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Console Io Operations
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  • 1. CONSOLE I/O OPERATIONS Console I/O functions perform input from standard input devices and gives output to the standard output device of a system. Generally, keyboard is standard input device And monitor is standard output device
  • 2. Header files and their purpose
    • Certain functions in C++ are available in C++ header files.
    • Header file is included in the program using a preprocessor directive #include.
    • Preprocessor directive means it is an instruction for the compiler that it is to be carried out in the preprocessing stage.
    • Preprocessing stage means before the actual compilation of the program code.
  • 3. #include directive
    • Instructs the compiler to read and include the header file under the current file.
    • After including the specified file, the compiler compiles the total code ( i.e code of included file as well as current file ).
    • getchar() and putchar()
    • Header file – stdio.h
    • Function is buffered i.e. Character typed by the user is not passed to the variable until the user hits the Enter key.
    • Since Enter key is itself a character and gets stored in the buffer.
    • To clear the input buffer fflush(stdin) function is to be used.
    • Putchar() is used to send single character to the output device.
    • It is also buffered , therefore to clean the output buffer function fflush(stdout) is used.
  • 5. Example: Program using getchar() and putchar() function. Program to accept characters from the user till ‘n’ or ‘N’ is pressed.
    • void main()
    • {
    • do
    • {
    • char ch;
    • ch = getchar ( );
    • fflush(stdin);
    • putchar(ch);
    • fflush(stdout);
    • } while((ch!=‘n’)&&(ch!=‘N’));
    • }
  • 6. getc() and putc( ) functions
    • Header file: stdio.h
    • Mainly used with files
    • getc( stdin ) : Same as getchar( ) except that getchar( ) reads a character from the keyboard by default whereas stdin of function getc(stdin) make it read from a file represented by a standard input device.
    • putc(ch, stdout) : sends the character stored in ‘ch’ variable to standard output device.
  • 7. getche( ) and putch( )
    • Header file: conio.h
    • This function does not wait fro the enter key to be pressed
    • Displays the input character ch
    • e stands for echo
    • Different from getch( ) function since getch() does not display the input character.
  • 8. The classes istream (input stream ) and ostream (output stream) defined under iostream.h define some functions to handle character and string input/output operations.
    • get( )
    • When >> operator is used with cin, it cannot accept spaces and newline characters.
    • When cin.get(ch) is used, it reads spaces and newline character as well.
    • put( )
    • cout.put(ch)
    • gets( ) and puts( )
    • Header file – stdio.h
    • Reads a string from standard input device
    • Also buffered , therefore need to press enter key
    • Therefore, fflush needs to be used to clear IP buffer
    • Can accept spaces
    • Different from cin function because cin cannot accept spaces.
  • 10. getline( ) function
    • Reads a line of text
    • Syntax: cin.getline( var name, size)
    • Size is the total no. of characters including one null character : ‘’