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Signage system at IIT Guwahati, Thesis Report
 

Signage system at IIT Guwahati, Thesis Report

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Title: SIGNAGE SYSTEM for I I T Guwahati ...

Title: SIGNAGE SYSTEM for I I T Guwahati

Abstract: The project aimed at improving the current system of navigation and information in IITG by exploiting the built environment and architecture of the campus. The project also focused on the possibility of managing the campus from strategic positions.

Design Brief:

Aim: To attain an effective signage system that meets all the requirements of the university, including corporate identity, whilst not compromising usability, and remaining usable and effective.

Project Brief: The research was to find out the background to the signs’ conception and learn from the successes and failures of these direction finders.

• Analysis of the problems faced by the users.
• Critical Appraisal of the current system.
• Current market trends and area of application.
• Interpretation and exploration regarding all aspects of environmental design.

Space planning Circulation systems Human Factors and Behaviour
Ergonomics Human Psychology Graphics & Brand Identity
Interface design Articulation of form Layout and Placement

The main focus of the project was to develop the GUI (Graphical User Interface) through the system approach, making the interaction user friendly and less time consuming, for giving the guidance to the visitors. The basic concept is to guide the visitor to the destination, and that destination’s guiding factor need not be any place, rather it can be any person or any event or occasion.
Generally in wayfinding, people find it difficult to respond to the new environment and the other problem is language. The analysis starts with the listing of the difficulties and the problems. The system approach was followed and various information and data were collected. The information collected were tooled down to wire frame models and a multilingual interface was made.

Deliverable: Proposed for the signage system of IIT Guwahati.

• Directional sign board
• Map of the Campus
• You are Here maps
• Signboard for building identification
• Information desk
• Layout of the Letter pad
• Installation of the maps in the buses and the bus stops
• 3d scaled model of the campus

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    Signage system at IIT Guwahati, Thesis Report Signage system at IIT Guwahati, Thesis Report Presentation Transcript

    • SIGNAGE SYSTEM for IIT Guwahati Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of MASTER of DESIGN By: Deepak Kumar ( 07420511 ) Project Guide: Prof. Pradeep Yammiyavar FDRS Department Of Design INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GUWAHATI NORTH GUWAHATI, ASSAM - 781039
    • CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the thesis work titled “ SIGNAGE SYSTEM for IIT Guwahati ” is an authentic work carried out by Deepak Kumar Roll no - 07420511 Department of Design IIT Guwahati Assam at Department of Design Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati Guwahati 781039, Assam, India For the award of M. Des. Degree during the academic year 2008-2009The matter embodied in this project has not been submitted earlier for the award of any degree or diploma to the best of my knowledge and belief. Project Guide: Examiner 1 : .......................... ........................... Prof. Pradeep Yammiyavar Examiner 2 : .......................... Professor Department of Design IIT Guwahati, Assam Examiner 3 : ..........................
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati IPR DeclarationDeepak Kumar I declare that in accordance to the IPR norms generally followed in Academics, I have acknowledged appropriately all sources of material / content including visuals / designs / copy rights accessed from others authors / sources /references and used in this project as part of the academic reporting. I declare that the contents of this project report including visuals / designs other than those whose origin / source has been appropriately acknowledged, are a result of original efforts. Signature: Deepak Kumar M.Des (07420511) Department of DESIGN IIT Guwahati Signage System for IIT Guwahati
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati ACKNOWLEDGEMENTDeepak Kumar My thesis is a culmination of my ideas, experiences and work. They have been moulded by several very special people along the way. Without these people I would not stand at this threshold today. I would first like to thank my family for all that they have given me: love, support, cherished memories and the strength which has placed me where I am today. I would like to express deep gratitude to my guide Prof. Pradeep Yammiyavar for his guidance, encouragement and gracious support throughout the course of our work, for his expertise in the field that motivated me to work in this area and for his faith in me at every stage of this research. I look forward to continue working with him and further developing our relationship. I would like to thank all the faculty and staff of Department of Design for their support throughout and last but not the least special thanks to Prakash, Vikash, Vikram and Pravin for their constant support and help whenever I needed. Signage System for IIT Guwahati
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati CONTENTSDeepak Kumar Chapter Page 1. Abstract 1 2. Introduction 2 3. Methodology and Time Plan 3 4. Resources (study phase) 5 4.1 Resources in Wayfinding and Signage Design 6 4.2 Briefing the Content of the Resources 7 4.3 Architectural Wayfinding Design 10 4.4 Architectural Wayfinding Components 13 4.5 Building Form and Architectural Features 13 5. Signage Design 15 5.1 Signage Design 16 5.2 Wayfinding 17 5.3 Signage Elements 19 5.4 Eye Level 20 5.5 Typography 21 5.6 Arrows 24 5.7 Colours 26 5.8 Semiotics: The Study of Signs 28 5.9 Maps 30 Signage System for IIT Guwahati
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati CONTENTSDeepak Kumar Chapter Page 6. IIT Guwahati Campus (analysis phase) 6.1 Campus 32 6.2 Topography 33 6.3 Circulation 34 6.4 Role of Topography in Circulation 35 6.5 Approaching the Campus 36 6.6 Movement of People 37 6.6.1 Distribution of People 38 6.6.2 Decision Points 39 7. Digital SIgnage 7.1 Comparative Analysis 41 7.2 Places of Use 42 8. SIGNAGE SYSTEM at IITG 8.1 Critical Appraisal 44 8.2 Studying the present system 48 8.3 Circulation 49 9. MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.1 MAP for IITG 52 9.1.1 Legend in MAP for IITG 59 Signage System for IIT Guwahati
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati CONTENTSDeepak Kumar Chapter Page 9. 9.2 Typography 62 9.2.1 Fonts 63 9.2.2 Experimentation on Fonts 64 9.2.3 Screening of the Fonts 65 9.2.4 Font Selection 67 9.2.5 Fonts and Size 68 9.3 Colours 70 9.3.1 Fonts and Colours 71 9.4 Arrows 72 9.4.1 Arrows and Colours 74 9.5 Representations 9.5.1 You are Here 75 9.5.2 Entrance Sign 76 9.6 Layout and Placement of Signboards 77 9.7 Placement of Maps 104 9.8 Placement of Information Desks 108 9.9 Form 109 9.9.1 Semantic Approach 110 9.9.2 Studying the brand 114 9.9.3 Extraction of Abstract 116 9.9.4 Form Exploration 117 Signage System for IIT Guwahati
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati CONTENTSDeepak Kumar Chapter Page 9 9.10 System Approach 126 9.10.1 Use Case Diagrams 130 9.10.2 Sequence Diagrams 131 9.10.3 Persona and Scenario 132 9.10.4 Wireframe Model 134 9.10.5 Graphic User Interface 135 9.11 Sustainability 144 9.11.1 Material, Process and Energy 145 9.12 Concept Generation 147 9.12.1 Concept 1 148 9.12.2 Concept 2 150 9.12.3 Concept 3 151 9.12.4 Concept 4 153 9.12.5 Concept 5 154 9.13 Concept 5 155 9.13.1 Final Concept 156 9.13.2 Components of Signage System 157 9.13.3 Materials 170 9.13.4 Critical Appraisal 172 10. Conclusion 174 11. Future Work 176 12. References 177 Signage System for IIT Guwahati
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 1.0 ABSTRACTDeepak Kumar This dissertation studies the signs that were installed in IITG campus. The directional signs are the main focus of the study. Whether the forces of corporate identity have compromised their design and their effectiveness as wayfinding aids is tested. The reason for the research is to find out the background to the signs’ conception and learn from the successes and failures of these direction finders. The aim is to attain an effective signage system that meets all the requirements of the university, including corporate identity, whilst not compromising usability, and remaining usable and effective. Architectural wayfinding design addresses the built components of wayfinding design, including space planning, articulation of form-giving features and building identity, circulation systems, and environmental communication. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 1
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 2.0 INTRODUCTIONDeepak Kumar “The term ‘wayfinding’ is a relatively new term which covers everything to do with how people find their way around environments.” (Miller, C & Lewis, D 1999:11) Wayfinding is a very broad subject encompassing many elements that work together to provide a wayfinding system. [Ref: 14] However, each element in a successful wayfinding system must be able to stand up on its own as a wayfinding aid. The unprepared visitor to a site should be able to arrive and find their destination with a minimum of hassle. IIT Guwahati, an institutional campus comprises of more than 750 acres of land, with varied terrain and uneven mass of land. It is generally taken for granted that people are aware of their surroundings and can navigate from one place to another. The scope of sign system at IITG provides assistance to users of the facilities. They also represent an important aspect of the institute’s visual identity. These signs communicate essential information about the facility, and about the Institute and its operations. Ideally, signs are part of an environmental information system that helps users to understand their environment and guides Signage System for IIT Guwahati 2
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 2.0 INTRODUCTIONDeepak Kumar them to their destination. Planning signage means interpreting the needs of users and defining operational requirements. •A friendly, welcoming atmosphere where necessary information is readily available for visitors, new students and staff to become easily familiarized with the campus. •A distinct identity for the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati within the campus. • Uniformity of design elements to contribute to the overall aesthetic value of the campus. The ease with which one proceeds is facilitated through an environment from one point of interest to another. Way finding systems include such components as basic layout of building and site, interior and exterior landmarks, views to outside, signs, floor and room numbering, spoken directions, maps, directories, logical progression of spaces, colour coding. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 3
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 3.0 METHODOLOGY & TIME PLANDeepak Kumar Pre-Study Phase hase on Project selection t selecti udy p Literature Study dy stu prest projec ure do cu se rat ha me lite dy p Study Phase nta u st t ey User Study ion surv ph imp Survey ase rove dy men t user stu testing final product design phase l Design Phase e mod to type con Concept Generation n pro cep tio tg ene Detailing ula rat sim ion Execution/Engg/Testing Phase 3D engine de ta Prototype/Model execu ilin g ering Testing tion Documentation Phase Signage System for IIT Guwahati 4
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 4.0 RESOURCES(study phase)Deepak Kumar The problem identified for this piece of work was that the new external signs in IITG campus, while serving well to improve the look of the campus by replacing the tatty and worn old signs, are ineffective as a wayfinding aid due to the nature of their design and the provision of only building names. Providing only building names on the new signs gives the impression that the university would prefer that people became familiar with the school or facil- ity they are looking for. For this reason, the main question was at first “Has the Institute’s corporate image taken precedence over wayfinding and usability?” and this was refined further to give the title, “The signage system for IIT Guwahati campus.” Signage System for IIT Guwahati 5
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 4.1 Resources in Wayfinding and Signage DesignDeepak Kumar The Literature Review begins with a brief outline of what has been written about wayfinding and sign design and then focuses on what has been written about usability that is appropriate to the cause of wayfinding. The Literature Review identifies the major writers in the field, and gives a brief evaluation of their work and how it is relevant to the present study. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 6
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 4.2 Briefing the Content of the ResourcesDeepak Kumar Publications on wayfinding, in the context of the built environment, are relatively few; as it is relatively recently that a need was identified for research into how people find their way (or get lost). Books covering the topics of signage and sign design were read and considered, but contained little relevant information to this work. The reason for the lack of books about wayfinding is summed up in the opening paragraphs of Arthur & Passini’s (1992:7) [Ref: 5] second chapter in which they compare getting lost to other inconveniences placed before us in modern everyday life “it is unlikely that a person will actually die from the stress of getting lost” The authors of both books find the space, to qualify the need to improve wayfinding systems and the existence of such books. Arthur & Passini include a scenario, which they hope the reader can relate to, whilst Miller & Lewis (writing for healthcare) outline the consequences of patients getting lost in a healthcare site. Arthur & Passini also provide snippets of information throughout the book to remind the reader of the need for good wayfinding. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 7
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 4.2 Briefing the Content of the ResourcesDeepak Kumar “The fact is that we are exposed to [electronic variable-message displays and LCD digital watches] in contexts very different from that of reading print. Looking at signs and trying to get information from them has more in common with glancing at our watches than it has with reading a book.” (1992:165) [Ref: 5] Dumas & Redish, in A Practical Guide to Usability Testing, claim to cater for product designers, software engineers and documentation specialists (1999:back cover) but the bulk of references and analogies are to IT applications, making it difficult to relate the theory to anything else, let alone wayfinding. Use of a poor typeface & dull use of language, compared to Jordan, made this book about usability less than usable. [Ref: 15] The Design of Everyday Things (1988) by Donald A. Norman provides a very interesting read into the human factors that affect the usability of almost anything one comes into contact with. This would be a good book to consider whilst designing usability into a product such as a wayfinding system, though like so many sources, working backwards from this and using it as a basis for evaluating and testing something. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 8
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 4.2 Briefing the Content of the ResourcesDeepak Kumar Again, the amount of material available for usability in a way finding context is very limited. Most is aimed at the IT industry. However, Patrick W. Jordan’s (1998) Introduction to Usability proved very useful as a general guide to usability testing, without the disadvantage of being context-driven. Jordan explains each type of testing method, with its advantages and disadvantages and sometimes an example of what kind of scenario a particular method is used for. Jordan also includes useful information about choosing participants, warning against the use of colleagues. This makes sense, as other students from the Information Design faculty will see the signs as items of design, therefore casting a critical eye over them, rather than proceeding with the test as a participant who formed part of the signs’ target audience would. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 9
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 4.3 Architectural Wayfinding DesignDeepak Kumar Architectural wayfinding design is important to inclusive design because it facilitates user access, increases satisfaction, and reduces stigma and isolation of users with disabilities. It reduces the confusion of visitors and mistakes by employees, saving time and money and preventing accidents. It also reduces stress, boosting health and productivity (Evans and McCoy, 1998)[Ref: 7]. Most designers believe that wayfinding is not a high priority issue relative to other design concerns, or view it as a problem that will interfere with good design. It is often considered simply a signage issue (Carpman and Grant, 2002: 434). Kevin Lynch first discussed the impact of “the apparent clarity or ‘legibility’ of the cityscape” on urban quality of life in The Image of the City in 1960]. Lynch defined legibility as “the ease with which the parts can be recognized and . . . organized into a coherent pattern.” Because legibility and clarity facilitate movement within the built environment, Lynch claims they are integral to personal growth and “furnish the raw material for the symbols & collective memories of group communication.” Legible surroundings promote “emotional satisfaction, the framework for communication and conceptual organization [Ref:10]. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 10
