OverviewI. The ImageII. The ObjectIII. In the ArchivesIV. Exercise
Why?
I. The Image
I. The Image               What’s in an image?
I. The Image               Reading an Image     Five Ws •   Who •   What •   Where •   When •   Why
I. The Image               Reading an Image    Who? • Photographer • Subject
I. The Image               Reading an Image    What? • Present • Absent
I. The Image               Reading an Image    Where? • Location
I. The Image               Reading an Image    When? • Fashion • Technology • Absence
I. The Image               Reading an Image    Why? • Context • Intention
I. The Image               Reading an Image                    The "Carrying-in Boy," In an                    Indiana Gla...
I. The Image               Reading an Image     Visual Elements •   Composition •   Depth of field •   Point of view •   R...
II. The Object
II. The Object                 Photo Basics
II. The Object                 What is photography?
II. The Object                 What is a photograph? • A complex physical object that has an image   fixed via a photochem...
II. The Object                  Photograph Structure                                                           Light-sensi...
II. The Object                 Photo History
II. The Object                 Photo History
II. The Object                  Photo History•   Easier to create•   Easier to duplicate•   More accessible•   Cheaper
II. The Object       Common Formats and           Processes
II. The Object                 Physical Evidence •   Polarity •   Size •   Base and mount •   Color •   Reflection •   Mic...
II. The Object                 Physical Evidence
II. The Object            Tintypes (ca. 1856-1930s)                         • Collodion on blackened                      ...
II. The Object            Tintypes (ca. 1856-1930s)                         • Cheap and ubiquitous                        ...
II. The Object         Albumen Prints (1850-1895)                      • POP from wet collodion                        neg...
II. The Object         Albumen Prints (1850-1895)                                  • 80% of extant 19th-                  ...
II. The Object          Lantern Slides (1849-1950s)                        • Glass slide                        • Positive...
II. The Object  Silver Gelatin DOPs (1885-present)                   • Dominant 20th-century                     process  ...
II. The Object  Silver Gelatin DOPs (1885-present)
II. The Object  Silver Gelatin DOPs (1885-present)
II. The Object            Color Prints (1930s-today)                         • Organic dyes                         • Many...
II. The Object        Instant Photos (1948-today*)                      • Photo printed from                        packet...
II. The Object                             Film Negatives                                    • Cellulose nitrate          ...
II. The Object                              Film Negatives                                       Identification:          ...
II. The Object                 Other Processes
II. The Object          Digital Photos (1990-today)                        • Sensor converts light to                     ...
II. The Object                  Why? • Preservation • Access • Context
II. The Object                      Why? • Photographs offer   evidences and   resonances not offered   by other media
III. In the Archives
III. In the Archives                       Handling •   Wear gloves •   Provide support •   Use only pencils •   Gently re...
III. In the Archives                       Levels of Protection • I: Enclosures (contact material) • II: Furniture (proxim...
III. In the Archives                       Enclosures • Paper (envelopes, four-flaps)      – Cheaper, blocks light, breath...
III. In the Archives                       Enclosures • Boxes and folders      – PAT test      – Proper support for format...
III. In the Archives                       Environment •   Temperature / relative humidity •   Light (sunlight, UV light) ...
III. In the Archives                       Environment • B/W silver gelatin: 65°F, 30-50% RH • B/W acetate negatives: 7°F,...
III. In the Archives                       Selected Resources • General      Photographs: Archival Care and Management,   ...
III. In the Archives                       Selected Resources • General      SAA photo preservation workshop      Photo pr...
III. In the Archives                       Selected Resources • Cartes de Visite      Cartes de Visite in Nineteenth Centu...
III. In the Archives                       Selected Resources • Gelatin silver      A Guide to Fiber-Base Gelatin Silver P...
IV. Exercise• Divide into three groups• Describe how to identify the photograph  using image and physical evidence (5 min)...
Group 1
Group 1  Sixth-plate sized tintype, 1880s• Magnet test, snip marks• Image reversed – watch customarily on left• Jacket, ti...
Group 2
Group 2    Carte-de-visite, early 1870s•   Medium card stock, square corners (1869-1871)•   Borders, common 1861-1869•   I...
