Applying lean techniques in software


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Applying lean techniques in software

  1. 1. 1 Computer Society of India (CSI) & Software Process Improvement Network (SPIN), Pune Chapters APPLYING LEAN TECHNIQUES IN SOFTWARE Archana Joshi Sr. Manager - Cognizant March 2014
  2. 2. 2 Agenda a) What is Lean: Lean Origins Lean Philosophy b) Lean Techniques: Value Stream Mapping Visual Controls Dependency Structure Matrix Poka Yoke
  3. 3. 3 Have you heard this on Lean?
  4. 4. 4 Lean Origins  By the early 60's Toyota had developed a system to design, manufacture and market a product that changed the World.  It allowed them to make vehicles of a higher quality, in a shorter time frame, at lower cost with more variety; these tools can be used to improve almost any business.
  5. 5. 5 Lean Philosophy Lean - A philosophy and a mindset to Remove Waste and get More from Less It aims at shortening turn around time, improving product and service quality while cost is reduced to minimum possible levels
  6. 6. 6 Lean Elements VALUE MUDA LEAN Principles MURA MURI
  7. 7. 7 Unnecessary Inventory Unnecessary Motion Transportation Defects Waiting Waiting for info, Handoffs Partially Done Work Task Switching. Doing work manually Over Processing MUDA Documentation/paperwork/ code that does not contribute to final product, Unnecessary meetings Building the wrong thing Defects and Rework Over Production Adding Unnecessary features
  8. 8. 8 Exercise 1 – Identify the types of waste • • • • Groups of 5 One person is scribe, 4 are Product Owners Scribe has to write all their names one after another Only after each name is complete can it be considered as done • • • • • Round 1: Each one to tell one letter in their name and move on to other person Repeat until all letters and all names are done Measure cycle time for each and total response time Identify types of waste • • Round 2: Each one to tell one letter in their name, complete all letters in the name and then move on to other person • Repeat until all names are done • Measure cycle time for each and total response time
  9. 9. 9 Mura: Variability/Inconsistency MURA Muri: Physical Strain / Over Burden MURI
  10. 10. 10 Lean Principles Value • Specific product that meets a customer’s needs at a specific price and specific time • Set of specific actions required to deliver value Value Stream • Parts “flow” through a Value Stream Flow Pull Perfection • Nothing is produced by the upstream provider until the downstream customer signals a need • The complete elimination of all waste, so that all activities along a value stream add value to the product
  11. 11. 11 Lean Techniques 5S DSM Automate Single Minute Exchange of Die 5 Whys Takt time Competency Maps Go See Yourself (Gemba) Pugh matrix Poka Yoke Work load levelling Value Stream mapping Jidoka Visual Controls
  12. 12. 12 Value Stream Map Input Process Output Current State Identify current activities from the value stream Identify Value added activities Optimize Non Value Added activities Future State
  13. 13. 13 Exercise 2 – Value Stream Map Value: Bug to be fixed VAT = 8 3 1 2 5 4 7 6 NVAT = 14 Efficiency = 8/(14+8) = 36% 9 8 10 11 13 12
  14. 14. 14 Dependency Structure Matrix • Emerged in 1980 and is promoted by MIT • A mathematical (square matrix) and visual representation of the dependencies between various entities in a system • Entities could be user stories, requirements, tests, tasks, modules •
  15. 15. 15 Exercise 3 – Dependency Structure Matrix Tasks Decision to conduct conference 1 Fix convenient date of the conference 2 Fix venue 3 Identify conference key note speaker 4 Invite the key note speaker 5 Prepare attendees list 6 Send Invitations to attendees 7 Arrangement for accommodation 8 Arrangement for beverages and food 9 Buy takeaways for attendess 10 Buy gift for key note speaker 11 Arrangements for transportation 12
  16. 16. 16 Visual Controls Track and monitor Improve process flow & transparency Surface inherent problems Visual Controls Identify potential risks Reveal Deviations
  17. 17. 17 Exercise 4 – Visual Controls Team Name: Backlog Requests WIP 4 DONE 3 Value Activity Map Iteration No. Design Analysis WIP DONE 3 WIP Limits UT Develop WIP DONE 5 WIP DONE 4 Build WIP DONE 5 Test Fulfillment 4
  18. 18. 18 Poka Yoke – Mistake Proofing A poka-yoke is any mechanism in a lean manufacturing process that helps an equipment operator avoid (yokeru) mistakes (poka). Its purpose is to eliminate product defects by preventing, correcting, or drawing attention to human errors as they occur USB Cable Laptop Charger
  19. 19. 19 Exercise 5 – Poka Yoke Sam is an UX designer for a data entry application for a Bank. As part of the UX design he has got following requirements. He needs to design UI based on the requirements. Can you help Sam with identifying Poka Yoke elements that he can introduce in his UX design? Requirements 1. User should be able to enter data in 1 minute 2. Data consists of Client Name, Client Phone Number and Bank Account 3. User should have access only to enter information but not edit existing information
  20. 20. 20 Lean focus areas Continuous Improvement (Perfection) Deliver Value (Value, Pull) Eliminate Waste (Value Stream)
  21. 21. 21 THANK YOU Archana Joshi