Overview <ul><li>I.  The Image </li></ul><ul><li>II.  The Object </li></ul><ul><li>III. In the Archives </li></ul><ul><li>...
I. The Image
What’s in an image? I. The Image
Reading an Image <ul><li>Five Ws </li></ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><li>What  </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>W...
Reading an Image <ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><li>Photographer </li></ul><ul><li>Subject </li></ul>I. The Image
Reading an Image <ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>Present </li></ul><ul><li>Absent </li></ul>I. The Image
Reading an Image <ul><li>Where? </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul>I. The Image
Reading an Image <ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Absence </li></ul>...
Reading an Image <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Intention </li></ul>The &quot;Carrying-in Boy,&q...
Reading an Image <ul><li>Visual Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of field  </li></ul><ul><li...
 
II. The Object
Photo Basics II. The Object
What is photography? II. The Object
Photo History II. The Object
Trends in Photo History <ul><li>Easier to create </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to duplicate </li></ul><ul><li>More accessible  ...
What is a photograph? <ul><li>A complex physical object that has an image fixed via a chemical process </li></ul>II. The O...
Photograph Structure Base: paper, glass, metal, plastic Light-sensitive particles: silver, color dyes Emulsion: gelatin, a...
Physical Evidence <ul><li>Polarity </li></ul><ul><li>Size  </li></ul><ul><li>Base and mount </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li><...
Physical Evidence II. The Object
Common Formats and Processes II. The Object
Tintypes (ca. 1856-1930s) <ul><li>Collodion on blackened iron base </li></ul><ul><li>Direct positive image </li></ul><ul><...
Tintypes (ca. 1856-1930s) <ul><li>Cheap and ubiquitous  </li></ul><ul><li>Often worn or scratched </li></ul><ul><li>Identi...
Albumen Prints (1850-1895) <ul><li>POP from wet collodion negatives </li></ul><ul><li>Always mounted </li></ul><ul><li>Ten...
Albumen Prints (1850-1895) <ul><li>80% of extant 19 th -century prints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartes-de-visite </li></ul></...
Silver Gelatin DOPs (1885-present) <ul><li>Dominant 20 th -century process </li></ul><ul><li>Dozens of formats </li></ul><...
Silver Gelatin DOPs (1885-present) II. The Object
Color Prints (1930s-today) <ul><li>Organic dyes </li></ul><ul><li>Many processes </li></ul><ul><li>Identification: </li></...
Instant Photos (1948-today*) <ul><li>Photo printed from packet with negative, developer, base </li></ul><ul><li>Identifica...
Film Negatives <ul><li>Cellulose nitrate  </li></ul><ul><li>(1887-1950) </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose diacetate (1937-1956) ...
Film Negatives <ul><li>Identification: </li></ul><ul><li>Notch codes </li></ul><ul><li>Other tests </li></ul><ul><li>Cellu...
Other Processes II. The Object
Digital Photos (1990-today) <ul><li>Sensor converts light to bits, computer renders image </li></ul><ul><li>Digital preser...
III. In the Archives
Why? <ul><li>Why identify photographs?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul></u...
Handling  <ul><li>Wear gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Provide support </li></ul><ul><li>Use only pencils </li></ul><ul><li>Gentl...
<ul><li>Paper (envelopes, four-flaps)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper, blocks light, breathable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Housing <ul><li>Boxes and folders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PAT test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper support for format (lon...
Environment <ul><li>Temperature / relative humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Light (sunlight, UV light) </li></ul><ul><li>Polluta...
Environment <ul><li>B/W silver gelatin: 65°F, 30-50% RH </li></ul><ul><li>B/W acetate negatives: 7°F, 30-50% RH </li></ul>...
Selected Resources <ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs: Archival Care and Management,  Ritzenthaler & Vogt-O...
Selected Resources <ul><li>Cartes de Visite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartes de Visite in Nineteenth Century Photography,  Dar...
Selected Resources <ul><li>Gelatin silver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Guide to Fiber-Base Gelatin Silver Print Condition and D...
IV. Exercise <ul><li>Divide into three groups </li></ul><ul><li>Pick a reporter </li></ul><ul><li>Identify photograph usin...
Group 1
Group 1 <ul><li>Sixth-plate sized tintype, 1880s </li></ul><ul><li>Magnet test, snip marks </li></ul><ul><li>Image reverse...
Group 2
Group 2 <ul><li>Carte-de-visite, early 1870s </li></ul><ul><li>Medium card stock, square corners (1869-1871) </li></ul><ul...
Group 3
Group 3 <ul><li>Gelatin silver “real photo” postcard, ca. 1910s </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral tonal range, silvering </li></ul...
Thank you!
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What's In a Photograph?

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This is a brief introduction to photo preservation from an archivist's perspective.