Group 3
III. In the Archives                       Group 3     Gelatin silver “real photo” postcard, ca. 1910s • Neutral tonal ran...
Thank you!http://slidesha.re/photopres      @archivistkevin
A Brief Introduction to Photo Preservation
A Brief Introduction to Photo Preservation
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A Brief Introduction to Photo Preservation

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This is a brief introduction to photograph preservation for archivists.

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  • Recent grad, now a processing archivist. New archivists point of view. What would processing archivists like to know? [Group portrait of seventeen members of the White House News Photographers' Association, standing and squatting, facing front, with cameras] Digital ID: (b&w film copy neg.) cph 3c31921 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c31921 http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3c31921/
  • Visual literacy; physical object; archival work; identification exercise. Title: [Carl Mydans, Farm Security Administration photographer, full-length portrait, holding camera, standing with his foot on the running board of a Treasury Department Procurement Division Fuel Yard truck, Washington, D.C.] / photo by Carl Mydans. Creator(s): Mydans, Carl , photographer Date Created/Published: [ca. 1935] Medium: 1 photographic print : gelatin silver. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/98507850/
  • Photos are different from textual documents, and require understanding of their own logic, as well of their physical characteristics. Try to imagine how important and powerful they were 100+ ago. Historical importance Visual literacy Not prints – these are photochemical objects, not mechanical. Not every nuance or detail – I’ll provide resources for additional learning. Just want you to be sensitive to the needs of and unique evidences offered by photos in the archive. http://eris.uky.edu/catalog/xt7q833mwz5w_1_102 (1904 – U of Kentucky, first probably first woman’s dorm)
  • Images are powerful historical evidence. The ability to read and understand images is called visual literacy. Necessary as an archivist to effectively describe and provide access to photographs. Look at the “informational content” (5 Ws) and the formal visual content. Wonderful range of grays; sharp contrast; text is prominent. Editor Roy Takeno reading a copy of the Manzanar Free Press in the California Japanese-American internment camp. 1943. Irony of the paper being called “Free Press” in an internment camp. http://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/4483939447/ Adams, Ansel, 1902-1984, photographer. Roy Takeno (editor) reading paper in front of office [1943] 1 photographic print : gelatin silver. 1 negative : safety film. Notes: Photo shows editor Roy Takeno reading a copy of the Manzanar Free Press in front of the newspaper office at the Manzanar War Relocation Center; with mountains in the background. Title transcribed from Ansel Adams' caption on verso of print. Original neg. no.: LC-A35-4-M-4. Gift; Ansel Adams; 1965-1968. Forms part of: Manzanar War Relocation Center photographs.
  • Visual literacy: “Visual literacy […] enables an individual to effectively find, interpret, evaluate, use, and create images and visual media. Visual literacy skills equip a learner to understand and analyze the contextual, cultural, ethical, aesthetic, intellectual, and technical components involved in the production and use of visual materials. […]” ACRL/IRIG Visual Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (draft) http://www.flickr.com/photos/lwr/6208698/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/nationalmediamuseum/3084038297 Who: is the photograper, studio; who is pictured? Captioned information: useful, but not infallible "A cabinet card portrait of John Owen, a sadler from Montgomeryshire, Wales, pictured with his dog, Blueman, taken at the studio of F. Davey, Gloucester, in about 1900.“ Thanks Jill!
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/pip_r_lagenta/3137287437/ (On the flatbed are Annalisa Tripp (left) and Pip R. Lagenta. Kneeling behind the truck is Dale Tripp. The other people are passersby. The Marina in San Francisco, California, 1960.) What: in: people, things, cars, language. Not in: absences (no powerlines? Cell phones?) Language? Captioned information: useful, but not infallible Thanks Jill!