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 4.4 Architectural Wayfinding ComponentsDeepak Kumar Legibility of the built environment is served by clear articulation and coherent grouping of interior and exterior spaces, legible circulation systems design, and integrating communication systems (Arthur and Passini, 1992) [Ref: 5]. These three objectives can be divided into the following components. 1. Wayfinding is as much an architectural issue as a graphic issue. Architects and designers need to take responsibility for inclusive approaches to wayfinding and remain apprised of psychological and health-related impacts of building design. If they are not ready to do that, a wayfinding expert should be engaged at early stages of the design. 2. Whether addressed through architecture or information, the design of wayfinding systems should include: (1) identifying and marking spaces; (2) grouping spaces; (3) linking and organizing spaces; and (4) communicating this information to the user. 3. Wayfinding design guidelines and best practices vary by building type, size, and layout; urban, suburban or rural location; frequency of use; and user requirements, preferences, and characteristics. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 11
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 4.4 Architectural Wayfinding ComponentsDeepak Kumar 4. Every building that has undergone substantial functional revisions or additions should have a user audit / post occupancy evaluation. 5. Provide as many wayfinding cues in the environment or the architecture as possible, rather than through signage. Landmarks that help visitor orientation and direction-giving can be fundamental for this purpose (VanderKlipp, 2006). 6. Designers must remember that spatial learning and thinking are not the same as visual learning and thinking. 7. Designers should also remember that small models of designed environments may produce unanticipated perceptual effects when built at full scale due to factors in the environment and non-visual effects of the full-scale building. Wayfinding elements may be too small or considered insignificant in scale models. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 12
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 4.5 Building Form and Architectural FeaturesDeepak Kumar 1. Facilitate wayfinding for all individuals, regardless of abilities. Research and be aware of differences in wayfinding competencies in potential users, such as gender, age and people of different abilities (Arthur and Passini, 1992) 2. Wayfinding should be designed for the first-time visitor because repeat visitors can use their past experiences for navigation. (Lynch, 1960). Keep the mental state of the visitor in mind when designing wayfinding systems (e.g., distracted, tired, tourists; worried patients at a medical facility) 3. While comprehensive and collaborative planning should be initiated between architects and designers early in the design process, we need to gather tools of good wayfinding design, including participant research, user involvement and evaluative research and assessment tools (Arthur and Passini, 1992). 4. The best-designed wayfinding plans change over time as urban space and building uses change, or buildings are added to, restored, or otherwise modified. They may also change in relation to exterior modifications and larger changes in cultural changes. One solution is to provide information in ways that are easily updated . Signage System for IIT Guwahati 13
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 4.5 Building Form and Architectural FeaturesDeepak Kumar 5. Provide users with an ordered environment that has “a clear possibility of choice and a starting-point for the acquisition of further information.” (Lynch, 1960: 4) [Ref: 10]. 6. Provide users with a clear visual sweep of the site or building on entering to afford them an overview of their surroundings, so they can see a large number of elements and their relationships, at the same time giving them a sense of their relation to the whole (Lynch, 1960: 43) [Ref: 10]. The panoramic experience not only “delights”, but helps the user obtain a view of the larger spatial configuration that reinforces memorability. Distinctive views of plantings, water views, and views of shocking or unexpected sites such as large changes in scale or color variation, can also assist users to construct wider mental maps, as can strong contrasts of spatial configuration, materials, and landscaping (Lynch, 1960: 43-45) [Ref: 10]. 7. Give visual dominance to pathways, with their own characteristics of space, view and motion, because they are the main influence in forming mental maps of a space .Use design to reinforce already existing social meaning, not to negate it (Lynch, 1960: 46) [Ref: 10]. (Lynch, 1960: 44-45) [Ref: 10]. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 14
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 5.0 SIGNAGE DESIGNDeepak Kumar signage: You are unlikely to find the terms signage systems, wayfinding systems or directional systems in the wayfinding dictionary. Origin: sign + age These are concepts that are as new as the subject itself. Equally new is the whole concept of systematic design that blends chiefly N. Amer. together all the technical and functional requirements of a project, although the actual task of showing people the way is as old as humankind. The arrow, for example, is an age-old sign, and in ancient time’s piles of stones used to point the way at crossroads. One important factor is the number of people involved and the amount of time available. Giving clear information as quickly as possible to large crowds seems a relatively modern concern, although Presumably Roman arenas were cleared pretty quickly, and it would be interesting to know how they did it. At a hospital, airport or trade fair, visitors want to get to the right area as quickly as possible but are often confronted with a bewildering choice of A, B, C etc. Just as people have to be directed through buildings and streets, they also need efficient systems to guide them at transport terminals. A clearly designed system of timetables and Destination is indispensable. One of the very first destinations designs to have used a combination of Words and graphics was the map of the London Underground originally conceived by Harry Beck in 1931) an Displays of train and flight times.[Ref: 4] Signage System for IIT Guwahati 15
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 5.1 SIGNAGE DESIGNDeepak Kumar Signage systems you can tell a company by its graphics. If a building bears the firms font, or is adorned with the appropriate signs and lettering sends out a friendly signal that accomplishes a great deal more than simply giving address. The concept of such systems is described by the French as signalátique, which has been adopted by the Swiss and the Germans as Signaletik, emphasizing the active signal more than the sign. This term denotes identification actions - indication, suggestion, and recognition - in contrast to the less dynamic wayfindinq system. In English less of a distinction is made between these different systems, which are usually all bracketed together under signage. [Ref: 4] Signage System for IIT Guwahati 16
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 5.2 WAYFINDINGDeepak Kumar Anton Stankowski objects to the very concept of directional systems, since they degrade the observer to the level of a way-finding passive, totally dependent object being led through a building. Such ‘direction differs from the passivity of wayfindinq aids, as it is up to you whether you take advantage of the latter. And if we look a little more closely at what lies behind these linguistic terms, the design too is different. Active direction imposes itself intrusively on the foreground, and is an end in itself it entails leadership, domination, irresistible authority. A way finding system is polite and restrained, and may hide itself away when it is not needed. It you were not looking for it, you could easily miss it.[Ref: 4] DIRECTIONAL SYSTEMS This is not such an appealing term. The idea of being guided, informed and helped is far more pleasant and gentle than the domineering direct", or being actively led. A leader can also mislead, as many a nation has discovered to its cost. [Ref: 4] Signage System for IIT Guwahati 17
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 5.2 WAYFINDINGDeepak Kumar What is wayfinding? start The term wayfinding descnbes the processes people go through to find their way round an environment. The waylinding process is fundamentally problem-solving, and is affected by many factors which are covered in this section. Peoples perception of the environment, the wayfinding information available, their ability to orientate themselves spatially, and the cognitive and decision-making processes they go through, all affect how successfully they find their way. [Ref: 17] How people find their way? Many factors affect how people orientate themselves and find their way, but wayfinding is essentially a series of interrelated decisions influenced by personal and environmental factors and end also the availability and understandability of information. Figure 5.2.1 Having decided to make a journey, people will encounter a series of decision points along the route. They look for further information at these points in order to make a decision about which way to go next.[Ref: 17] Signage System for IIT Guwahati 18
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 5.3 SIGNAGE ELEMENTSDeepak Kumar Eye Level Typography Fonts and Forms Arrows Colour in Signage Colour Coding In Signage Semiotics: The Study of Signs Figure 5.3.1 a b Maps Signage System for IIT Guwahati 19
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 5.3 EYE LEVELDeepak Kumar One absurd golden rule states that an eye level of 163 cm is the ideal height for conveying information. As a general principle, rules should be questioned, and especially this one. Whatever its origin, the measurement of 163 cm divides walls into unbalanced proportions, which is far from ideal. When we are standing upright, looking straight ahead, it is pos- sible that our eyes cover a field whose average height is 163 cm above the ground. However, we do not normally walk in a strictly perpendicular manner - our heads tilt slightly forward, and our eyes therefore drop. This is another reason why information should not be placed at eye levels. A good height for the upper Figure 5.3.2 edge of a sign on a door, for example, would be 145 cm. Information at a trade fair or an airport needs to be placed high up, where it can be read above peoples heads. The same applies to signposts for lorry drivers, who are seated much higher than motorists. The information must be at such a height that it is not concealed by parked cars or perpendiculars. [Ref: 4] Signage System for IIT Guwahati 20
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 5.4 TYPOGRAPHYDeepak Kumar Figure 5.4.1 Typography and architecture intersect. Every building has some kind of writing. Houses bear signs. In important buildings, stone masons and architects leave their signatures on stones. House numbers can be decorative or intrusive, while the doorbell and the letterbox may serve as visiting cards. The written word is an accompaniment to the erected stone, and well chosen typography enriches the architecture. It can work with the building, but it can also work against it. Whether unusual or discreet, hard or soft, the lettering should always be integral to the architecture, its ally rather than its enemy.[Ref: 4] Minnaert building, Utrecht University, The Netherlands Architects make so little use of typographical elements on their buildings. The main reason will be that the building design doesn’t need it. Most buildings can make their function clear without the use of signage on the façade. As you will find on the buildings listed below, architects used the signage to show the name of the building to the world; there is no building to be found with its function printed on it. The function is supposed to be clear. Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany Signage System for IIT Guwahati 21
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 5.4 TYPOGRAPHYDeepak Kumar Figure 5.4.2(a) The Anatomy of Type STUDY OF FONTS: Uppercase Letter In a wayfinding system, this relationship is reversed. A handful of Serif Counter Ascender large letters stand on a small and restricted surface. The individual forms of the letters are directly connected to that Cap height Typography x X height Baseline surface and its restrictive borders, which for the most part tend to be rectangular, sharply defined and simple. These characteristics Bowl Loop Descender respond more effectively to a font with similar formal qualities i.e. Lowercase Letter sans serif straight and solid. The stems and strokes of serif characters tend to be tapered, clashing against the stiff rectangles of regular signs. Figure 5.4.2(b) Text size 64 Ft. distance 32 Ft. 16 Ft. 8 Ft. 1/4 inch. 1/2 inch. 1 inch. 2 inch. text height Signage System for IIT Guwahati 22
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 5.4 Text Type (10pt Standard) 12 Points = 1 Pica 6 Point 8 Point TYPOGRAPHY Horizontal Rules: .25pt, .5pt, 1pt, 2pt, 4pt, 6pt, 72pt 10 Point 12 PointDeepak Kumar 14 Point 18 Point 24 Point 30 Point 36 Point 42 Point Display Type 48 Point 54 Point 72 Points = 1 Inch 60 Point Figure 5.4.3 72 Point Signage System for IIT Guwahati 23
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 5.5 ARROWSDeepak Kumar Figure 5.5.1(a) There are whole books on the subject of arrows, and of course the examples shown here arent the only varieties. Just as with fonts, there is a wide choice available, but here we shall deal with just two types that are suitable for wayfinding systems. Arrow 1 Arrow 2 Figure 5.5.2 Arrow 1 is in FF DIN Light, while arrow 2 is in Thesis the Sans Extra Light Expert. The proportions of the two arrows are similar (Thesis grey, FF DIN black), although the barbs are more tapered in Thesis. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 24
    • Deepak Kumar M.Des’09 Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahatiSignageSystemforIIT Figure 5.5.2aGuwahati ARROWS25 5.5
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 5.6 COLOURSDeepak Kumar In wayfinding systems, contrast is important for ease of reading. If coloured lettering is used on a bright background, the contrast is weak. The optimal contrast is white against dark colours and black against bright colours. Against a coloured background white lettering always looks best, but only if there is sufficient contrast. Even with bright colours, or against dark shades of yellow, white is most effective. Black lettering tends to merge with the background and make the colour look dirty. Coloured lettering can be quite decorative, but it can make a very strong impact and needs to be used sparingly. Coloured letters can also convey a message - for instance, they may indicate that you are on a particular floor. In order to do this efficiently, they must be set in dull surroundings as otherwise the different elements may find themselves in competition with one another. Generally, coloured lettering is problematic and less expressive Figure 5.5.1 than white or black.[Ref: 4] Signage System for IIT Guwahati 26
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 5.6 COLOUR CODINGDeepak Kumar Moscow Metro Map Colour-coded directions make it easier for visitors to find their way, enabling them to identify quickly the nature of the information they are after. This may only speed the process up by a matter of seconds, but it reduces stress and contributes to the overall efficiency of system. If plans for a building are laid out on a grid showing partition walls, the tiniest detail can be given a set of coordinates. This clear system avoids confusion if changes are made, without the need for complicated codes. If you are numbering rooms in a corridor according to a code, it is best to group all even numbers on one side, and odd numbers on the other. They should also follow the same sequence, so that Low even numbers are opposite low odd numbers. This makes it easier Figure 5.6.1 to locate whichever room you are looking for.[Ref:4] Signage System for IIT Guwahati 27
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 5.7 SEMIOTICSDeepak Kumar Semiotics, also called semiotic studies or semi- Iconogram: Illustrative representation, An Iconic sign which, as an ology, is the study of sign processes (semiosis), illustrative representation, emphasizes the points in common or signification and communication, signs and between the signifier and the signified. symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. It includes the study of how meaning Pictogram: Pictorial representation, ISOTYPE. An iconic sign is constructed and understood. which represents complex facts, not through words or sounds but through visual carriers of meaning. Semantics: Relation between signs and the things they refer to, their denotata. Cartogram: A topographical representation with complex Syntactics: Relation of signs to each functions (statistics etc.) and iconic facts, for example an atlas or other in formal structures. the ground plan of a house. Pragmatics: Relation of signs to their impacts on those who use them. Diagram: Functional representation. A visual sign which is partly (source: wikipedia .org) still an iconic representation, but is more a functional carrier that illustrates, for example, a sequence of facts or functions. Ideogram: Representation of a concept. Corresponds to the sign as a symbol which relates to the object or concept referred to, independently of any formal identification with it. Typogram: Typographical representation. A sign, also a composed sign, derived from a written repertoire such as the alphabet. [Ref 19] Signage System for IIT Guwahati 28
