The Professional Identity of Indonesian English Teachers Ardian Wahyu Setiawan Dr. Ian Green, Dr. Linda Westphalen & Dr. Cally Guerin
English and Its Speakers• Used in 75 territories in the world (Crystal, 2003)• A lingua franca → about 1.5 billion speakers ± 375 million native speakers• Nonnative-native speakers ratio → 4:1 (Crystal, 2003)• 80% of English teachers in the world: nonnative speakers (Braine, 1999; Canagarajah, 2005; Graddol, 2006)
Discrimination against Nonnative English Teachers The majority of English teachers → Nonnative speakers (Braine, 1999; Canagarajah, 2005; Graddol, 2006) THEY ARE DISCRIMINATED AGAINST Nonnative English teachers → treated unequally (Amin, 1997; Braine, 1999; Thomas, 1999; Kamhi-Stein, 2000; Mahboob, 2004; Clark & Paran, 2007) Less preferred (Braine, 1999; Thomas, 1999; Kamhi- Stein, 2000; Mahboob, 2004) The discrimination → racial (Amin, 2004; Lee, 2007)
Native speakers will be given preference
It is racial Blonde hair Blue or green eyes?
What causes? DISCRIMINATION Native English teachers → Ideal teachersNonnative English teachers → less competent teachers (Kamhi-Stein, 2000; Lee, 2000; McKay, 2002)
Unequal Views → Why?• The Legacy of Colonialism Colonial discourse → operates → today Affects linguists, applied linguists, and teachers (Pennycook, 1994) English Language Teaching → Images of the speakers• Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) too much emphasis on native competence as its goal (Preston,1989; Berns, 1990)
Discrimination in Indonesia IT IS PREVALENT
Discrimination in Indonesia NOT Indonesian?
Discrimination in Indonesia National school?
The Professional Identity of Indonesian English Teachers The discrimination → Nonnative English teachers’ identity Identity is socially constructed and contextually related to sociocultural discourse (Duff & Uchida, 1997; Norton, 1997; Varghese, Morgan, Johnston, & Johnson; 2005) Students’ perceptions H Parents’ perceptions O Other subject teachers’ perceptions W Indonesian English teachers’ self-perceptions
Research on Teacher Identity100 Social Science Citation 90 Index – SSCI Journal 80 70 HOWEVER 60 The concept of identity 50 40 30 20 10 not clearly defined (Beijaard, Meijer, & Verloop, 2004; Beauchamp & Thomas, 2009) 0 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
Approach EDUCATION Identity → not clearly defined Education (Beijaard, Meijer, & Verloop, 2004; Beauchamp & Thomas, 2009) SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Self-concept WHO ARE YOU? WHO AM I? (Vignoles, Schwartz, & Luyckx, 2011) IDENTITY Criticized → ahistorical (Hook, 2005; Okazaki, David, & Abelmann, 2008) SocialPostcolonial Psychology POSTCOLONIAL THEORY History, Space, Discourse
Context • Many educational institutions • Access to dataMALANG, INDONESIA
Theoretical Frameworks• POSTCOLONIAL THEORY How colonial discourse operates; how stereotype works• SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY How individuals attempt to maintain their identity positively valued / perceived• DIALOGICAL SELF THEORY Individuals have multiple voices; the others are intrinsic part of the self
POSTCOLONIAL THEORY The Other Questions Homi Bhabha Fixity Cultural – Historical – RacialCOLONIAL DISCOURSE STEREOTYPES Fixed stereotypes of nonnative English teachers Stereotype works by using cultural – historical racial differences
SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY INGROUP OUTGROUP Social Social Psychological Social Identity Categorization Comparison Distinctiveness Useful concepts: prototypes, psychological distinctivenessWhat are the prototypes used? How do the teachers perceive their identity?
SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY An example: Black is beautiful movement
SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORYINGROUP OUTGROUP Focus on intergroup behaviour Individual level?
DIALOGICAL SELF THEORY The Theatre of MetaphorThe Multiplicity of the Self The Significant Others Useful concepts: the multiplicity of the self, the significant others
Methodology Qualitative → Perceptions / Voices An exploratory case study → How and Why12 students, 5 parents, 5 other subject teachers and 5 English teachers Semi-Structured Interviews (in English and Indonesian) and Focus Group Discussions (students)
SignificancePersonal Significance• Research problem → Indonesia• Professional background → An Indonesian English teacherPractical Significance• An in-depth understanding → Professional identity• The result → useful for teacher training institutions• Inform the policies → related to Indonesian English teachersResearch Significance• Dealing with a problematic issue faced by nonnative English teachers• Addressing the gap → EFL context• Multi dimensional study → Involving multi-groups of participants