  • Where: location pictured; geographic location Captioned information: useful, but not infallible http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/nypldigital/id?85260 NYPL Image ID: 85260 The pyramids of Geezeh (1862-1863) Image Title: The pyramids of Geezeh Creator: Frith, Francis -- Photographer Medium: Albumen prints
  • Particularly important for helping confirm physical identification. Question assumptions, question written information on print 1800s:UVM site, Dressed for the Photographer (by Joan Severa), victorian fashion site Research: Newspapers and magazines; phone books; in-house guide to photographers and photos in collection http://www.flickr.com/photos/92947174@N00/214261992/ Reenactor
  • Question assumptions, question written information on print Why: Intention; commercial portrait? Message conveyed? Archivists love this – context and meaning Lewis Hine http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/ncl2004000111/PP/ The "Carrying-in Boy," In an Indiana Glass Works, 1:00 A. M., Aug., 1908. Location: Indiana. 1908 August. Medium: 1 photographic print. National Child Labor Committee Collection
  • Question assumptions, question written information on print Why: Intention; commercial portrait? Message conveyed? Archivists love this – context and meaning Lewis Hine http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/ncl2004000111/PP/ The "Carrying-in Boy," In an Indiana Glass Works, 1:00 A. M., Aug., 1908. Location: Indiana. 1908 August. Medium: 1 photographic print. National Child Labor Committee Collection
  • Formal visual elements. Grid is imposed. Ritzenthaler, p. 64 (visual elements) http://www.flickr.com/photos/cpurrin1/254286406
  • Who: black man (and a cowboy) What: Movie theater, colored adm 10 cents; juxtaposition of commercialism and segregation Where: American south When: 1939 Why: Farm Security Administration (New Deal program); left-wing sympathies; anti-segregation Formal elements: high contrast; strong rhythm in bricks and in shadow; composition elements: 10 cents is center Movie: Bob Steele, Feud of the Range (1939) Negro going in colored entrance of movie house on Saturday afternoon, Belzoni, Mississippi Delta, Mississippi (LOC) Wolcott, Marion Post, 1910-1990, photographer. Negro going in colored entrance of movie house on Saturday afternoon, Belzoni, Mississippi Delta, Mississippi 1939 Oct.? 1 negative : nitrate ; 35 mm.
  • The physical object, the photograph
  • To understand a photograph, it helps to know something of the process by which is created. (This is a large area of human endeavor; could take a lifetime to master).
  • Describe how light exposure changes object that is light-sensitive. Processes to fix image. Other processes (toning) to change tonal range and help stability. Original/unique vs print http://www.practicalphysics.org/go/print/Guidance_93.html%3Bjsessionid=alZLdQlAHb1?topic_id=2&guidance_id=1
  • 1839 to today – dozens of processes. A reminder that there is always a viewpoint and manipulation in the image. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/cph/item/2004681684/resource/ [A photographer appears to be photographing himself in a photographic studio] / Wheeler, Berlin, Wis. Date Created/Published: c1893. Medium: 1 photographic print on cabinet card. Summary: A composite photograph showing a photographic studio interior. One man is seated on a stool near an adjustable clamp to hold his head steady during a long portrait exposure. The second man, standing next to a large view camera, looks like the person being photographed.