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 5.7 SEMIOTICSDeepak Kumar Semantics Sigmatics Syntactics/Syntax Pragmatics intention sender/meaning relation between sign & signified visual formal modes (influencing the receiver) dependent on repertoire of icon form imperative sender and receiver image will, duty dependent on context other degree of iconicity dimension suggestive signs culture, surroundings, substantial resemblance to dot, line,flat surface, feelings knowledge, social environment original body, space degree of abstraction quality indicative substantial deviation from round, angular, regular, information, knowledge original irregular, free symbol quantity representative large, small index demarcation indicator, pointer, mainly empty, fully or partially characters; if pictorial, icon filled, open form, closed and symbol possible as form,clear contours, blurred index contours realization structured, sketchy,firm, fuzzy, fragmented, free brightness colour movement material Fig: 5.7.2 VISUAL SIGNS [Ref 19] Signage System for IIT Guwahati 29
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 5.8 MAPDeepak Kumar A map is a visual representation of an area—a symbolic What is a map? depiction highlighting relationships between elements of that space such as objects, regions, and themes. Maps inhabit the realm of fact, although not exclusively. They are (source: wikipedia.org) figurative representations of dimensions, attributes and relations of things in the physical or logical world. Reproduced at a scale smaller than life-size (usually, but not exclusively -sometimes their scale is 1:1 or, when mapping the microcosm, larger). What can be mapped? Anything can be mapped, and most things are: places, busi- nesses, galaxies, histories, bodies, philosophies devices and databases. The subject-matter of a map is measured and named and ordered (captured!) by the mapmaker who, armed with carefully verified data and a language of pictorial description, puts everything in its proper place with its proper name as he or she sees it.[Ref:18] Figure 5.8.1 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 30
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 5.8 MAPDeepak Kumar Why use maps? Maps give their readers the simple and magical ability to see beyond the horizon. The enlightening arid revelatory characteristic of a good map derives from its encompassing vision, contained within a single consistent pictorial model. The map provides a view that slides instantaneously between panorama and detail. A map embodies the work, knowledge and Intelligence of others. We obtain a vision of a place that we may never have seen, or divine a previously unseen pattern in things we thought we knew intimately. So, we consult a map as we would an adviser in order to locate, identify and decide onto be enlightened. As a result we suffer, sometimes. a grand illusion of Figure 5.8.2 omnipotence by believing that the map contains everything necessary for Understanding or controlling a domain. We forget that the mapmaker has an implicit or explicit agenda of his own, not necessarily aligned with ours. Maps are imperfect. They have missing layers arid gaps within the layers. Paradoxically, much information can be gathered front the gaps left in maps, not least about the mapmakers intentions. This is, one of the beauties of maps.[Ref:18] Signage System for IIT Guwahati 31
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 6.1 IIT GUWAHATI CampusDeepak Kumar Figure 6.1.1 Map of IITG from wikimapia BASIC CAMPUS LAYOUT BASIC TOPOGRAPHY Signage System for IIT Guwahati 32
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 6.2 TOPOGRAPHYDeepak Kumar Topography (from greek τόπος topo-, "place", and γράφω graphia, "writing") is the study of Earths surface shape and features or those of planets, moons, and asteroids. It is also the description of such surface shapes and features (especially their depiction in maps). The topography of an area can also mean the surface shape and features themselves. In a broader sense, topography is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but also vegetative and human- made features, and even local history and culture. (source: wikipedia.org) Figure 6.2.1 the topography of the campus hills (view blockers) lakes (appreciating ground) Signage System for IIT Guwahati 33
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 6.3 CIRCULATIONDeepak Kumar Due to topography of the campus one will have to go through ups and downs (slope). -the hills in the campus are considered as view blockers as they do not allow a person to see beyond them thus creating a bit of confusion or may be the only one road gives an extra B confidence of not being misled. A J G K -the lakes are called appreciating ground because there is no view obstruction and all the buildings around the lake could be seen clearly, thus giving a clue about where the building is but E H creating another question about what’s the name of the I building? F C Figure 6.2.1 the topography of the campus D hills (view blockers) lakes (appreciating ground) entrance(A, B, C, D) circulation Signage System for IIT Guwahati 34
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 6.4 Role of Topography in CirculationDeepak Kumar H D B A J G K E E H I route followed when seen in plan route followed when seen in elevation F K C J D steep K slope steep A J slope E level H level l D Lathia bagicha gate residential quarters residential quarters Kendriya Vidyalaya academic complex computer centre Figure6.4.1 it illustrates the path followed from station sports complex administration Main entrance auditorium A to D in plan and in elevation through the Subhansiri library campus. Kaplili Siang lake as the stations are approached the places are positioned which are in proximity with the stations Signage System for IIT Guwahati 35
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 6.5 Approaching the CampusDeepak Kumar 31 - Private vehicles << From NH- two wheelers r aga four wheelers eN leg Col rom - Public vehicles <<F auto rickshaw B taxi A J G bus K - IITG transport bus E H ambulance I cycle vehicles F - Pedestrian C y Ferr rom km <<F 2.5 t D Gha From Amingaon>> Figure 6.5.1 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 36
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 6.6 Movement of PeopleDeepak Kumar 31 4 entrance gates << From NH- - gate A ( main entrance ) gar - gate B ( ASEB ) e Na leg - gate C ( Faculty gate ) Col rom - gate D ( Lathia bagicha gate ) <<F B IIT Guwahati campus is mainly approached from gate A and A J G gate D. K Visitors (those who do not have institute ID card) have to sign in (getting a visitor token ) at the gate to come into the campus. E H I Residents (students, faculty and staff members) F C y Ferr rom km <<F 2.5 Figure 6.6.1 t D Gha hills (view blockers) lakes (appreciating ground) From Amingaon>> entrance(A, B, C, D) movement of people in the campus(circulation) Signage System for IIT Guwahati 37
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 6.6.1 31 Distribution of PeopleDeepak Kumar << From NH- r Naga ge Colle DISTRIBUTION OF STAFFS, STUDENTS, rom <<F AND VISITORS ACCORDING TO THE B ACTIVITIES, PLACE & TIME A STAFFS STUDENTS VISITORS MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE MAX UTILISED ROUTES ENTRANCE (A, B, C, D) y Ferr rom km <<F 2.5 t C Gha From Amingaon>> D N Figure 6.6.1a Signage System for IIT Guwahati 38
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 6.6.2 31 Decision PointsDeepak Kumar << From NH- r Naga ge Colle DISTRIBUTION OF STAFFS, STUDENTS, rom <<F AND VISITORS ACCORDING TO THE B ACTIVITIES, PLACE & TIME A STAFFS STUDENTS VISITORS MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE MAX UTILISED ROUTES ENTRANCE (A, B, C, D) DECISION POINTS y Ferr rom km <<F 2.5 t C Gha From Amingaon>> D N Figure 6.6.2a Signage System for IIT Guwahati 39
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 7.0 Digital SignageDeepak Kumar WHAT IS DIGITAL SIGNAGE SYSTEM ? Digital Signage or Narrow Casting is a futuristic media option with the potential of delivering value much beyond traditional media like billboards, print signage and static display unit in a more controlled format. It comprises of an electronic display screen which is integrated with a player at the back end, displaying dynamic multi-media content which is highly attention grabbing and thus more impact full. The content can be changed on the screen without changing the physical display signage. Dynamic digital signage has become today an innovative way of displaying the information in a multimedia format which presents the information in a place where the target audience receives the Figure 7.0.1 communication in a more involving and a unique way. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 40
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 7.1 Comparative AnalysisDeepak Kumar SIGNAGE GRAPHIC Graphic display -a static information -typically way finding -only one side interaction SIGNAGE Electronic display DIGITAL -a discreet information(in packets) -any kind of information -one side interaction Electronic display SIGNAGE SYSTEM DIGITAL -Possibilities for both discreet and continuous information -For a system approach (virtual) -Both side interaction Figure 7.1.1 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 41
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 7.2 Places of UseDeepak Kumar WHERE DIGITAL SIGNAGE SYSTEM CAN BE USED? HOSPITALITY SECTOR ADVERTISING SECTOR RETAIL SECTOR BANKING SECTOR TRANPORTATION SECTOR CORPORATE SECTOR Figure 7.2.1 WHY DIGITAL SIGNAGE SYSTEM SHOULD BE USED? Greater message impact by using full-motion, full-color video. Ability to change the message faster, more easily and less expensively compared with replacing printed signage. Ability to trigger messages based on time of the day, day of week - even event parameters. Ability to provide regional, local and even site-specific content efficiently and inexpensively. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 42
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 8.0 SIGNAGE SYSTEM at IITGDeepak Kumar The signs that identify IITG: must provide assistance to users of the facilities. must also represent an important aspect of the institute’s visual identity. must communicate essential information about the facility, and about the Institute and its operations. Figure 8.0.1 IIT GUWAHATI logo Signage System for IIT Guwahati 43
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 8.1 CRITICAL APPRAISALDeepak Kumar The signage system at IITG are - not very clear because its worn out. - the placements of the directional signage should be properly oriented. - usability factors should be taken care of. a b - aspect of the institute’s visual/ brand identity is not present. - the colour consistency has been maintained. - not proprerly illuminated for visibility in dark. - the identification of other buildings must look belonging from the same family. c d Figure 8.1.1 a) not perfect orientation along the road b) worn out signs c) & d) the identification of other services must match the current system of depiction Signage System for IIT Guwahati 44
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 8.1 CRITICAL APPRAISALDeepak Kumar Some feature of wayfinding which is missing in the present system : - there is no map of the campus - the usage of only one language i.e. ENGLISH - there is no indication for the parking area - the bus stops in the campus which is one of the most important feature has not been exploited - the brand identity is missing Signage System for IIT Guwahati 45
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 8.1 CRITICAL APPRAISALDeepak Kumar In this figure shown at the left : Picture (a) was taken at 1800 hrs and there was a problem of visibility, the directional signs were not clear at that moment of time. Picture (b) was also taken at 1800 hrs by using the flash of the camera, and due to the usage of reflective vinyl sticker for the directional signs it was visible. DEDUCTION: A better system of illumination must be used so that the signs are visible at any time of the day. Figure 8.1.2 a b Signage System for IIT Guwahati 46
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 8.1 CRITICAL APPRAISALDeepak Kumar In this figure shown at the left : Picture (a) was taken at 1900 hrs and there was a problem of visibility, the directional signs were not clear at that moment of time.(NB: the street lights were switched on by that time) Picture (b) was also taken at 1900 hrs by using the flash of the camera, and due to the usage of reflective vinyl sticker for the directional signs, it was visible. The background used here is buffed metal and the directional signe are dark in shade as com pared to earlier figure. The map shown here doesnot give any clue to the user about where he is, leading to confusion. Figure 8.1.3 a b DEDUCTION: Care should be taken to give the user a clue of where he/she is. This would increase the effectiveness of the map provided Signage System for IIT Guwahati 47
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 8.2 Studying the present systemDeepak Kumar Location of the decision points: How a user interacts with the current system and reaches his destination from the source station. Series of actions which takes place B A B -what information is available at the source station -lead according to the information processed -at the time of bifurcation in the way decision should be taken C accordingly to the information available -while reaching the destination, there should be some indication D E that the station has been reached and the journey is complete The figure shown in left illustrates the path followed to reach the C destination from the source. In between there are some decision points where the direction are given. The study was done to know D how the task is performed and what key factors should be considered while placing the directional signs. Figure 8.2.1 route followed from station A to E Signage System for IIT Guwahati 48
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 8.2 Studying the present systemDeepak Kumar 1 2 3 The figure 8.8.2 shows the snaps B A B of the route taken to start the journey from station A to station A E. In between there were some 4 5 6 key point called as decision point which provided a great help in C taking the decision. The factor which influenced the place 7 8 9 ment of the sign post was the D E division of the road, there were sign post at the time when there was another question, now 10 11 12 where to go, or which way to follow. C C Studying this part of the system gives the basic idea of placement of the sign posts. Though there were some points where there 13 14 15 was a long way to cover and there were no decision points (from station B to station C) but still there was some confidence because there were no diversions. After reaching to the destination E there was an indication which 16 17 18 showed that the goal is achieved. D E Figure 8.2.2 snaps of the route followed from station A to E Signage System for IIT Guwahati 49
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 8.2 Studying the present systemDeepak Kumar 1 2 3 10 11 12 4 5 6 13 14 15 7 8 9 16 17 18 19 20 21 Figure 8.2.3 snaps of the route followed from Faculty Gate to the main gate the architectural features like creating a pathway for the pedestrian and painting it in black and white stripes, which would give the user an extra confidence and would also prevent them in entering to the sites specifically for the pedestrian and cycle movements. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 50
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 9.0 MY Interpretation & ExplorationDeepak Kumar Signage System for IIT Guwahati 51
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.1 MAP for IITGDeepak Kumar Map, whenever I hear this word the first thing which comes to my mind is the map of India and then the world map. One of things which are common in both the maps is their orientation, which always shows the north direction pointing upwards. Can you imagine a map of world where north is pointed downwards? When I started conceptualising about the map for IITGuwahati campus certain questions were there: Figure 9.0.1 -what should the orientation of the map be? -should the YAH position be fixed and the map be rotated around it? -should the map be made differently for different entrances? So it is clear that people usually create a mental model (mental image, mental map) which simplifies the environment, and the routes through it, based on available information. When they arrive at a site, or continue along a route, they then try to match their mental model to the actual environment. This is a part of the process of decision executing. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 52
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.1.1 MAP for IITGDeepak Kumar Maps should provide clear, unambiguous answers to three How people find their way questions: • where am I and where am I going; Where to go? • how will I get there; • how will I know when I have arrived. Purpose of visit? Good signage helps to explain the facility and, in a sense, answers questions before they are asked. A well-planned system Finding the location of IITG enables people to find their destination readily and quickly, reducing the need to search or to ask questions. All signs within a facility tend to interact, and the effectiveness of a system depends Find the entrance of the campus on all its components being consistent. Looking into the map & locate Find the route to the destination Follow the route to destination Figure 9.0.2 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 53
