Berns, 1990)
  8. 8. Discrimination in Indonesia IT IS PREVALENT
  9. 9. Discrimination in Indonesia NOT Indonesian?
  10. 10. Discrimination in Indonesia National school?
  11. 11. The Professional Identity of Indonesian English Teachers The discrimination → Nonnative English teachers’ identity Identity is socially constructed and contextually related to sociocultural discourse (Duff & Uchida, 1997; Norton, 1997; Varghese, Morgan, Johnston, & Johnson; 2005) Students’ perceptions H Parents’ perceptions O Other subject teachers’ perceptions W Indonesian English teachers’ self-perceptions
  12. 12. Research on Teacher Identity100 Social Science Citation 90 Index – SSCI Journal 80 70 HOWEVER 60 The concept of identity 50 40 30 20 10 not clearly defined (Beijaard, Meijer, & Verloop, 2004; Beauchamp & Thomas, 2009) 0 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
  13. 13. Approach EDUCATION Identity → not clearly defined Education (Beijaard, Meijer, & Verloop, 2004; Beauchamp & Thomas, 2009) SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Self-concept WHO ARE YOU? WHO AM I? (Vignoles, Schwartz, & Luyckx, 2011) IDENTITY Criticized → ahistorical (Hook, 2005; Okazaki, David, & Abelmann, 2008) SocialPostcolonial Psychology POSTCOLONIAL THEORY History, Space, Discourse
  14. 14. Context • Many educational institutions • Access to dataMALANG, INDONESIA
  15. 15. Theoretical Frameworks• POSTCOLONIAL THEORY How colonial discourse operates; how stereotype works• SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY How individuals attempt to maintain their identity positively valued / perceived• DIALOGICAL SELF THEORY Individuals have multiple voices; the others are intrinsic part of the self
  16. 16. POSTCOLONIAL THEORY The Other Questions Homi Bhabha Fixity Cultural – Historical – RacialCOLONIAL DISCOURSE STEREOTYPES Fixed stereotypes of nonnative English teachers Stereotype works by using cultural – historical racial differences
  17. 17. SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY INGROUP OUTGROUP Social Social Psychological Social Identity Categorization Comparison Distinctiveness Useful concepts: prototypes, psychological distinctivenessWhat are the prototypes used? How do the teachers perceive their identity?
  18. 18. SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY An example: Black is beautiful movement
  19. 19. SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORYINGROUP OUTGROUP Focus on intergroup behaviour Individual level?
  20. 20. DIALOGICAL SELF THEORY The Theatre of MetaphorThe Multiplicity of the Self The Significant Others Useful concepts: the multiplicity of the self, the significant others
  21. 21. Methodology Qualitative → Perceptions / Voices An exploratory case study → How and Why12 students, 5 parents, 5 other subject teachers and 5 English teachers Semi-Structured Interviews (in English and Indonesian) and Focus Group Discussions (students)
  22. 22. SignificancePersonal Significance• Research problem → Indonesia• Professional background → An Indonesian English teacherPractical Significance• An in-depth understanding → Professional identity• The result → useful for teacher training institutions• Inform the policies → related to Indonesian English teachersResearch Significance• Dealing with a problematic issue faced by nonnative English teachers• Addressing the gap → EFL context• Multi dimensional study → Involving multi-groups of participants
  23. 23. THANK YOU

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