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  • [Group portrait of seventeen members of the White House News Photographers&apos; Association, standing and squatting, facing front, with cameras] Digital ID: (b&amp;w film copy neg.) cph 3c31921 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c31921 http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3c31921/
  • Title: [Carl Mydans, Farm Security Administration photographer, full-length portrait, holding camera, standing with his foot on the running board of a Treasury Department Procurement Division Fuel Yard truck, Washington, D.C.] / photo by Carl Mydans. Creator(s): Mydans, Carl , photographer Date Created/Published: [ca. 1935] Medium: 1 photographic print : gelatin silver. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/98507850/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/4483939447/ Adams, Ansel, 1902-1984, photographer. Roy Takeno (editor) reading paper in front of office [1943] 1 photographic print : gelatin silver. 1 negative : safety film. Notes: Photo shows editor Roy Takeno reading a copy of the Manzanar Free Press in front of the newspaper office at the Manzanar War Relocation Center; with mountains in the background. Title transcribed from Ansel Adams&apos; caption on verso of print. Original neg. no.: LC-A35-4-M-4. Gift; Ansel Adams; 1965-1968. Forms part of: Manzanar War Relocation Center photographs.
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/lwr/6208698/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/nationalmediamuseum/3084038297 &amp;quot;A cabinet card portrait of John Owen, a sadler from Montgomeryshire, Wales, pictured with his dog, Blueman, taken at the studio of F. Davey, Gloucester, in about 1900.“
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/pip_r_lagenta/3137287437/ (On the flatbed are Annalisa Tripp (left) and Pip R. Lagenta. Kneeling behind the truck is Dale Tripp. The other people are passersby. The Marina in San Francisco, California, 1960.)
  • http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/nypldigital/id?85260 NYPL Image ID: 85260 The pyramids of Geezeh (1862-1863) Image Title: The pyramids of Geezeh Creator: Frith, Francis -- Photographer Medium: Albumen prints
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/92947174@N00/214261992/
  • http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/ncl2004000111/PP/ The &amp;quot;Carrying-in Boy,&amp;quot; In an Indiana Glass Works, 1:00 A. M., Aug., 1908. Location: Indiana. 1908 August. Medium: 1 photographic print. National Child Labor Committee Collection
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cpurrin1/254286406
  • Movie: Bob Steele, Feud of the Range (1939) Negro going in colored entrance of movie house on Saturday afternoon, Belzoni, Mississippi Delta, Mississippi (LOC) Wolcott, Marion Post, 1910-1990, photographer. Negro going in colored entrance of movie house on Saturday afternoon, Belzoni, Mississippi Delta, Mississippi 1939 Oct.? 1 negative : nitrate ; 35 mm.
  • The physical object, the photograph
  • Describe how light exposure changes object that is light-sensitive. Processes to fix image. Other processes (toning) to change tonal range and help stability. Original/unique vs print http://www.practicalphysics.org/go/print/Guidance_93.html%3Bjsessionid=alZLdQlAHb1?topic_id=2&amp;guidance_id=1
  • http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/coll/589_chronology.html
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/wscullin/1400909828/
  • http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/cph/item/2004681684/resource/ [A photographer appears to be photographing himself in a photographic studio] / Wheeler, Berlin, Wis. Date Created/Published: c1893. Medium: 1 photographic print on cabinet card. Summary: A composite photograph showing a photographic studio interior. One man is seated on a stool near an adjustable clamp to hold his head steady during a long portrait exposure. The second man, standing next to a large view camera, looks like the person being photographed.
  • http://www.graphicsatlas.org/compareprocesses/
  • http://www.graphicsatlas.org/compareprocesses/
  • http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppss.00158/ [Freeman Mason of Company K, 17th Vermont Infantry holding a tintype of his brother, Michael Mason, killed at Savage&apos;s Station, Virginia, in 1862] Digital ID: (digital file from original item, mat removed) ppss 00158 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppss.00158 Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-27071 (digital file from original item)
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/jonlewisphotography/3085268486/
  • http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005677238/
  • http://www.graphicsatlas.org/identification/?process_id=5 (compare processes) http://www.digitalsamplebook.com
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/ohiouniversitylibraries/3476347053/in/set-72157617257431295/ Mention Weaver: http://gawainweaver.com/images/uploads/Weaver_Guide_to_Gelatin_Silver.pdf
  • http://www.graphicsatlas.org/compareprocesses/ Mention Weaver: http://gawainweaver.com/images/uploads/Weaver_Guide_to_Gelatin_Silver.pdf
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/kschlot1/4359176787/ Complex, and beyond the scope of an hour-long intro. See Ritzenthaler. http://www.graphicsatlas.org/identification/?process_id=88
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/badwsky/3251164379/ http://www.graphicsatlas.org/identification/?process_id=63
  • http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsc.01269/
  • http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/fsa.8c03262/
  • Dag: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3g03937/ Cyanotype: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3g05214/ Platinum print: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.03632/ Carbon print: http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/det.4a32175/ Calotype: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3c21765/ Gum bichromate: http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.13700/ Slide: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nairolf_simon/5339816621/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/kschlot1/5219203334
  • Walt Whitman, 1860-1865? http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/brhc/item/brh2003003783/PP/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/carowallis1/2314716161/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cgc/7080983/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Http://www.nedcc.org/resources/leaflets/4Storage_and_Handling/11StorageEnclosures.php See NEDCC pamphlet 4.11: Storage Enclosures for Photographic Materials
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cgc/7080983/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cmatsuoka/3435792255/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cmatsuoka/3435792255/ (See ISO standards 18920 and 18911)
  • http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/cph/item/2005681364/resource/
  • What's In a Photograph?