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.1.1 MAP for IITGDeepak Kumar Steps involved in building a map for IIT Guwahati -orientation of the map -locating the natural features eg. lakes, hills, river, forest etc. -drawing the boundaries -removing irrelevant information from the map -drawing the circulation -dividing into different zones -assigning the colour to different services -naming the services or prepare a legend -locating prominent landmarks for people to notice, remember and recognize -sequence, priority and grouping of sign messages Figure 9.0.2 illustration of sequence of steps followed for IITG map Signage System for IIT Guwahati 54
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.1.1 MAP for IITGDeepak Kumar A map is incomplete without a proper legend or it would mean nothing. A map symbol represents a feature or object on the ground. A legend explains what objects or features the symbols represent. Figure 9.0.3 continued illustration of sequence of steps followed for IITG map Signage System for IIT Guwahati 55
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.1.1 MAP for IITGDeepak Kumar      a b c the sketch of the map starts with the layout after the boundary was drawn the natural after conceiving the general topography of of the boundary and with the orientation features were drawn with reference to the the campus the circulation within the i.e. giving the north sign topography of the campus i.e. the water campus was defined and marked body, hills, river etc Figure 9.0.4 continued illustration of sequence of steps followed for IITG map Signage System for IIT Guwahati 56
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.1.1 MAP for IITGDeepak Kumar    River Ghoramara River Ghoramara River G River G ho ho ram ram ara ara Rive Rive rG rG ho ho ram ram ara ara d e f when the circulation (roads) were marked when the circulation (roads) were marked the area assigned and the building layout different zones were created with respect layout of the buildings were created keep- were applied together for the general idea to their functions and services and colour ing the outline profile and different colour of the map code were assigned to each type of build- ing Figure 9.0.4 continued illustration of sequence of steps followed for IITG map Signage System for IIT Guwahati 57
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.1.1 MAP for IITGDeepak Kumar    31 >> Towards NH- River Ghoramara River Ghoramara River Ghoramara     G2(ASEB) (Main Gate) G1         River G River G River G  ho ho ho ram ram ram ara ara ara               G4(Faculty Gate)  2.5 km >> Ferry Ghat Towards Rive Rive Rive  rG rG rG ho ho ho ram ram ram G3(Lathia Bagicha Gate) ara ara ara << Towards Amingaon g h i the area code and the building layout were when the area code was removed from the the building layouts were assigned a tag or looking too much clumsy, so the area code map it looked too blank so the size of the a particular number which would carry was removed area was altered for the purpose of quick information when referred to, in the interpretation of the colour code by the legend users Figure 9.0.4 continued illustration of sequence of steps followed for IITG map Signage System for IIT Guwahati 58
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.1.2 Legend in MAP for IITGDeepak Kumar 1.97 Legend for the IIT Guwahati map must be very simple and clear 1.40 1.40 0.55 for the users to inter relate the message required and information provided. The size of the letters used in the map must be atleast viewable 1.60 from the distance of 4 meters so that one does not require to get 2.23 out from the vehicle to facilitate it. Different layouts have been tried and tested for the positioning of 0.60 the legend part of the map. Some new words and graphics has been formulated for the IITG map, so it was necessary to provide those new item in the legend 1.97 1.97 so that the users don’t interpret it wrongly. 1.40 0.55 1.40 0.55 The colour coding system was derived from the map zoning part so that the time required for the users to interpret and inter relate 1.60 gets shorten. 2.23 0.60 all dimensions are in meters Figure 9.0.5 options for the format of legend for the map Signage System for IIT Guwahati 59
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.1.2 Legend in MAP for IITGDeepak Kumar LEGEND LEGEND INSTITUTIONAL INSTITUTIONAL The size of the letters used in the LEGEND which is viewable  Administration  Academic Complex  Auditorium  Library/ Computer Centre  Administration Building  Auditorium from the distance of 4 meters is 80points - 48 points.  Lecture Hall  Lecture Hall  Academic  Library/ Computer Centre  Workshop  Workshop The colour coding of the legend is done with respect to the zoning HOSTELS HOSTELS  Subhansiri  Barak part of the map to establish the relation from the map.  Married Scholar Hostel  Dihing  Siang  Kameng  Kapili  Kapili  Dihing  Manas  Manas  Married Scholar Hostel  Kameng  Siang  Barak  Subhansiri  Umiam  Umiam SERVICES SERVICES  Guest House  ATM / Canteen  Hospital  Akshara Kids School  Transit Complex  Community Hall (STAFF)  Community Hall (STUDENTS)  Community Hall (STUDENTS)  Community Hall (STAFF)  GuestHouse  Sports Complex  Hospital  Swimming Pool  Kendriya Vidyalaya  Shopping Complex  Post office  Akshara Kids School  RAILWAY(Reservation Counter)  Kendriya Vidyalaya  Transit Complex  RAILWAY(Reservation Counter)  Shopping Complex The name of the buildings are written in two fashion  ATM / Canteen  Sports Complex Post Office  Swimming Pool - ALPHABETICAL HOUSING HOUSING - SEQUENTIAL  A  A  D  B  B  E  C  C  F  D The options were tried and the test proved the ALPHABETICAL ALPHABETICAL  E part to be the better. SEQUENTIAL Bus stops S1- S11 Bus stops S1- S11  Parking Entrance Entrance Information Information  Parking You Are Here You Are Here IIT Guwahati Map IIT Guwahati Map Figure 9.0.6 options for the arrangement of names for the legend Signage System for IIT Guwahati 60
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.1.2 Legend in MAP for IITGDeepak Kumar Figure 9.0.7 FINAL MAP with LEGEND Signage System for IIT Guwahati 61
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.2 TYPOGRAPHYDeepak Kumar Signage System We encounter with the fonts in our day to day life, be it from a small wrist watch or a huge billboard of advertisement. People see it everywhere and anywhere. The usage of fonts in different fashion shows the significance of the fonts. Signage System In this part of the chapter I will be explaining and exploring the fonts used for the purpose of the signage system. Most readable letters are lowercase letters. Figure 9.2.1 the clues given by the top and bottom part of typeface General mistakes to be avoided: -long passages in capital letters; -long passages in italic; -printing on colored paper, over tint blocks or over photos; -use of ornamented or otherwise defaced type. People read not by looking at each letter of a word, but by looking at the shape of each word’s letters. And there are more clues on the top half of letters than on the bottom, generally speaking. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 62
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.2.1 FONTSDeepak Kumar Arial Geometr415 Lt BT Lucida Sans Unicode AvantGarde Geometr231 BT Myriad Calibiri Gill Sans MT Tahoma CastleT Gothic Swiss 721 Bold Rounded BT CATIA SYMBOL Gothic 725 Bold BT Swiss 721 Bold Outline BT Corbel HandelGotDLig Swiss 721 Bold Condensed Outline BT Franklin Gothic Book Helvetica Segoe UI Franklin Gothic Medium Humanst521 BT  Futura BdCn BT HoratioDMed Trebuchet MS Futura Bk BT Kartika Verdana Futura Md BT Kabel Medium BT Futura Lt BT Kabel Book BT Figure 9.2.2 the list of fonts selected for the signage system Signage System for IIT Guwahati 63
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.2.2 Experimentation on FONTSDeepak Kumar Futura Bk BT Administration Futura Md BT Administration Helvetica Administration Futura BdCn BT Administration Geometr231 BT Administration Futura Lt BT Administration Franklin Gothic Medium Administration Geometr415 Lt BT Administration Myriad Administration Franklin Gothic Book Administration Gill Sans MT Administration SansSerif  TTYogeshEN Normal Administration Gothic 725 Bold BTl Administration Segoe UI Administration Corbel Administration HandelGotDLig Administration Swiss 721 Bold Condensed Outline BT Administration CATIA Symbols Administration HoratioDMed Administration Swiss 721 Bold Outline BT Administration CastleT Administration Humanst521 BT Administration Swiss 721 Bold Rounded BT Administration AvantGarde Bk BT Administration Kabel Book BT Administration Tahoma Administration Century Gothic Administration Kabel Medium BT Administration Trebuchet MS Administration Calibiri Administra on Kartika Administration VAGRounded Lt-Normal Arial Administration Lucida Sans Unicode Administration Verdana Administration Figure 9.2.4 Different fonts were tried on same word Signage System for IIT Guwahati 64
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.2.3 Screening of the FONTSDeepak Kumar Futura Bk BT utu a Ad i i t ti Administration Futura Md BT utu a d Ad i ist atio Administration d i Helvetica Administration Futura Lt BT utu a t Ad i ist atio Administration d Myriad Ad i i t ti Administration Franklin Gothic Book Ad i i t ti Administration Gill Sans MT Ad i i t ti Administration SansSerif  Corbel Ad i i t ti Administration C CATIA Sy bo s Symbols Administration Humanst521 BT Ad i i t ti Administration AvantGarde Bk BT Administration Tahoma Administration d i i i Century Gothic Administration d i i i Calibiri Ad i i t Administra on VAGRounded Lt Normal Lt-Normal Arial a Administration Lucida Sans Unicode Administration dministration Verdana Administration d the shortlisting of the fonts has been done on the basis of legibility and certain amount of biasness was also there as there were more than 40 fonts Figure 9.2.5 Fonts left after the first shortlist Signage System for IIT Guwahati 65
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.2.3 Futura Md BT Ad i ist atio Administration d i Screening of the FONTS Ad i ist at o Administration t tiDeepak Kumar G S s Gill Sans MT Humanst521 BT Ad i ist t o Administration d t ti Ad i ist atio Administration d the total of 5 fonts were shortlisted after Ad i ist atio Administration d Lucida Sans Unicode Ad i ist atio Administration d 2nd and 3rd screening on the basis of Futura Bk BT uua Futura Bk BT uua the size and legibility and tightness and Franklin Gothic Book Ad i ist at o Administration d t ti looseness Ad i ist at o Administration d t ti Administration d st at o Corbel Administration d st at o C CATIA Sy bo s Symbols Administration C CATIA Sy bo s Symbols Administration AvantGarde Bk BT Administration 2nd screening 3rd screening AvantGarde Bk BT AvantGarde Bk BT Century Gothic Administration d i i i Calibiri Ad i i t Administra on Arial Administration Administration d st at o Administration d st at o Administration d st at o Helvetica e e ca Helvetica e e ca Helvetica e e ca Futura Lt BT uua Ad i ist atio Administration d Myriad y ad Ad i ist at o Administration d t ti Myriad y ad Ad i ist at o Administration d t ti Ad i ist at o Administration d t ti       Myriad y ad Sa sSe SansSerif       Sa sSe SansSerif       Sa sSe SansSerif Tahoma Administration d i i i VAGRounded Lt-Normal G ou ded t o a VAGRounded Lt-Normal G ou ded t o a VAGRounded Lt-Normal G ou ded t o a Verdana e da a Administration d i i i Figure 9.2.6 Fonts left after the 2nd and 3rd shortlist Signage System for IIT Guwahati 66
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.2.4 FONT SELECTIONDeepak Kumar HELVETICA: Contemporary typeface that comes from Swiss. It was introduced in 1957 by the Haas typefoundry and was first presented in the US in the early 1960s - Sans Serif letter / Both stroke are equal / comfortable for reading. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 0123456789 AvantGarde Bk BT y abcdefghijklmnopqrstu abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 0123456789 Helvetica yz abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 0123456789 b d f hijkl Myriad t        SansSerif VAGRounded Lt-Normal Figure 9.2.7 Fonts left after the 3rd shortlist Signage System for IIT Guwahati 67
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.2.5 FONTS & SIZEDeepak Kumar The size of the font for the signage is guided by certain factors: -visibility -legibility -clarity -decision time -speed of the user (vehicle, pedestrian, cycle) -the angle from which a sign would normally be viewed -the quality and intensity of the light available -possible obstructions of the sight lines between viewer and sign. The concept of “clear” identification pertains to the size and location of a sign (visibility), the relationship of the sign to the observer (legibility), and the wording of the message (clarity). Differences exist with respect to ratios between character size and viewing distance. This means that the character size and, consequently, the size of the sign must be increased to ensure a proper degree of legibility for persons who are visually impaired. The placement of such signs is also critical. The viewing distances referred to here are pedestrian related, which means that they are based on an observer who is standing or walking towards a sign. When determining the character size for a sign intended for vehicular traffic, the normal speed of traffic passing the sign becomes an additional factor. Figure 9.2.8 Suggested letter size as per viewing distance Signage System for IIT Guwahati 68
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.2.5 FONTS & SIZEDeepak Kumar applying the trignometry the relationship can be established between Viewing angle sign Sign should be placed at a right angle to the observer’s central line o ‘x’ and ‘y’, the angle made the hypotenuse to the ‘x’ is 22.5 so we can say that of vision. Legibility decreases if angle is less than 45 degree. y = x tan 22.5 o y = 0.4 x y Viewing distance and displacement The placement of a sign should be determined in relation to the IDEAL CONDITION sign observer’s normal line of vision. Angle of displacement should be between 5 and 15 degrees. sign x sign Viewing distance and character size not OK OK OK not OK The decision concerning viewing distance and character size is important because it affects the sign’s legibility and ultimate size. but generally we donot look forward in right angle, instead we tend to bend forward and our line of sight is Traffic speed Sign intended for vehicle, the 50 or 60 mm size should be considered for traffic speeds of up to 30 km/h; the 80 or 100 mm size for speeds of up to 50 km/h; and the 120, 150 or 200 mm size effective viewing area ACTUAL CONDITION y for speeds of up to 100km/h. x y = x tan 15 o y = 0.25x Illumination Perception of a sign depends mostly on the quality, intensity and approx 11meters colour of light that falls. Ambient light should suffice, but operational or site conditions may require special facility. Figure 9.2.9 veiwing angle and distance relationship (all dimensions are in meters) Signage System for IIT Guwahati 69
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.3 COLOURDeepak Kumar One of the most integral part of the design of the signage system are the colours and must be applied consistently. In wayfinding systems, contrast is important for ease of reading. If coloured lettering is used on a bright background, the contrast is weak. The optimal contrast is white against dark colours and black against bright colours.Against a coloured background white lettering always looks best, but only if there is sufficient con- trast. Even with bright colours, or against dark shades of yellow, white is most effective. Black lettering tends to merge with the background and make the colour look dirty. ry ry ry Variations da da da ary ary ary y y y y y y iar iar iar iar iar iar n n n co co co m m m rt rt rt rt rt rt Pri Pri Pri Se Se Se Te Te Te Te Te Te a b c d e f g h i j k l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure 9.3.1 colour chart specifing the variations from the primary, secondary and tertiary colour Signage System for IIT Guwahati 70
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.3 FONTS & COLOURDeepak Kumar way circulation architecture Not only is the contrast important also the chosen typeface cartography make the difference in a good or bad sign. When using too screen finding arrows shad bold weighted typefaces the text look like its expanding of the size and shape c lours symbols sign, when using too light weighted typefaces the text fall back typographycontrast into its background. Medium or Regular weights are usually consistency the best options to choose for a good and readable sign. information signage directions illusion maps fonts campus vision universal design vehicles mental model graphic analysis exploration code symbols icon symbols cartography interaction signage semantics confusion illustrator maps people pedestrian building legends behaviour circulation universal movement information semiotics research light topography autocad illumination topography Figure 9.3.1 Exploration of colours with the fonts for the check of clarity Signage System for IIT Guwahati 71
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.4 ARROWSDeepak Kumar i ii iii Arrows contribute a lot in showing the direction and from time x/10 x/4 x/5 to time the basic shape and feature has not changed. Though there has always been evolution in the form of the arrow. My approach for the derivation of the directional arrow is completely based on proportion and the foreground and back- x/4 x/4 x/5 x/5 x/10 0 x/10 ground relationship of the form. x x x iv x/20 The arrow’s size is not fixed so a relation was established in between the enclosing box and the width of the tail and arms. Few of the options tried are show in the figure. x/20 0 x/20 x v Figure 9.4.1 deriving the proportion of the arrow (pointer and tail) Signage System for IIT Guwahati 72