  • Cross-section of photograph Basics: photosensitive layer on backing Describe how light exposure changes sensitized object, then printed or developed. Fixed, toned. Original vs print
  • Historical context: Lots of experiments in 18 th -century; knew silver changed in reaction to light. Rapid technological change, from 1839 to today, helps contextualize the image and the object. Note: all dates rough. Processes sometimes continued to be used, one could argue about invention of digital photography. Processes for duplication: POP printing-out paper vs. DOP developing-out paper http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/coll/589_chronology.html
  • No. 3 Brownie (1908) – cheap, easy, used roll film. Early 20 th century through the 1950s. Popularized the “snapshot.” A study of the history of photography is invaluable as an archivist; I would argue it is an important part of modern history of fixed communication, which is after all what we as archivists preserve. History of photography is one of rapid technological change, driven by economics, toward cheaper, more copies, and easier. Understanding where an object falls in this continuum, from 1839 to today, helps contextualize the image and the object. Dags were expensive; CdVs cheaper, and 100s of millions produced, but photo studio needed; then snapshot (but need to develop); instant photos, and finally digital. http://www.flickr.com/photos/wscullin/1400909828/
  • Dozens of others; just the most common, and just enough info to ID them
  • Define formats and processes
  • Step out to graphics atlas: http://www.graphicsatlas.org/compareprocesses/ Also mention: http://www.digitalsamplebook.com/compare.asp Mention Reilly and Weaver charts
  • http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppss.00158/ [Freeman Mason of Company K, 17th Vermont Infantry holding a tintype of his brother, Michael Mason, killed at Savage's Station, Virginia, in 1862] Digital ID: (digital file from original item, mat removed) ppss 00158 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppss.00158 Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-27071 (digital file from original item)
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/jonlewisphotography/3085268486/ Vintage tintype, 2 1/2" x 3 1/2"
  • http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005677238/ (albumen aging and bad processing)
  • http://www.graphicsatlas.org/identification/?process_id=5 (compare processes) http://www.digitalsamplebook.com Mention Darrah book
  • http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/pnp/ppmsca/16300/16351r.jpg
  • So dominant that from the teens onward, this can be your default assumption (unless specific reasons not to be) Mention photo postcards http://www.flickr.com/photos/ohiouniversitylibraries/3476347053/in/set-72157617257431295/ Mention Weaver: http://gawainweaver.com/images/uploads/Weaver_Guide_to_Gelatin_Silver.pdf
  • So dominant that from the 1920s onward, this can be your default assumption (unless specific reasons not to be) http://www.flickr.com/photos/ohiouniversitylibraries/3476347053/in/set-72157617257431295/ Mention Weaver: http://gawainweaver.com/images/uploads/Weaver_Guide_to_Gelatin_Silver.pdf
  • http://www.playle.com/realphoto/ http://www.metropostcard.com/guiderealphoto.html 1904-1920s Mention Weaver: http://gawainweaver.com/images/uploads/Weaver_Guide_to_Gelatin_Silver.pdf
  • Magenta/cyan/yellow in three layers Fading in highlights More red as the cyan dye fades first http://www.flickr.com/photos/kschlot1/4359176787/ Complex, and beyond the scope of an hour-long intro. See Ritzenthaler. http://www.graphicsatlas.org/identification/?process_id=88
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/badwsky/3251164379/ http://www.graphicsatlas.org/identification/?process_id=63
  • http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsc.01269/ Brief history – replaced glass plate negs in late 1800s. Materials science became more advanced, improved bases. Negs present special challenges. Hard to read and use (access), serious preservation problems. But, potentially rich – context around other photos, choices made by photographer, sheer volume.
  • http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/fsa.8c03262/ Notch codes: https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/Notch_code Tests: http://www.nedcc.org/resources/leaflets/5Photographs/01ShortGuide.php Other tests: polarization, burn test Describe degradation types Mention American Archivist article Heckman, nitrate composition (Winter 2010)
  • Dag: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3g03937/ Cyanotype: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3g05214/ Platinum print: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.03632/ Carbon print: http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/det.4a32175/ Calotype: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3c21765/ Gum bichromate: http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.13700/ Slide: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nairolf_simon/5339816621/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/kschlot1/5219203334 Visual cues still apply, but even more easily manipulated (not that earlier forms couldn’t be – famous Stalin picture with comrades slowly wiped out); hipstamatic “prints” for iPhone Dig pres and its associated problems. Metadata. Digital forensics. Many common image formats have embedded medata – check out Irfanview software. We need to think about this; appraisal? Do we keep every digital image? Why or why not?