    1. 2. Overview <ul><li>I. The Image </li></ul><ul><li>II. The Object </li></ul><ul><li>III. In the Archives </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Exercise </li></ul>
    2. 3. I. The Image
    3. 4. What’s in an image? I. The Image
    4. 5. Reading an Image <ul><li>Five Ws </li></ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Why </li></ul>I. The Image
    5. 6. Reading an Image <ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><li>Photographer </li></ul><ul><li>Subject </li></ul>I. The Image
    6. 7. Reading an Image <ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>Present </li></ul><ul><li>Absent </li></ul>I. The Image
    7. 8. Reading an Image <ul><li>Where? </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul>I. The Image
    8. 9. Reading an Image <ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Absence </li></ul>I. The Image
    9. 10. Reading an Image <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Intention </li></ul>The &quot;Carrying-in Boy,&quot; In an Indiana Glass Works, 1:00 A. M., Aug., 1908. Location: Indiana. National Child Labor Committee Collection I. The Image
    10. 11. Reading an Image <ul><li>Visual Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of field </li></ul><ul><li>Point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Color balance </li></ul><ul><li>Tonal range </li></ul>I. The Image
    11. 13. II. The Object
    12. 14. Photo Basics II. The Object
    13. 15. What is photography? II. The Object
    14. 16. Photo History II. The Object
    15. 17. Trends in Photo History <ul><li>Easier to create </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to duplicate </li></ul><ul><li>More accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper </li></ul>II. The Object
    16. 18. What is a photograph? <ul><li>A complex physical object that has an image fixed via a chemical process </li></ul>II. The Object
    17. 19. Photograph Structure Base: paper, glass, metal, plastic Light-sensitive particles: silver, color dyes Emulsion: gelatin, albumen, collodion Baryta layer II. The Object
    18. 20. Physical Evidence <ul><li>Polarity </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Base and mount </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopic appearance </li></ul>II. The Object
    19. 21. Physical Evidence II. The Object
    20. 22. Common Formats and Processes II. The Object
    21. 23. Tintypes (ca. 1856-1930s) <ul><li>Collodion on blackened iron base </li></ul><ul><li>Direct positive image </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely popular during Civil War </li></ul>II. The Object
    22. 24. Tintypes (ca. 1856-1930s) <ul><li>Cheap and ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Often worn or scratched </li></ul><ul><li>Identification: </li></ul><ul><li>Snip marks </li></ul><ul><li>Magnet test (on back) </li></ul><ul><li>Reversed image </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly portraiture </li></ul>II. The Object
    23. 25. Albumen Prints (1850-1895) <ul><li>POP from wet collodion negatives </li></ul><ul><li>Always mounted </li></ul><ul><li>Tend toward sepia/yellowish </li></ul>II. The Object
    24. 26. Albumen Prints (1850-1895) <ul><li>80% of extant 19 th -century prints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartes-de-visite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cabinet cards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identification: </li></ul><ul><li>Paper fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Cracking </li></ul><ul><li>Yellowing </li></ul><ul><li>Mount </li></ul>Paper fibers visible 30x magnification II. The Object
    25. 27. Silver Gelatin DOPs (1885-present) <ul><li>Dominant 20 th -century process </li></ul><ul><li>Dozens of formats </li></ul><ul><li>Identification: </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral unless toned </li></ul><ul><li>Baryta layer (no paper fibers visible) </li></ul>II. The Object
    26. 28. Silver Gelatin DOPs (1885-present) II. The Object
    27. 29. Color Prints (1930s-today) <ul><li>Organic dyes </li></ul><ul><li>Many processes </li></ul><ul><li>Identification: </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristic deterioration </li></ul><ul><li>Unstable </li></ul>II. The Object
    28. 30. Instant Photos (1948-today*) <ul><li>Photo printed from packet with negative, developer, base </li></ul><ul><li>Identification: </li></ul><ul><li>Adhesion markings or developing pod </li></ul><ul><li>Coating flaws </li></ul><ul><li>Unique </li></ul><ul><li>Unstable </li></ul>II. The Object
    29. 31. Film Negatives <ul><li>Cellulose nitrate </li></ul><ul><li>(1887-1950) </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose diacetate (1937-1956) </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose triacetate (1947-present) </li></ul><ul><li>Polyester </li></ul><ul><li>(1960-present) </li></ul>Roll film II. The Object