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.4 ARROWSDeepak Kumar The basic width of the arm and the tail of the arrow has been kept fixed for proper visibility and clarity. Some of the more options were tried by altering the sharp edges and reducing and tapering the tail of the arrow. The concept of double arrows has also been exploited here and finally got a clue to use that for showing TOWARDS. Figure 9.4.2 Exploration of arrows Signage System for IIT Guwahati 73
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.4.1 ARROWS & COLOURDeepak Kumar Figure 9.4.3 Exploration of arrows and colour Signage System for IIT Guwahati 74
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.5.1 YOU ARE HEREDeepak Kumar You are here maps are there where it is necessary to show where the YOU YOU person viewing the map is actually in the map. ARE ARE HERE HERE You are here icons must convey two messages YOU - location of the person viewing the map . YOU ARE HERE ARE HERE - what is the orientation of the person when viewing the map. YOU ARE HERE YOU YOU ARE ARE HERE HERE + = YOU ARE HERE YOU ARE YOU ARE HERE HERE Figure 9.5.2 Exploration for the depiction for YOU ARE HERE in the map Signage System for IIT Guwahati 75
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.5.2 ENTRANCE SIGNDeepak Kumar There are lots of icons for the depiction of the entrance and here are some of my explorations for the icon of the entrance sign to IITG campus. The exploration for the icon of entrance is done on the basis of foreground and background relation, or simply positive and negative space. + = = enter in this symbol for door used Figure 9.5.1 Exploration for the depiction for ENTRANCE in the map direction in architecture Signage System for IIT Guwahati 76
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar The placement of the signboards in the campus is the crucial part >>   of the signage design as it has to satisfy the factors related to - 31 IIT Guwah Map Guwahati Towards NH River Ghoramara  visibility, response time, and the layout of the elments placed in the rama  signboard. D50-102 02 2      G2(ASEB) - For whom is the board placed?     G G1 D D1- 9 D1-49     -pedestrian movement ( (Main Gate)     E1 E1-24    -vehicular movement    E 25-60 0     - What should be the distance between the board and joint /node D103-132 32 2     of the circulation system? SAC Riv  er G     horamara     - The distance is governed by the fact that it has to be interpreted Cricket Ground     by the users within 3 - 4 seconds (time limit).      - The speed of approach to the joint/ node of the circulation       system is also a key factor for determining the position of the sign board.  G4(Faculty Gate) Faculty - The angle made to it is also one of the factor to be considered. Towards t 2.5 km >> ha Ferry G Rive   r Gh  G  ora (Lathia Bagicha Gate) a ) G G3 am    ara  << Towards Amingaon g River Bramhputra a Figure 9.6.1 Illustration of positioning of the sign board in the map Signage System for IIT Guwahati 77
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Academic Library ELEMENTS in the sign board Lecture Hall Sports complex Administration - name of the buildings - background colour Academic Academic - directional arrows Lecture Hall Lecture Hall - size of the fonts Administration Administration Library Library - colour of fonts Sports complex Sports complex - gaps in between the letters and words and kerning - layout and arrangement - format - hierarchy of information Academic Library Lecture Hall Sports complex Administration Workshop Guest House Hospital Figure 9.6.2 Experiment with elements Signage System for IIT Guwahati 78
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar When we talk about a font’s spacing, or letter fit, we’re referring to the amount of space between the characters, which in turn gives the typeface its relative openness or tightness. A font’s spacing is initially determined by the manufacturer or designer and is somewhat size-dependent. Text designs tend to be spaced more openly than display faces. The reason? The smaller the point size, the more space is needed between (a) letters to keep the characters legible. Conversely, as a typeface is set larger, a snugger fit between letters creates word-shapes that are easier to read. Although spacing is dictated by personal taste as well as typographic trends, the goal of good letter fit remains the same: to create even “colour,” or visual texture, between all character combinations. It’s more difficult than it might seem, since the (b) irregular shapes of many characters create some problematic letter combinations. This is where kerning comes to the rescue... Academic Complex Academic Complex Academic Complex Academic Complex Academic Complex Academic Complex (c) Academic Complex Academic Complex Figure 9.6.3 Experimentation with letter spacing, word spacing and kerning. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 79
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Kerning refers to the adjustment of space between two specific characters, thus the term kerning pair. Most often, kerning implies a reduction of space, but it can also mean the addition of space. Kern pairs are created to improve the spacing between two letters when the normal spacing is less than ideal. A perfect example is the spacing between a cap ‘A’ and ‘V.’ Typically, both ‘A’ and ‘V’ would be spaced so the terminals of their diagonal (a) strokes nearly touch the vertical stroke in the adjacent letter, like an ‘H.’ When a ‘A’ and ‘V’ are set next to each other, however, the spacing looks too open. Kerning adjusts the spacing to be optically correct. (b) AV AH A A AV V V (c) Figure 9.6.4 Experimentation with letter spacing, word spacing and kerning. AH AH AH Signage System for IIT Guwahati 80
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar The walking speed of a human being in an average is Speed Size approximately 5-6 kmph. With this speed a human can easily read 30 kmph 50 - 60 mm and identify, so their should be consideration for the vehicular movement in the campus. 50 kmph 80 - 100 mm 100 kmph 150 - 200 mm In the campus the speed limit of the vehicles is restricted to Speed & character size ratio 40kmph, so the chart refered for this particular purpose is shown Figure 9.6.5 Relation between speed & size here. The ultimate size of a sign can be a critical factor and should be assessed during the planning process. This applies to exterior signs in particular, where environmental or aesthetic concerns should be part of the criteria that are considered in determining the size and location of a sign. Both the character size and the length of the message determine the overall size of a sign. It follows that the size of a sign can be reduced by rephrasing the message or by selecting a different character size. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 81
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar The study of the campus of IITG revealed some unique features >>   about the circulation of the campus. The junctions provided in the - 31 Towards NH River Ghoramara  campus are either ‘T’ or ‘Y’ junction. And this unique feature of the oram  campus would help us in determining the modular and D50-102 02 2   standardised approach for the positioning and installation of the    G2(ASEB) signboards.       G G1 D D1- 9 D1-49    ( (Main Gate)     E1 E1-24    The figure illustrates the junctions in yellow colour and the other    red, green and blue circles denote the signboards, each board for E 25-60 0     each road. D103-132 32 2     SAC Further the ‘T’ and ‘Y’ junctions are studied in detail and major and Riv  er G     horamara     minor roads are determined. Cricket  Ground                G4(Faculty Gate) Faculty Towards t 2.5 km >> ha Ferry G Rive   r Gh  G ora (Lathia Bagicha Gate) a ) G G3 am ara << Towards Amingaon g River Bramhputra a Figure 9.6.7 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 82
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar THE POSITIONING OF THE SIGNBOARD: Various factors influencing the location of the signboards are - not to cause an obstruction - not be obscured (by plants, vehicles, building etc.) - luminance contrast - uniformity - consistency - eye level Figure 9.6.9 The illustration of the positioning of the signboard at the T junctions Signage System for IIT Guwahati 83
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar THE POSITIONING OF THE SIGNBOARD: Signboards may be placed along the sides of walkways. They may not be in the middle of walkway intersections. Signboards cannot be placed in front of entrances or exits to buildings and cannot obstruct the flow of traffic in and out of buildings, or along walkways. Signboards may not be placed inside of buildings. The pathway provided for the pedestrian movement has an extension provided to it, (the yellow part in the diagram). This extension demarcates itself in the area giving an extra edge over the identification of the signboard. The yellow portion is accessible for disabled persons also. Figure 9.6.10 The illustration of the positioning of the signboard at the Y junctions Signage System for IIT Guwahati 84
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar JUNCTION 1J Depiction of the arrows SIGN BOARD 1 JA SIGN BOARD 1 JB SIGN BOARD 1 JC Front face of board Institutional Area Residences Exit (Main Gate) Bank / ATM / Post Office D 103 -132 Back face of board Hostels E 25 - 60 1 JA Sports Complex Community Hall(Student) 1 JB KV IITG Intersection junction -Y type Reservation Counter Buildings in proximity: Residences Institutional Area Market Complex 1 JC Entrance gate 1,Shopping Guest House Bank / ATM / Post Office Residences Hospital Hostels D 103 -D132 complex, Housing Area Community Hall (Staff) Sports Complex E 025 -E060 [D1, D2, E1, E2], BusStop1 Market Complex Exit (Main Gate) Residences A, B, C, F Residences Market Complex D 001 -D102 D 103 -132 E 001 - E024 Junction ‘1J’ is the first one after entering into the IITG campus E 25 - 60 Hospital and it shall provide all the building names and directions pertaining to it. It should also convey the message that the rest Exit (Main Gate) Residences A, B, C, F Exit (Main Gate) of the signboards at the junctions are placed in the same fash- D 001 -D102 ion as seen here, this is an attempt to create a standard for the Residences A, B, C, F E 001 -E 024 Residences A, B, C, F layout and the placement of the signboards at the junctions as D 001 -D102 Guest House D 001 -102 explained earlier in this part of the chapter. E 001 -E 024 Hospital E 001 - 024 Hospital Community Hall (Staff) Hospital As we move further in this part, discussion would be done for the betterment of the modular or standardised system. The Market Complex Exit (Main Gate) Market Complex effort will be focused towards the efficiency and the cost effec- Residences Residences tiveness of the installations at the junctions. Thus in this part of D 103 -132 D 103 -132 the chapter the agenda would be to find the best place for the E 25 - 60 E 25 - 60 installations of the signboards. As we can see there are three signboards installed with their both face giving the clues to the visitors in the campus. Figure 9.6.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 85
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 2 JA SIGN BOARD 2 JB SIGN BOARD 2 JC JUNCTION 2J Y Type Administration (Bank/ATM) Auditorium 2 Buildings in proximity: JA Auditorium, Administra- Sports Complex Academic Complex Entrance Gate Hostels Workshop Market Complex tion, Lecture Hall, Library, Residence(F Type) Residences 2 JC Computer Centre, Guest House Bus Stop 2 Hospital 2 JB Post Office/ Reservation KV IITG Academic Complex Exit (Main Gate) Sports Complex Workshop Residences A, B, C, D, E Hostels Market Complex Residence(F Type) Guest House Hospital Care should be taken in providing the directions for the services and emergencies at all the junctions and the layout designed must have some hierarchy of the information given Academic Complex Exit (Main Gate) Sports Complex into it, like- distance, direction, alphabetical order, proximity Workshop Residences A, B, C, D, E Hostels and emergency, etc. Market Complex Residence(F Type) Guest House At this junction ‘2J’ there is intersection of three major and Hospital one minor road which leads to Administration and another Post Office/ Reservation pedestrian pathway also meets this junction which connects KV IITG this junction to the Institutional Area. It is very important to convey the message for those pedestrian who have to walk for Exit (Main Gate) Sports Complex Auditorium Residences A, B, C, D, E Hostels Administration(Bank) more 5 minutes if they follow the general signage system. Market Complex Residence(F Type) Library There is also a provision for parking in the front of the Admin- Guest House Computer Centre istration Building, that information must also be conveyed at Hospital Lecture Theatre the same time. Services like Banks and ATMs are in the Admin- Post Office/ Reservation Academic Complex istration and this information should also be conveyed at the KV IITG same time. Figure 9.6.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 86
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 3 JA SIGN BOARD 3 JB JUNCTION 3J T Type Sports Complex Institutional Area Married Scholars Hostel Buildings in proximity: Hostel (Boys) 3 Subhansiri, Sports com- Subhansiri(Girls Hostel) Sports Complex JA 3 JB plex, Housing Area [ F], Residence(F,A,B,C) Married Scholars Hostel Administration, Library, Guest House Hostel (Boys) Computer centre, Community Hall (Staff) KV IITG Bus Stop 5 Hospital Post Office/ Reservation Institutional Area Institutional Area Auditorium Market Complex Administration(Bank) Entrance Gate Library Computer Centre Lecture Theatre Again at the junction ‘3J’ there is a pedestrian pathway which Academic Complex leads to the Institutional Area, and once again the importance for the pedestrians has come in the scene. It is also seen that, Exit (Main Gate) Subhansiri(Girls Hostel) this type of situation is not very common in the campus so a Residences ( D, E ) Residence(F,A,B,C) general system of installations for the pedestrians can be Market Complex Guest House Institutional Area Community Hall (Staff) established before the pedestrian pathways. Auditorium Hospital Thus installing an identifiable signboard for the movement of Administration(Bank) the pedestrians can solve the problem of connecting the Library Institutional Area from the junction ‘3J’. Computer Centre By maintaining the modular kind of approach for the signage Lecture Theatre Academic Complex system, there are actually repetitions involved in the informa- tion or the data displayed. This repetition of the information Subhansiri(Girls Hostel) Exit (Main Gate) creates a kind of confusion for the visitors and if the information Residence(F,A,B,C) Residences ( D, E ) can be well managed then the number of installations can also Guest House Market Complex be limited and ultimately the cost can be checked without com- Community Hall (Staff) Institutional Area Hospital promising the navigational capabilities of the system. Figure 9.6.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 87
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 4 JA SIGN BOARD 4 JB JUNCTION 4J T Type Sports Complex Subhansiri(Girls Hostel) Guest House Buildings in proximity: Institutional Area Residences Subhansiri, Sports com- Market Complex plex, Housing Area [ F], Entrance Gate(Main) Administration, Library, Computer centre, Institutional Area Hostel(Boys) 4 JA 4 JB Bus Stop 5 Guest House Library Residences Computer Centre Communitty Hall(Staff) Academic Complex Market Complex KV IITG / Reservation Exit (Main Gate) Exit (Lathiabagicha Gate) Married Scholars Hostel Sports Complex Hostel(Boys) After arriving at the junction ‘4J’ we are actually at the Technology Complex entrance of the sports complex but it is important for the visitors Community Hall(Student) to recognise that the sports complex has been arrived so Hospital special provisions for the identification of the building must be formulated under the provision of personal identification of the Hostel(Boys) Married Scholars Hostel buildings and the services. KV IITG Hostel (Boys) The directions for the Exits must also be provided at each Reservation Technology Complex signboard and the layout must also contain the directions for Exit (Lathiabagicha Gate) Hospital the emergency services like Hospital. The other services like Kendriya Vidyalaya, Reservation Married Scholars Hostel Institutional Area Hostel (Boys) Guest House counter, Post Office, Banks, ATM cannot be neglected so the Technology Complex Residences display must also contain these types of general information for Hospital Communitty Hall(Staff) getting the directions. Market Complex Exit (Main Gate) Figure 9.6.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 88
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 5 JA SIGN BOARD 5 JB JUNCTION 5J T Type Academic Complex Workshop Library Buildings in proximity: Lecture Hall Computer Centre Academic Complex, Administration 5 JA 5 JB Lecture Hall, Workshop, Bus Stop 3 Sports Complex Academic Complex Guest House Library Residences Lecture Hall Market Complex Computer Centre Entrance Gate(Main) Guest House Hostel Sports Complex Hospital Hospital Academic Complex Sports Complex Junction ‘5J’ is actually in the vicinity of the institutional area Workshop Guest House and now there are two divisions to proceed. The Academic Residences complex is surrounded by the road from all sides and the area Market Complex covered by the academic complex is quite large and the Entrance Gate(Main) departments are located at the different areas so the layout of Hostel Hospital the academic complex must be displayed at this junction to provide the general information about the departments to Sports Complex Academic Complex visitor or the users. Guest House Workshop The directions given for the rest of the areas and for this area Residences would be a little different as this junction would also comprise Market Complex Entrance Gate(Main) the layout plan of academic complex and where to go and park Hostel according to the vicinity of the destination in the academic Hospital complex. Figure 9.6.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 89