  • Powerful evidentiary value; knowing what the image and object are help contextualize it. Preservation (housing/handling/environment) Access (reference, description) http://www.flickr.com/photos/nys_archives/3874737219/
  • Powerful evidentiary value; knowing what the image and object are help contextualize it. Photos were REALLY important to people (and images still are) – in all my LBI collections, what did people take from Germany? Diplomas, vital records, and photos. Walt Whitman, 1860-1865? http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/brhc/item/brh2003003783/PP/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/carowallis1/2314716161/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cgc/7080983/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Http://www.nedcc.org/resources/leaflets/4Storage_and_Handling/11StorageEnclosures.php See NEDCC pamphlet 4.11: Storage Enclosures for Photographic Materials
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cgc/7080983/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Http://www.nedcc.org/resources/leaflets/4Storage_and_Handling/11StorageEnclosures.php See NEDCC pamphlet 4.11: Storage Enclosures for Photographic Materials
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cgc/7080983/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  • Common preservation concerns. Whatever happy medium is found, temp/RH should ideally not fluctuate. Minimize light. Awareness of ozone produced by copiers and printers; off-gassing of storage units; other photos (fixer not rinsed, sulphur compounds). Gelatin is an animal product, insects and rodents will eat it. http://www.flickr.com/photos/cmatsuoka/3435792255/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cmatsuoka/3435792255/ (See ISO standards 18920 and 18911)
  • Ones not linked or mentioned prior
  • Ones not linked or mentioned prior
  • http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/cph/item/2005681364/resource/
  • Darrah Fringed chair also appears to be common in 1870s
  • http://www.playle.com/realphoto/photoall.php?PHPSESSID=tqmc99gjs9rck706sjg0mb6k91 After 1910, as women's feet and legs began to be exposed, shoes were colored to match the outfit. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101239079
  • A Brief Introduction to Photo Preservation

    1. 1. OverviewI. The ImageII. The ObjectIII. In the ArchivesIV. Exercise
    2. 2. Why?
    3. 3. I. The Image
    4. 4. I. The Image What’s in an image?
    5. 5. I. The Image Reading an Image Five Ws • Who • What • Where • When • Why
    6. 6. I. The Image Reading an Image Who? • Photographer • Subject
    7. 7. I. The Image Reading an Image What? • Present • Absent
    8. 8. I. The Image Reading an Image Where? • Location
    9. 9. I. The Image Reading an Image When? • Fashion • Technology • Absence
    10. 10. I. The Image Reading an Image Why? • Context • Intention
    11. 11. I. The Image Reading an Image The "Carrying-in Boy," In an Indiana Glass Works, 1:00 A. M., Aug., 1908. Location: Indiana. Why? National Child Labor Committee Collection • Context • Intention
    12. 12. I. The Image Reading an Image Visual Elements • Composition • Depth of field • Point of view • Rhythm • Color balance • Tonal range
    13. 13. II. The Object
    14. 14. II. The Object Photo Basics
    15. 15. II. The Object What is photography?
    16. 16. II. The Object What is a photograph? • A complex physical object that has an image fixed via a photochemical process
    17. 17. II. The Object Photograph Structure Light-sensitive particles:Baryta layer silver, color dyes Emulsion: gelatin, albumen, collodion Base: paper, glass, metal, plastic
    18. 18. II. The Object Photo History
    19. 19. II. The Object Photo History
    20. 20. II. The Object Photo History• Easier to create• Easier to duplicate• More accessible• Cheaper
    21. 21. II. The Object Common Formats and Processes
    22. 22. II. The Object Physical Evidence • Polarity • Size • Base and mount • Color • Reflection • Microscopic appearance
    23. 23. II. The Object Physical Evidence
    24. 24. II. The Object Tintypes (ca. 1856-1930s) • Collodion on blackened iron base • Direct positive image • Extremely popular during Civil War
    25. 25. II. The Object Tintypes (ca. 1856-1930s) • Cheap and ubiquitous • Often worn or scratched Identification: • Snip marks • Magnet test (on back) • Reversed image • Mainly portraiture
    26. 26. II. The Object Albumen Prints (1850-1895) • POP from wet collodion negatives • Always mounted • Tend toward sepia/yellowish
