The use of Specks in Gait Analysis

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Feasibility Study for evaluating the effectiveness of Orient inertial 3D motion capture wireless devices (developed by the Speckled Computing research group at the University of Edinburgh) for human gait analysis and for identifying deviations from normal gait

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The use of Specks in Gait Analysis

  1. 1. The Use of Specks in Gait Analysis Smita Sasindran1, Jennifer Walsh2, Alison Richardson2, Jan Herman2, James Hollington21 School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh2 Anderson Gait Laboratory, SMART Centre, Astley AinslieHospital, Edinburgh
  2. 2. Gait Analysis • Brief observation to sophisticated measurement • Patient population • 75% paediatric • Cerebral Palsy • Neurological Disorders • Prosthetics • Treatment Planning • Analysis of intervention
  3. 3. Clinical Gait Analysis• One of 2 centres in Scotland providing clinical gait analysis• Clinical Gait Analysis – 3D analysis• Vicon 460
  4. 4. Biomechanical model• Three markers per body segment• Markers on joints define two adjacent segments• Marker placement conducted by physiotherapist• Markers placed on bony prominences and anatomical markers
  5. 5. Biomechanical model• Modified Helen Hayes model 3D axis system for each segment • Sagittal plane angles - Flexion/extension • Coronal plane angles Abduction/adduction • Transverse plane angles Internal/external rotation
  6. 6. Phases of Gait
  7. 7. Clinical Gait Analysis
  8. 8. Three-dimensional gait analysis• Track images from two or more cameras• Points used to reconstruct original 3D trajectories
  9. 9. Clinical Gait Analysis • Kinematics • Angular displacements in 3 planes • Kinetics • Forces, moments, powers • Temporal Parameters • Walking speed (m/s) • Cadence (steps/min) • Double/Single support time (s) • Stride length (m) • Step length (m) • Step time (s)
  10. 10. Kinematics
  11. 11. Kinetics 2.0 Hip Flexion Moment 1.0 Hip Ab/Adduction Moment 3.0 Hip Flexion/Extens ion Power Flex Add Gen Nm Nm W Ext Abd Abs -1.0 -1.0 -2.0 2.0 Knee Flexion Moment 1.0 Knee Ab/Adduction Moment 2.0 Knee Flexion/Extension Pow er Flex Var Gen Nm Nm W Ext Valg Abs -1.0 -1.0 -2.0 3.0 Ankle Flexion Moment 1.0 Ankle Ab/Adduction Mom ent 4.0 Ankle Flexion/Extension Pow er Dors Add Gen Nm Nm W Plan Abd Abs -1.0 -1.0 -2.0 40 Fore/Aft Shear Force 30 Medial/Lateral Shear Force 140 Vertical Ground Reaction Force N N N -40 -30 0 Left Mean Barefoot (Mean Barefoot) Right Mean Barefoot (Mean Barefoot) Avg File 7 (Normals.gcd)
  12. 12. Limitations of current methods of ClinicalGait Analysis• Modelling errors –Centre of knee rotation –Marker placement –Soft tissue movement –Foot modelling
  13. 13. Limitations of current methods of ClinicalGait Analysis• Practical data collection constraints –Artificial capture environment –Snapshot analysis –Restricted activities –Specialist staff –Intrusive –Expensive
  14. 14. Specks •
  15. 15. Potential benefits of Specks for CGA• Address limitations of current optical motion capture methods• Provide objective measure of functional ability in every day environments• Provide ongoing monitoring• Increase national service capacity• Reduce assessment costs
  16. 16. Comparative Results • Normal Data Collection • Patient Data Collection
  17. 17. Comparative Results – Pelvic Tilt Pelvic Tilt 30 Ant deg Post -10 Graph from Specks Graph from Vicon
  18. 18. Comparative Results – Hip Flexion Hip Flexion 60 Flex deg Ext -15 Graph from Specks Graph from Vicon
  19. 19. Comparative Results – Knee Flexion Knee Flexion 90 Flex deg Ext -15 Graph from Specks Graph from Vicon
  20. 20. Comparative Results – Ankle Flexion Ankle Flexion 30 Dors deg Plan -30 Graph from Specks Graph from Vicon
  21. 21. Comparative Results – PelvicObliquity Pelvic Obliquity 15 Up deg Dow n -15 Graph from Specks Graph from Vicon
  22. 22. Comparative Results – Hip Abduction Hip Adduction 20 Add deg Abd -15 Graph from Specks Graph from Vicon
  23. 23. Comparative Results – PelvicRotation Pelvic Rotation 30 Int deg Ext -30 Graph from Specks Graph from Vicon
  24. 24. Patient Data 30 Pelvic Tilt deg -10
  25. 25. Patient Data 90 Knee Flexion deg -15
  26. 26. Patient Data 15 Pelvic Obliquity deg -15
  27. 27. Patient Data 20 Hip Adduction deg -15
  28. 28. Patient Data 30 Pelvic Rotation deg -30
  29. 29. Patient Data 30 Pelvic Tilt deg -10
  30. 30. Patient Data 60 Hip Flexion deg -15
  31. 31. Original Curves Zero Mean Adjusted
  32. 32. Original Curves Zero Mean Adjusted
  33. 33. Original Curves Zero Mean Adjusted
  34. 34. Analysis of The Use of Specks in ClinicalGait Analysis • Format of result in line with Gait Analysis reports • Integration cumulative error, reset at mid- stance • Reset orientation of markers • Zero centred magnitudes
  35. 35. Future work• Anterior/Posterior pelvic tilt • “Root” of calculations• Position of foot marker• Orientation of markers
  36. 36. Future Work • Design – Size • Transmitting Wire / Internal memory • Battery life • Transmission problems • Segmentation automated for pathological gait
  37. 37. Summary of The Use of Specks in GaitAnalysis Kinematics • Angular displacements in 3 planes• Kinetics • Forces, moments, powers • Force Transducers• Temporal Parameters • Walking speed (m/s) • Cadence (steps/min) • Double/Single support time (s) • Stride length (m) • Step length (m) • Step time (s)
  38. 38. Thank you for your attention

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