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 6 JA SIGN BOARD 6 JB SIGN BOARD 6 JC JUNCTION 6J Y Type Library Academic Complex Academic Complex Computer Centre Exit(Lathiabagicha Gate) Lecture Hall Buildings in proximity: Hostels Kendriya Vidyalaya Administration Hospital Workshop Academic Complex, Guest House 6 Computer Centre, Library Sports Complex JA 6 JB Academic Complex Academic Complex Library 6 Exit(Lathiabagicha Gate) Lecture Hall Computer Centre JC Kendriya Vidyalaya Administration Hostels Workshop Hospital Guest House Sports Complex Academic Complex Library Academic Complex Junction ‘6J’ is actually in the vicinity of the institutional area Lecture Hall Computer Centre Exit(Lathiabagicha Gate) and now there are two divisions to proceed. The Academic Administration Hostels Kendriya Vidyalaya complex is surrounded by the road from all sides and the area Workshop Hospital covered by the academic complex is quite large and the Guest House departments are located at the different areas so the layout of Sports Complex the academic complex must be displayed at this junction to Academic Complex Academic Complex Academic Complex provide the general information about the departments to Exit(Lathiabagicha Gate) Lecture Hall Lecture Hall visitor or the users. Kendriya Vidyalaya Administration Administration The directions given for the rest of the areas and for this area Workshop Workshop would be a little different as this junction would also comprise the layout plan of academic complex and where to go and park according to the vicinity of the destination in the academic complex. Figure 9.6.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 90
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 7 JA SIGN BOARD 7 JB JUNCTION 7J T Type Exit(Lathiabagicha Gate) Academic Complex Kendriya Vidyalaya Workshop Buildings in proximity: Academic Complex Academic Complex 7 Academic Complex, Workshop Lecture Hall JA Computer Centre, Library Administration Computer Centre 7 Hostels JB Hospital Guest House Sports Complex Academic Complex Exit(Lathiabagicha Gate) Lecture Hall Kendriya Vidyalaya Administration Junction ‘7J’ is actually in the vicinity of the institutional area Computer Centre and now there are two divisions to proceed. The Academic Hostels complex is surrounded by the road from all sides and the area Hospital covered by the academic complex is quite large and the Guest House departments are located at the different areas so the layout of Sports Complex the academic complex must be displayed at this junction to Exit(Lathiabagicha Gate) Academic Complex provide the general information about the departments to Kendriya Vidyalaya Lecture Hall visitor or the users. Administration The directions given for the rest of the areas and for this area Computer Centre would be a little different as this junction would also comprise Hostels Hospital the layout plan of academic complex and where to go and park Guest House according to the vicinity of the destination in the academic Sports Complex complex. Figure 9.6.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 91
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 8 JA JUNCTION 8J T Type Academic Complex Administration (Bank/ATM) Buildings in proximity: Auditorium 8 Guest House JA Kendriya Vidyalaya, Hostels Railway Reservation Sports Complex Counter Residences Hospital Technology Complex Market Complex Community Halls Academic Complex Workshop Kendriya Vidyalaya Junction ‘8J’ is the first one after entering into the IITG Post Office campus through the Lathibagicha Entrance gate and it shall Reservation Counter provide all the building names and directions pertaining to it. It should also convey the message that the rest of the signboards at the junctions are placed in the same fashion as seen here, Exit (Lathibagicha Gate) Hospital this is an attempt to create a standard for the layout and the placement of the signboards at the junctions as explained Kendriya Vidyalaya earlier in this part of the chapter. Post Office Just after entering through the gate there will be only one Reservation Counter signboard displaying the directions for the buildings. Exit (Faculty Gate) Academic Complex Workshop Figure 9.6.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 92
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 9 JA SIGN BOARD 9 JB JUNCTION 9J Y Type Sports Complex Sports Complex Residential Area Residential Area Buildings in proximity: Guest House Guest House 9 JA Hospital Hospital Siang Hostel, Kapili Married Scholars hostel- Hostels Hostel, Bus Stop 4 Subhansiri (Girls Hostel) Exit (Lathiabagicha Gate) Institutional Area 9 JB Post Office Reservation Counter KV IITG Hostels Kapili Manas Umiam Barak Dihing Kameng Junction ‘9J’ is the one which is near to the water body and as discussed earlier that the water bodies actually contribute in as Exit (Lathiabagicha Gate) Exit (Lathiabagicha Gate) the appreciating ground. Because of these water bodies we Post Office Post Office can actually look beyond them and could see the buildings and Reservation Counter Reservation Counter the features built. This can be utilised as in for the personal KV IITG KV IITG identification of the buildings from a single point to the buildings Institutional Area Institutional Area seen across the water bodies. Hostels Hostels Kapili Manas Kapili Manas Umiam Barak Umiam Barak Dihing Kameng Dihing Kameng Figure 9.6.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 93
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 10 JA SIGN BOARD 10 JB JUNCTION 10J T Type Married Scholars Hostel Hospital 10 Buildings in proximity: Guest House JA Swimming Pool, Married Married Scholars Hostel Sports Complex Scholar’s Hostel, Sports Hospital Institutional Area Complex, Community Guest House Banks / ATM Hall, Bus Stop 6 Guest House 10 JB Residences Market Complex Hostel(Boys) Technology Complex Community Hall(Students) Junction ‘10J’ is in such Post Ofice Exit ( Faculty Gate ) position that it is in middle of the sports complex and the swim- ming pool. This information is quite critical because in general the swimming pool is to be located in the site if sports complex, Sports Complex Hostel(Boys) but in this situation the pool is in different location and this infor- Institutional Area Technology Complex mation is to be broken down so as it can facilitate the visitors Banks / ATM Community Hall(Students) KV IITG Post Office and the users to decode it without any confusion. Reservation Counter Residences Market Complex Hostel(Boys) Married Scholars Hostel Technology Complex Hospital Post Office Guest House Exit ( Faculty Gate ) Figure 9.7.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 94
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 11 JA SIGN BOARD 11 JB JUNCTION 11J T Type Sports Complex Academic Complex Buildings in proximity: Administration Hospital Swimming Pool, Hostel( Married Scholars Hostel Kameng , Barak, Manas, Dihing), Community Hall, Sports Complex Hostels (Boys) 11 Bus Stop 6 Industrial Area Barak 11 JA JB Banks / ATM Umiam Hospital Manas Guest House Dihing Residences Kapili Market Complex Community Hall(Student) Post Office Exit (Faculty Gate) KV IITG Now that it is clear that the information produced must not Technology Complex create visual clutter and repetitions as this leads to fatigue and Kameng this creates ambiguity among the visitors and the users. The placement of the directional arrows must also be done in such manner that it does not create any problem and must not Hostels (Boys) Sports Complex Barak Industrial Area mislead the visitors and the users. Umiam Banks / ATM This means that the modular approach which was guiding Manas Hospital the placement of the signboards is not to be followed. Instead Dihing Guest House the placement will now depend upon the individual junctions Kapili Residences and the roads meeting the junctions. The consideration will be Community Market Complex Hall(Student) depending upon the micro level condition of the junction and Post Office the buildings in the vicinity of that junction. Exit (Faculty Gate) KV IITG Technology Complex Technology Complex Kameng Kameng Figure 9.7.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 95
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 12 JA JUNCTION 12J Y Type Hostels Sports Complex Buildings in proximity: Hospital Guest House 12 JA Entrance Gate 4, Post Technology Complex Office Institutional Area (Bank/ATM) Residences Market Complex Kendriya Vidyalaya Reservation Counter Academic Complex Junction ‘12J’ is the first one after entering into the IITG Post Office campus through the Faculty Entrance gate and it shall provide Exit (Faculty Gate) all the building names and directions pertaining to it. It should also convey the message that the rest of the signboards at the Kendriya Vidyalaya junctions are placed in the same fashion as seen here, this is Reservation Counter Academic Complex an attempt to create a standard for the layout and the place- ment of the signboards at the junctions as explained earlier in this part of the chapter. Just after entering through the gate there will be only one signboard displaying the directions for the buildings. Figure 9.7.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 96
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 13 JA JUNCTION 13J L Type Technology Complex Buildings in proximity: Transit Complex, Bus Hostels Stop 7 Sports Complex 13 JA Institutional Area (Bank/ATM) Community Hall(Student) Post Office Exit (Faculty Gate) Technology Complex This is a very unique condition as there are no diversions in Exit (ASEB Gate) Married Scholars Hostel this junction ‘13J’ , still there is signboard provided here. This Aakshara has been done for the purpose of assisting the visitors and the Hospital users in finding their directions and providing them extra confi- Guest House dence. The other reason for providing the signboard here is Residences that when the users or the visitors come out from the Technol- Community Hall (Staff) ogy complex, they would not have to panic for the directions, so its present there for the service. Figure 9.7.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 97
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 14 JA SIGN BOARD 14 JB JUNCTION 14J T Type Technology Complex Hostels Community Hall(Student) Buildings in proximity: Post Office Entrance Gate 2 (ASEB), Exit (ASEB Gate) 14 Akshara, Hospital, JA Married Scholar’s Hostel Technology Complex Aakshara Hostels Married Scholars Hostel 14 JB Sports Complex Hospital Institutional Area Guest House (Bank/ATM) Sports Complex Institutional Area (Bank/ATM) Residences Community Hall (Staff) Junction ‘14J’ is the first one after entering into the IITG Market Complex campus through the ASEB Entrance Gate and it shall provide Kendriya Vidyalaya all the building names and directions, pertaining to it. It should Reservation Counter also convey the message that the rest of the signboards at the junctions are placed in the same fashion as seen here, this is Technology Complex Exit (ASEB Gate) an attempt to create a standard for the layout and the place- Hostels ment of the signboards at the junctions. Married Scholars Hostel Married Scholars Hostel Hospital Hospital Guest House Guest House Sports Complex Sports Complex Institutional Area Institutional Area (Bank/ATM) (Bank/ATM) Residences Residences Community Hall (Staff) Community Hall (Staff) Market Complex Market Complex Kendriya Vidyalaya Kendriya Vidyalaya Reservation Counter Reservation Counter Figure 9.7.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 98
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 15 JA SIGN BOARD 15 JB JUNCTION 15J T Type Hospital Guest House Buildings in proximity: Residences 15 JA Married Scholar’s Hostel, Community Hall (Staff) Market Complex Hospital, Bus Stop 8 Hostels Sports Complex Institutional Area 15 JB Banks / ATM KV IITG Reservation Counter Post Office Hospital Exit (ASEB Gate) Guest House Aakshara Residences Technology Complex After arriving at the junction ‘15J’ we are actually near to the Community Hall (Staff) entrance of the Married Scholars Hostel but it is important for Market Complex the visitors to recognise that the Married Scholars Hostel has been arrived so special provisions for the identification of the building must be formulated under the provision of personal Exit (ASEB Gate) Exit (ASEB Gate) Aakshara Aakshara identification of the buildings and the services. Technology Complex Technology Complex The directions for the Exits must also be provided here as this leads to the hospital and people may go to the exits of their Hostels Hostels desired destinations, so all exits must be listed at the junction. Sports Complex Sports Complex Institutional Area Institutional Area Banks / ATM Banks / ATM KV IITG KV IITG Reservation Counter Reservation Counter Post Office Post Office Figure 9.7.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 99
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 16 JA SIGN BOARD 16 JB SIGN BOARD 16 JC JUNCTION 16J Y Type Residences(A, B, C) Hospital Residences (D, E, F) Community Hall (Staff) Married Scholars Hostel Institutional Area Buildings in proximity: Hostel Sports Complex Technology Complex Exit( Main Gate) 16 Housing Area [ A, B, F ], JA Community Hall (Student) Market Complex Hospital, Guest House, Post Office 16 JB Bus Stop 8 & 10 Exit(ASEB & Faculty Gate) 16 JC Hospital Residences (D, E, F) Residences(A, B, C) Married Scholars Hostel Institutional Area Community Hall (Staff) Hostels Sports Complex Technology Complex Exit( Main Gate) Community Hall (Student) Market Complex Post Office Exit(ASEB & Faculty Gate) Junction ‘16J’ is the one which is near to the water body and as discussed earlier that the water bodies actually contribute in Hospital Residences (D, E, F) Hospital as the appreciating ground. Because of these water bodies we Married Scholars Hostel Institutional Area Married Scholars Hostel can actually look beyond them and could see the buildings and Hostels Sports Complex Hostels the features built. This can be utilised as in for the personal Technology Complex Exit( Main Gate) Technology Complex Community Hall (Student) Market Complex Community Hall (Student) identification of the buildings from a single point to the buildings Post Office Post Office seen across the water bodies. Exit(ASEB & Faculty Gate) Exit(ASEB & Faculty Gate) The directions for the Exits must also be provided here as this leads to the hospital and people may go to the exits of their Residences(A, B, C) Residences(A, B, C) Residences(A, B, C) desired destinations, so all exits must be listed at the junction. Community Hall (Staff) Community Hall (Staff) Community Hall (Staff) Figure 9.7.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 100
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 17 JA SIGN BOARD 17 JB JUNCTION 17J T Type Residences (C, B, A) Exit (Main Gate) Community Hall (Staff) Market Complex Buildings in proximity: Residences D & E Housing Area [ A, B, C, D, Guest House Residences (C, B, A) 17 JA F ], Hospital, Guest Hospital Community Hall (Staff) House, Bus Stop 11 & 12 Technology Complex Residence F Sports Complex 17 Hostels JB Community Hall (Student) Institutional Area Post Office Exit(ASEB & Faculty Gate) KV IITG Reservation Counter The most difficult part for me to interpret was the housing area of the campus as because it was very complex due to its numbering system and placement in the campus. The com- Exit (Main Gate) Exit (Main Gate) plexity can be achieved by providing an extra area map at the Market Complex Market Complex same time or in the area of the group of the buildings. Residences D & E Residences D & E Junction ‘17J’ is the one which is near to the water body and Guest House Guest House as discussed earlier that the water bodies actually contribute in Hospital Hospital as the appreciating ground. Because of these water bodies we Technology Complex Technology Complex can actually look beyond them and could see the buildings and Residence F Residence F the features built. This can be utilised as in for the personal Sports Complex Sports Complex Hostels Hostels identification of the buildings from a single point to the buildings Community Hall (Student) Community Hall (Student) seen across the water bodies. Institutional Area Institutional Area Post Office Post Office Exit(ASEB & Faculty Gate) Exit(ASEB & Faculty Gate) KV IITG KV IITG Reservation Counter Reservation Counter Figure 9.7.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 101