    30. 32. Film Negatives <ul><li>Identification: </li></ul><ul><li>Notch codes </li></ul><ul><li>Other tests </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose bases unstable </li></ul>Sheet film II. The Object
    31. 33. Other Processes II. The Object
    32. 34. Digital Photos (1990-today) <ul><li>Sensor converts light to bits, computer renders image </li></ul><ul><li>Digital preservation </li></ul>II. The Object
    33. 35. III. In the Archives
    34. 36. Why? <ul><li>Why identify photographs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photographs offer evidences and resonances not offered by other media </li></ul>III. In the Archives
    35. 37. Handling <ul><li>Wear gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Provide support </li></ul><ul><li>Use only pencils </li></ul><ul><li>Gently remove from housing </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of physical condition </li></ul><ul><li>Create and follow handling policy </li></ul><ul><li>Consider surrogates </li></ul>III. In the Archives
    36. 38. <ul><li>Paper (envelopes, four-flaps) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper, blocks light, breathable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewing requires handling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plastic (polyester, polystyrene, etc. No PVC!) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewing without handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive, not for unstable items </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must pass Photographic Activity Test (PAT) </li></ul>Housing III. In the Archives
    37. 39. Housing <ul><li>Boxes and folders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PAT test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper support for format (long edge down or flat) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideally, separate photographs from other materials, and then by format (especially negatives!) </li></ul><ul><li>Balance condition/format, use, resources </li></ul>III. In the Archives
    38. 40. Environment <ul><li>Temperature / relative humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Light (sunlight, UV light) </li></ul><ul><li>Pollutants (gaseous and particulate) </li></ul><ul><li>Biological (mold, fungus, pests) </li></ul>III. In the Archives
    39. 41. Environment <ul><li>B/W silver gelatin: 65°F, 30-50% RH </li></ul><ul><li>B/W acetate negatives: 7°F, 30-50% RH </li></ul><ul><li>Chromogenic dye on paper: 36°F, 30-40% RH </li></ul><ul><li>Most good for the most items </li></ul>III. In the Archives
    40. 42. Selected Resources <ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs: Archival Care and Management, Ritzenthaler & Vogt-O'Connor (2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Care and Identification of 19th-Century Photographic Prints , Reilly (1986) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAA photo preservation workshop </li></ul></ul>III. In the Archives
    41. 43. Selected Resources <ul><li>Cartes de Visite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartes de Visite in Nineteenth Century Photography, Darrah (1981) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fashion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900 , Severa (1995) </li></ul></ul>III. In the Archives
    42. 44. Selected Resources <ul><li>Gelatin silver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Guide to Fiber-Base Gelatin Silver Print Condition and Deterioration, Weaver (2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Acetate Negative Survey, Horvath (1987) </li></ul></ul>III. In the Archives
    43. 45. IV. Exercise <ul><li>Divide into three groups </li></ul><ul><li>Pick a reporter </li></ul><ul><li>Identify photograph using image and physical evidence (5 min) </li></ul><ul><li>Share your conclusions </li></ul>
    44. 46. Group 1
    45. 47. Group 1 <ul><li>Sixth-plate sized tintype, 1880s </li></ul><ul><li>Magnet test, snip marks </li></ul><ul><li>Image reversed – watch customarily on left </li></ul><ul><li>Jacket, tie, and hat match 1880s style </li></ul>
    46. 48. Group 2
    47. 49. Group 2 <ul><li>Carte-de-visite, early 1870s </li></ul><ul><li>Medium card stock, square corners (1869-1871) </li></ul><ul><li>Borders, common 1861-1869 </li></ul><ul><li>Imprint with length-wise large type (common 1870-1875) </li></ul><ul><li>Shoes probably 1865-1875 </li></ul><ul><li>Photographers active in 1870s </li></ul>
    48. 50. Group 3
    49. 51. Group 3 <ul><li>Gelatin silver “real photo” postcard, ca. 1910s </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral tonal range, silvering </li></ul><ul><li>Cyko postage stamp area (1904-1920s) </li></ul><ul><li>Divided back, no border: 1907-1915 </li></ul>III. In the Archives
    50. 52. Thank you!

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