    27. 27. II. The Object Albumen Prints (1850-1895) • 80% of extant 19th- century prints – Cartes-de-visite – Cabinet cards Paper fibers visible Identification: 30x magnification • Paper fibers • Cracking • Yellowing • Mount
    28. 28. II. The Object Lantern Slides (1849-1950s) • Glass slide • Positive image • Often used for educational purposes
    29. 29. II. The Object Silver Gelatin DOPs (1885-present) • Dominant 20th-century process • Dozens of formats Identification: • Neutral unless toned • Baryta layer (no paper fibers visible)
    30. 30. II. The Object Silver Gelatin DOPs (1885-present)
    31. 31. II. The Object Silver Gelatin DOPs (1885-present)
    32. 32. II. The Object Color Prints (1930s-today) • Organic dyes • Many processes Identification: • Characteristic deterioration • Unstable
    33. 33. II. The Object Instant Photos (1948-today*) • Photo printed from packet with negative, developer, base Identification: • Adhesion markings or developing pod • Coating flaws • Unique • Unstable
    34. 34. II. The Object Film Negatives • Cellulose nitrate (1887-1950) • Cellulose diacetate (1937-1956) • Cellulose triacetate (1947-present) • Polyester (1960-present) Roll film
    35. 35. II. The Object Film Negatives Identification: • Notch codes • Other tests • Cellulose bases unstable Sheet film
    36. 36. II. The Object Other Processes
    37. 37. II. The Object Digital Photos (1990-today) • Sensor converts light to bits, computer renders image • Digital preservation
    38. 38. II. The Object Why? • Preservation • Access • Context
    39. 39. II. The Object Why? • Photographs offer evidences and resonances not offered by other media
    40. 40. III. In the Archives
    41. 41. III. In the Archives Handling • Wear gloves • Provide support • Use only pencils • Gently remove from housing • Be aware of physical condition • Create and follow handling policy • Consider surrogates
    42. 42. III. In the Archives Levels of Protection • I: Enclosures (contact material) • II: Furniture (proximity material) • III: Environment
    43. 43. III. In the Archives Enclosures • Paper (envelopes, four-flaps) – Cheaper, blocks light, breathable – Viewing requires handling • Plastic (polyester, polystyrene, etc. No PVC!) – Viewing without handling – Expensive, not for unstable items • Must pass Photographic Activity Test (PAT)
    44. 44. III. In the Archives Enclosures • Boxes and folders – PAT test – Proper support for format (long edge down or flat) • Ideally, separate photographs from other materials, and then by format (especially negatives!) Balance condition/format, use, resources
    45. 45. III. In the Archives Environment • Temperature / relative humidity • Light (sunlight, UV light) • Pollutants (gaseous and particulate) • Biological (mold, fungus, pests)
    46. 46. III. In the Archives Environment • B/W silver gelatin: 65°F, 30-50% RH • B/W acetate negatives: 7°F, 30-50% RH • Chromogenic dye on paper: 36°F, 30-40% RH Most good for the most items
    47. 47. III. In the Archives Selected Resources • General Photographs: Archival Care and Management, Ritzenthaler & Vogt-OConnor (2006) Care and Identification of 19th-Century Photographic Prints, Reilly (1986)
    48. 48. III. In the Archives Selected Resources • General SAA photo preservation workshop Photo preservation and photo conservation listservs
    49. 49. III. In the Archives Selected Resources • Cartes de Visite Cartes de Visite in Nineteenth Century Photography, Darrah (1981) • Fashion Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900, Severa (1995)
    50. 50. III. In the Archives Selected Resources • Gelatin silver A Guide to Fiber-Base Gelatin Silver Print Condition and D • Negatives The Acetate Negative Survey, Horvath (1987)
    51. 51. IV. Exercise• Divide into three groups• Describe how to identify the photograph using image and physical evidence (5 min)• Share your conclusions
    52. 52. Group 1
    53. 53. Group 1 Sixth-plate sized tintype, 1880s• Magnet test, snip marks• Image reversed – watch customarily on left• Jacket, tie, and hat match 1880s style
    54. 54. Group 2
    55. 55. Group 2 Carte-de-visite, early 1870s• Medium card stock, square corners (1869-1871)• Borders, common 1861-1869• Imprint with length-wise large type (common 1870-1875)• Shoes probably 1865-1875• Photographers active in 1870s
    56. 56. Group 3
    57. 57. III. In the Archives Group 3 Gelatin silver “real photo” postcard, ca. 1910s • Neutral tonal range, silvering • Cyko postage stamp area (1904-1920s) • Divided back, no border: 1907-1915
    58. 58. Thank you!http://slidesha.re/photopres @archivistkevin
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