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar Intersection Junction - SIGN BOARD 18 JA SIGN BOARD 18 JB SIGN BOARD 18 JC JUNCTION 18J Y Type Hospital Residences Residences (C, D, E) Married Scholars Hostel Exit (Main Gate) Market Complex 18 JA Buildings in proximity: Technology Complex Market Complex Exit (Main Gate) Aakshara Housing Area [ F ], Guest Exit (ASEB) House, Subhansiri, Bus 18 Stop 9 Institutional Area Institutional Area Residences (A, B) JB Banks / ATM Banks / ATM Community Hall (Staff) 18 Guest House Guest House Married Scholars Hostel JC Hostels Hostels Hospital Sports Complex Sports Complex Technology Complex Residences (F) Residences (F) Aakshara Community Hall (Student) Community Hall (Student) Exit (ASEB) Post Office Post Office Kendriya Vidyalaya Kendriya Vidyalaya Reservation Counter Reservation Counter Junction ‘18J’ is the one which is near to the water body and Exit (Lathiabagicha Gate) Exit (Lathiabagicha Gate) as discussed earlier that the water bodies actually contribute in as the appreciating ground. Because of these water bodies we Institutional Area Residences (A, B) Institutional Area can actually look beyond them and could see the buildings and Banks / ATM Community Hall (Staff) Banks / ATM the features built. This can be utilised as in for the personal Guest House Married Scholars Hostel Guest House Hostels Hospital Hostels identification of the buildings from a single point to the buildings Sports Complex Technology Complex Sports Complex seen across the water bodies. Residences (F) Aakshara Residences (F) The most difficult part for me to interpret was the housing Community Hall (Student) Exit (ASEB) Community Hall (Student) area of the campus as because it was very complex due to its Post Office Post Office numbering system and placement in the campus. The com- Kendriya Vidyalaya Kendriya Vidyalaya Reservation Counter Reservation Counter plexity can be achieved by providing an extra area map at the Exit (Lathiabagicha Gate) Exit (Lathiabagicha Gate) same time or in the area of the group of the buildings. Residences Residences Married Scholars Hostel Exit (Main Gate) Exit (Main Gate) Hospital Market Complex Market Complex Technology Complex Aakshara Exit (ASEB) Figure 9.7.11 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 102
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.6 LAYOUT & PLACEMENT of SIGN BOARDDeepak Kumar So, some ideas about the placement of the signboards are clear and a brief can be made from it, - the signboards must create a point of interest. - must not mislead or create confusion at any point . - give a complete idea of the buildings and the features built . - the layout created must be visually balanced and clear. There were lots of ideas to be implemented for the representation of the distance of the buildings, but this would not help the visitors or the users as the campus is just an institutional one and there is no provision for the public transport within the campus, so it’s KAPILI SIANG pointless to give the distance along the buildings A new system for the personal identification for the building has been formulated and conceptualised. Figure 9.7.12 The illustration of the concept for the identification of the buildings across the lake Signage System for IIT Guwahati 103
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.7 PLACEMENT of MAPSDeepak Kumar MAP Map of the campus (M)11 >>   - 31 Towards NH River Ghoramara  MAP Map of the precinct area (R)10 h hora MAP R7  D50-102 02 2 R6 MAP   MAP Maps of the building complex in detail (B)7   MAP R5   B7 G2(ASEB)   There should be various types of maps placed in the campus MAP G1 MAP  (Main Gate) e) ) D D1- 9 D1-49   MAP M10 M9  MAP R4  as per the requirement. The placement has also been decided MAP B6  M1 E1 E1-24   MAP MAP R3   on the basis of interview with the visitors. MAP  R2 MAP M11 E 25-60 0 M2     MAP MAP R8 The (M)s are placed at the entrance of the campus and the MAP D103-132 32 2 M8 R1   MAP  parking areas and near to the areas where the visitors SAC generally go, for example Hospital, Guest House, Technology Riv ve  rG horamara     Complex, Institutional Area. Cricket Ground M3  MAP   The (R)s are placed at the area where the question arises, MAP B5   B4   “Which building to enter ?” Thus these are restricted to MAP MAP housing areas as all buildings look same and it is very difficult  R9   MAP  MAP MAP R10 for a visitor to decode the address and find the flat. B1 M4 MAP M7 The (B)s are placed where the people would like to know B2 whether where the destination is located or in which part of the MAP G4(Faculty Gate) Faculty building the destination is located? It provides detailed Towards t 2.5 km >> ha building plan with the layout. The placements of the B maps M6 Ferry G Rive  M5B3 MAP are located at Academic Complex, Administration Building, r Gh MAP MAP G ora (Lathia Bagicha Gate) a ) G G3 am Hospital and Guest House. ara a a a a a << Towards Amingaon g River Bramhputra a Figure 9.8.1 The illustration of the contents & placement of the signboards Signage System for IIT Guwahati 104
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.7 PLACEMENT of MAPSDeepak Kumar There are different ways of representing the maps and one which should be installed must be very clear in giving the information to the users and the visitors. The map for the precinct areas must be such that it should convey the information as soon as the users or the visitors come to that area. -The first question which should be answered is whether what I Whether the location has been reached or not? am looking for has been arrived or not ? -The next question is in which building to enter? Which is the correct -Which floor and which room to go ? building to enter in? All these questions involved here must be answered by the map Where is the entrance of the building? provided at that place for that particular area. The next question arises is what should be the contents of the map for the precinct areas and how it should be represented? The representation for Which floor or room to go ? this area must very simple and clear to interpret, from the users and the visitors point of view. The decision for the contents and the representation of the map depends on the area of that place and the type of the buildings in that area, example: Institutional area or Housing area or Hostel area. Figure 9.8.2 Questions involved after reaching the precinct area Signage System for IIT Guwahati 105
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.7 PLACEMENT of MAPSDeepak Kumar The contents in the map must comprise of the detailed note of the building and the rooms or the services associated with that building in the precinct area. The representation of the map must either be a 2d map or 3d map of the precinct area for the users to give an overall view or idea of the area. But the question arises whether which type of representation would be more effective for the users to interpret. The 2d representation can be either in plan or in elevation and which one would be better for the situation or the representation could be both the mixture of the 2d and 3d map giving the layout. The figure here represents an illustration of the area where the layout of the road is shown in the plan and the buildings in the elevation so that the floor and rooms can be located, but in this case the limitation is that the number of the rooms must not be more than two per floor otherwise it would not be able to serve the purpose. In the other cases where there are more rooms and services in a floor, different type of representation would be required for the layout. MAP In the representation it is also quite important to indicate the MAP entrance of the buildings as generally people know there location but can’t find the way to the entrance. Figure 9.8.3 Steps involved in reaching the destination Signage System for IIT Guwahati 106
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.7 PLACEMENT of MAPSDeepak Kumar The representation of the buildings which have a complex 1st Floor 2nd Floor 1st Floor 2nd Floor Academic Affairs JEE/ GATE Office Research & Development Students Affair shape and many rooms and services in a single floor cannot be Director Office Deputy Director represented in elevation so it would be better to represent those Registrar Office Finance Board Room Accounts Internal Audit buildings in plan for the users to decode immediately and effectively. Ground Floor Ground Floor Public Relations Stores & Purchase Engineering Cell Establishment Training & Placement Despatch & Reception Security Head In the case of the buildings the representation could not be done in 3d because analysing a 3d map of a complex structure would take more time in comparison to the 2d map of the built structure. In the illustration shown beside it is quite clear about the location of the rooms and the services and in which area to go ie. which side of the building. The placement of the maps are to be fixed at the entrance of the building so that the users could get a brief about the layout of the building. 1st Floor 2nd Floor Academic Affairs Research & Development JEE/ GATE Office Students Affair Director Office Deputy Director Registrar Office Finance Board Room Accounts Internal Audit Ground Floor Public Relations Stores & Purchase Engineering Cell Establishment Training & Placement Security Head Despatch & Reception Figure 9.8.4 Illustration of the map for the administration building floor wise Signage System for IIT Guwahati 107
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.8 PLACEMENT of Information DeskDeepak Kumar The information desk is the interactive part of the wayfinding >>   system which gives the information to the users and the visitors. - 31 IIT Guwah Map Guwahati Towards NH River Ghoramara The series of interactive information desks actually forms a r Gh  h  solution as a key component for the wayfinding in the IITG campus D50-102 02 2   by providing the information. The placement of these desks is    i G2(ASEB) fixed at the entrances and the buildings which are used quite often   G G1 D D1- 9 D1-49    i by the visitors. ( (Main Gate)   i E1 E1-24    i People generally find their way to their destinations. When they    come in the campus and their mission is achieved or they plan for E 25-60 0     the next mission then the problem starts because they do not have D103-132 32 2    any clue where to go because a wrong start would make their i i SAC journey tiresome or lengthy, so these desks are to assist them to Riiv ve  rG horamara     Cricket plan their action for their journey to be continued. Ground  i   The locations of these information desks are generally at the i     entrance of the buildings to assist the users and the visitors of the i  campus. These information desks are capable of guiding the   i  visitors to find their location and plan their journey from any place within the campus. i The contents of the information desk are derived from different i i G4(Faculty Gate) Faculty methods of interaction design.(discussed in later chapter) Towards t 2.5 km >> ha Ferry G Rive  i i r r Gh ora r m (Lathia Bagicha Gate) a ) G G3 ara r << Towards Amingaon g River Bramhputra a Figure 9.8.5 The illustration of the placement of the information desks Signage System for IIT Guwahati 108
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9 FORMDeepak Kumar According to me form is what makes the design. Form can be seen in colour, in culture, in identity, in usability & at last visually. It is the overall composition which makes sense because if we rearrange the features of the composition it would mean something different and could be out of context. Just for example take the word ‘DOG’, if we rearrange in backwards it would spell ‘GOD’ which conveys a different meaning. So in design we give shape and structure to the material to fit in the situation and satisfy the contextual requirement. The form of a product usually reveals the intellectual, practical and emotional characteristics and the relationship between them. “Form follows function” used to be the key behind designing, but now a days we have to focus on different aspects also like emotions, fun, and experience. A form has got power in itself to change the way we think and behave. Coming to the situation of wayfinding in IITG campus, form of the conceptualised solution can be categorised in different areas. This chapter deals with, how the form is related to the brand, symbolic meaning and the usage of the product. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 109
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9.1 SEMANTIC ApproachDeepak Kumar The focus is on analysing the components of the problem, semiotically and syntactically, by forming a framework & analysis matrix through content and signs, giving the priority to the signs in terms of their semantic weightage. For this, different adjectives for the wayfinding system must be derived. The product used in any environment must express its purpose and should have a relation with the environment in the sense of form. This can start with a set of questions : -What should the form look like? -How the product should be identified? -Should the product have any brand? -Does the product have any kind of expression? -Are there things available in nature from which we can derive for the representation of the character? Denotation and Connotation are two basic concepts in semiotics that are very useful. Denotation refers to the literal, actual meaning of a sign -what the product is, i.e. a chair, a telephone. To Denotation I also add the obvious function of an object: How to handle it. We sit on the chair, use the telephone for making phone Figure 9.9.1 The figure here shows the evolution of an emoticon. calls etc. recognizing what it is and how to handle it can be very There can be various other possibilities and this difficult. This is also the domain where most product semiotics evolution of the form is based on the set of five dwells, unambiguous and easy to use, clearly communicating their questions function. Preferably without any manual to use. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 110
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9.1 SEMANTIC ApproachDeepak Kumar Now the questions should be answered accordingly, to reach to multilinguistic helpful in nature the solution. For getting to the solution there are various options which can be tried individually and in a combination. The goal is to simple or complex directing get the form and for that, having a brief idea of the qualities or bold confident characteristics is explored. Thus a list of adjectives or qualities are to be noted which can be implemented in the product to bring out the basic meaning out of the form. serious unique soft or hard After the listings of the adjective are done, it is important to establish a relationship between these qualities or the properties smiling and charming of the product. There are some of the qualities which can change the whole aspect of the appearance if misinterpreted so it is communicable outstanding necessary to establish the relationship with the help of the attractive small or large semiotics. The basic concept of semiotics can be explored here in the sharp or smooth hierarchy of the meanings “SYMBOL > INDEX > ICON > SIGN” welcoming in nature Generally this is done in reversible process to analyse things but easy dark or light here the proces is done in opposite direction just to understand the technology situation in more simple and organised manner. Now when the serious or funny intellectual codes will be elaborated and interpreted, many meanings would either get shortlisted or be compiled under one sign. Figure 9.9.2 qualities and adjectives to be shown in the product Signage System for IIT Guwahati 111
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9.1 SEMANTIC ApproachDeepak Kumar What should the form look like? How the product should be Talking about the brand we need to be clear about what we identified? want to explore in this area, because it is really a vast area and people from different domain handles this differently. Being a Confident, Unique, Serious, Bold, Helpful in nature, Mulilinguistic, design student I would like to be focused in exploring the different Attractive, Outstanding, Simple, Communicable, Welcoming in possibilities to represent the brand in the form of the product. One Intellectual nature, thing is very clear that brand does not have expiration dates like trademark or IPR, it remains in the mind and heart of the people Does the product have any kind Should the product have who have used or heard about it. of expression? any brand? When we talk about imitating nature it means how do we Easy going, Directing, Confident, Yes / No Serious, Simple, Smiling interact with nature to get the directions or messages, so the first thing which comes to me is the sun, by the position of which we get the idea of directions and the next thing is sky which gives the clue about the weather and a brief outline of the whole day. It’s not just the sky from which inspirations can be taken from but there are lot more things from which we get information or they convey their messages. For example a butterfly, a dancing pea- cock and petals of the flowers, these all have messages to convey to others. If we start finding the pattern we can get many hidden clues in the nature itself, but it is very difficult to break it because nature follows the pattern of randomness. Figure 9.9.3 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 112
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9.1 SEMANTIC ApproachDeepak Kumar Are there things available in nature from which we can derive Syntactics/Syntax Pragmatics intention for the representation of the character? visual formal modes (influencing the receiver) FORM imperative will, duty dimension suggestive dot, line,flat surface, feelings body, space quality indicative round, angular, regular, information, knowledge irregular, free quantity large, small demarcation empty, fully or partially filled, open form, closed form,clear contours, blurred contours realization structured, sketchy, firm, fuzzy, fragmented, free BRIGHTNESS all depends upon the: COLOUR degree of abstraction & MOVEMENT degree of iconity MATERIAL Figure 9.9.4 Figure 9.9.5 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 113
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9.2 studying the BRANDDeepak Kumar Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati Here we do not have to create a brand but rather maintain it. We Motto: "Knowledge is Power" have to capture the essence and that could be any odd or unique Type: Education and Research Institute feature, ranging from the place of origin or lineage or quality or Red (Power), Blue (Peace), Yellow (Perseverance) value or colour or form or ........anything....but necessarily be a fact. Attribute : Education and Research Institute, after getting through JEE and GATE Benefit : Respectful, Valued, Position, Intellectual Culture : Pride of India, Success, Growth Personality : Leadership, Entrepreneurship Profile : High profile job, Honoured in society Figure 9.9.6 Meta Meaning : NGO’s, Companies, Enterprises Signage System for IIT Guwahati 114
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9.2 studying the BRANDDeepak Kumar Deriving the components or features to represent the brand can be done through the study of the culture and behaviour and architectural forms and natural conditions and location and service and people associated with the institute. Students strive to get admission into IIT, they come here with high aspiration and a dream to fulfill. People here are quite knowledgeable yet very noble and humble, the facilities and services provided here are of international standards, not to mention the architecture of the campus and the scenic beauty surrounding it. Thus it is quite difficult to enlist these in words and it would be easier to represent it in the form of images and then abstraction can be done through that. The features which are the most common in the architectural style can be explored or the abstract of the water lakes in the campus can be exploited. There can be any possibility of abstraction and in any style. Figure 9.9.7 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 115
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9.3 Extraction of ABSTRACTDeepak Kumar Abstract art uses a visual language of form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world. Abstraction indicates a departure from reality in depiction of imagery in art. This departure from accurate representation can be only slight, or it can be partial, or it can be complete. Abstraction exists along a continuum. Even art that aims for verisimilitude of the highest degree can be said to be abstract, at least theoretically, since perfect representation is likely to be exceedingly elusive. Artwork which takes liberties, altering for instance color and form in ways that are conspicuous, can be said to be partially abstract. Total abstraction bears no trace of any reference to anything recognizable. In geometric abstraction, for instance, one is unlikely to find references to naturalistic entities. Figurative art and total abstraction are almost mutually exclusive. But figurative and representational (or realistic) art often contains partial abstraction.(source: wikipedia.org) When we talk about the abstract it generally means anything which give essence or reference. So abstract can be captured not only through the visuals but anything. An attempt has been made here to capture the abstract of the built architecture and the logo of IITG.In nature there is randomness but we think in pattern so the abstract extracted is actually is not random, instead there is some Figure 9.9.7 Extraction of the elements pattern. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 116
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9.4 FORM explorationDeepak Kumar              Figure 9.9.8 Form Exploration 1 Figure 9.9.9 Form Exploration 2 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 117
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9.4 FORM explorationDeepak Kumar Figure 9.9.10 Form Exploration 3 Figure 9.9.11 Form Exploration 4 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 118
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9.4 FORM explorationDeepak Kumar Figure 9.9.12 Form Exploration 5 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 119
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9.4 FORM explorationDeepak Kumar Figure 9.9.13 Form Exploration 6 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 120
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9.4 FORM explorationDeepak Kumar Figure 9.9.14 Form Exploration 7 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 121
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9.4 FORM explorationDeepak Kumar Figure 9.9.15 Form Exploration 8 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 122
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9.4 FORM explorationDeepak Kumar space for map Hostels Sports Complex Hospital Guest House Technology Complex Institutional Area i Directional signs (Bank/ATM) Residences Market Complex Interactive screen Kendriya Vidyalaya 60 Reservation Counter Academic Complex all dimensions are in mm Front Elevation Side Elevation Isometric View Figure 9.9.16 Form Exploration 9 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 123
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9.4 FORM explorationDeepak Kumar Figure 9.9.16 Form Exploration 10 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 124
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.9.4 FORM explorationDeepak Kumar Figure 9.9.16 Form Exploration 11 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 125
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10 SYSTEM ApproachDeepak Kumar The aim of this approach is to design a GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE for the IITG campus which is to be installed in the Information desk. The aim for this is to make the interaction of the interface user friendly and less time consuming, for giving the guidance to the visitors. The basic concept is to guide the visitor to the destination, and that destination’s guiding factor need not be any place, rather it can be any person or any event or occasion.Now to solve this problem we need to follow the system analysis approach which would guide through. For this we need to generate object, class, Use case diagrams and combine them in different arrangements. -Listing of the problems -Grouping up the problem areas -Persona and Scenario generation -Defining the use cases -Use Case Diagrams -Defining the Class -Defining the Components -Creating Sequence Diagrams -Wireframe Diagrams -Graphic User Interface Signage System for IIT Guwahati 126
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10 SYSTEM Analysis & DesignDeepak Kumar PURPOSE of VISIT Now the time of the decision comes, where we need to decide whether which type of approach is to be followed: Traditional Admission Lectures Post Office approach or Object Oriented approach. As per the situation it is Guest Training Reservation Counter better to employ the Object Oriented approach of the UML (Unified Work Project School Modeling Language). For this approach to be initiated we require Emergency Paper Presentation Sports Competition to collect other various information and data, such as Events, Hospital Placement Examination Class Diagram, Use Cases and Scenario Description, Use Cases Alcheringa Shows Interview Diagram, Sequence Diagrams and Wireframe Model. Manthan Gathering Alumni The analysis starts with the listing of the difficulties and the Techniche ATM Servicing problems. Generally in wayfinding, people find it difficult to Seminars Bank Delivery respond to the new environment and the other problem is Counseling Administration Events language, as in IIT people come here from different countries. Departments Director Occasions Then the Purpose will be defined and then grouped into different Library HOD Festivals categories. Computer Centre Professors Programmes Auditorium Students Spic Macay GROUPING of the PURPOSE Lecture Hall Relatives Extra Class Workshop Supporting Staffs Internship Attend an EVENT Visit a PLACE Meet a PERSON Hostels Courier Research Admission, Festivals, Buildings, Services, Professors, Residences Emergency Services Exhibitions Interview, Occasions, Complexes, Students, Relatives Tech. Complex Ambulance Site Seeing Examinations,Shows, Departments, and Others....... Hill Top Fire Brigade Study Presentations, Work, Residences, Shopping Complex Personal Servicing Others............ Others............ Figure 9.10.1 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 127
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10 SYSTEM Analysis & DesignDeepak Kumar OBJECT DIAGRAM  Whom to meet? Faculty Student CLASS CLASS Name Mr. ABC Sex (M/F) or Photograph Name Mr. XYZ Sex (M/F) or Photograph V a l u e s V a l u e s Designation Lecturer, Assistant, Associate, Professor... Unique ID Roll no. Department Chemical, Civil, Mechanical,........... Qualification B.Tech, Mtech, Phd, Msc,....... Phone number 0361- xxxxxxx(O), 0361- xxxxxxx(R), Year 1st , 2nd, 3rd, 4th year Address Office , Residence Department Chemical, Civil, Mechanical,........... Phone number 0361- xxxxxxx Non Teaching Administrative CLASS CLASS Name Mr. DEF Sex (M/F) or Photograph Name Mr. PQR Sex (M/F) or Photograph V a l u e s V a l u e s Designation Project, Supporting, Others Designation Director, DEAN(Academic, Admin, Students), Others Section Office, Department, Section Section Accounts,Academics,Placements, Others Phone number 0361- xxxxxxx(O), 0361- xxxxxxx(R), Phone number 0361- xxxxxxx(O), Address Office , Residence Address Office , Figure 9.10.2 OBJECT DIAGRAM for Person Signage System for IIT Guwahati 128
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10 SYSTEM Analysis & DesignDeepak Kumar OBJECT DIAGRAM  Where to go? OBJECT DIAGRAM  What would you like to do? Institutional Area Services Education Entertainment CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS Academic Complex Market Complex, Hospital, Internship, Spic Macay, V a l u e s V a l u e s V a l u e s V a l u e s Administartion Restaurant, Canteen, ATM, Lectures, Exhibitions, Lecture Hall Bank, Post Office, Sports Research, Shows, Workshop Complex, Reservation Coun- Papers, Alcheringa, Manthan, Library ter, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Presentations Techniche Computer Centre Community Hall, Technology Auditorium Complex, Swimming Pool, Sports Auditorium, Residential Area Emergency Admission Others CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS Quarters : Type A, B, C, D, E ,F Ambulance : Hospital Counseling, Official, V a l u e s V a l u e s V a l u e s V a l u e s Hostels : Subhansiri, Siang, Emergency : Security Office Examination, Placement, Kapili, Dihing, Interview Convocation Manas, Kameng, Barak, Umiam Guest House Figure 9.10.3 OBJECT DIAGRAM for places and events Signage System for IIT Guwahati 129
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10.1 USE CASE DiagramsDeepak Kumar Where to go? Whom to meet? Event to attend. Specify the language Specify the language Specify the language Select the category Select the category Select the category Enter the Name,Department, Visitor Database Centre,Office,Section, Enter the activities Event wise Designation whatever known Visitor Database Select the destination ie.Fests,Conference,Interview, Visitor Admission,Placements building View the details of the Database person with Photograph Select the subcategories View the route to reach the destination Selet the Person View the latest details and view the routes about the Event ie. to reach him Venue ,time,etc,. View the alternate routes View the alternate/ View the routes residence routes to reach the venue Repeat the information Repeat the information Repeat the information Exit(Optional) Exit(Optional) Exit(Optional) Figure 9.10.4 USE CASE DIAGRAM: The relation between the actor and the operations. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 130
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10.2 SEQUENCE DiagramDeepak Kumar Welcome Purpose Input Entry Route display Screen selection Screen/Destinat- screen screen -ion selections Select the Language get screen in the language chosen Name/Department/ Designation Display of Purpose selection screen in language chosen Building/centre section/ Select category get the Entities of selected category Department Activities/Events Display Entities of the selected category Enter the required input and/or select the destination get the route Repeat Display of the routes for the selected destination Figure 9.10.5 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM : sequence of interactions between the user and system Signage System for IIT Guwahati 131
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10.3 Persona and ScenarioDeepak Kumar Mr. Dev Kalita is 33 year old Assamese Business man from Shillong who has many of friends and relatives living in Guwahati. A few days back when he was returning from a marriage ceremony from Rangiya to Shillong with his family, his wife reminded him of her maternal uncle who was a faculty at IIT Guwahati. Her uncle had urged them many times to visit his place. So they decided to meet them while passing the nearby highway. Unfortunately they did not have his contact number .In fact they also did not know his official name but his nick name. They could only recall his title and his physical appearance & place he belonged to. They tried to explain it to the security and some of the resident faculties which they come across near the gate. But they were unable to get any positive reply and hence failed to find out the right person. So due insufficient knowledge and lack of a proper system to process their information, they were unable to meet their uncle and had to return from the IIT Gate. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 132
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10.3 Persona and ScenarioDeepak Kumar Arjit is a 18 year old engineering student who has come to IIT Guwahati for representing his college at the robotic competition in Tech fest. He got down at the Hostel which was informed during the registration confirmation. After checking in at the hostel, he wanted to know about the exact time of event and the venue of the event that was scheduled the same day. But since the hostel was very far from the main hub where all events were going on and he did not have any idea about the exact venue and the time of the event, he has to carry all his equipments along with him. He just wanted to make sure that he does not miss the event if in case it was about to begin. When he reached the hub he came to know that the event was after 2 hours .So he has to roam around the place along with his equipment wait for two hours before the event began. Mr. Das, a 40 year old proprietor had come all the way from Jalpaiguri to meet the Dean of Students’ Affairs in connection to the company promotion at the Cultural fest of IIT Guwahati. When he asked the guard about the office he was given so many details about his office that it made him totally confused and he has to ask at least four people before he reached the dean of Students affairs. Had he being given only the required information at required time, he would have reached the office quickly. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 133
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10.4 Wire frame DiagramDeepak Kumar 1 2 3 4 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 134
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10.5 Graphic User Interface Detailed illustration of GUI cont......Deepak Kumar Signage System for IIT Guwahati 135
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10.5 Graphic User InterfaceDeepak Kumar Welcoming note The GUI for the touch screen interface of the Information Welcome desk has been freezed after trying out various options in terms   Institute’s of the layout, composition and colours. The GUI has been  Logo designed according to the principles of the interaction design. Ref [20] New events Information Here are the illustrations for the various options tried out for     the GUI. The options are actually the explorations done in the various areas and a proper grid is also maintained. Since the platform of the interface would be working in the touch screen, the least and the most area for contact required for the interface has also been a factor for defineing the sizes of the icons and Language Selection buttons.    i  Your Position How does it work? Date & Time Signage System for IIT Guwahati 136
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10.5 Graphic User InterfaceDeepak Kumar                               i     i ENG ENGLISH ENGLISH GLISH ENGLISH S SH Welcome       i     Ao Aohéiç oh Aohééiç i E ENGLISH Aohéiç Fig. 9.10.6 Exploration of GUI Signage System for IIT Guwahati 137
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10.5 Graphic User InterfaceDeepak Kumar Welcome You are at the Faculty Gate.               Welcome   Welcome   You are at the Faculty Gate.   ENGLISH ENGLISH Aohéiç A oh éi ç    i     i     i  Welcome Welcome You are at the Faculty Gate. You are at the Faculty Gate.     You are at the Faculty Gate.             Welcome   You are at the Faculty Gate.    i     i     i  Fig. 9.10.7 Exploration of GUI Signage System for IIT Guwahati 138
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10.5 FINAL GUIDeepak Kumar 1a 1b First screen specifying the general informations Second part of first screen also conveys the same message as displayed in the first screen. - welcoming note - IITG logo The second screen appears after the language - ‘i’ the working of the system selection as the scope of the information desk is to - IIT map to semanticaly convey that the system provide information in three languages. provided here is for the help of wayfinding - You are Here position In this screen the user gets a idea about his position in - news events the campus and after touching the enter buttton on the - language selection keys (buttons) screen it will lead to next page. Fig. 9.10.8 FinalGUI Signage System for IIT Guwahati 139
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10.5 FINAL GUIDeepak Kumar 2 3a 3b 3c The second page is actually where the users are given an opportunity to explore through the question asked to them according to their purpose of visit. This screen leads to the next page according to the button touched or the question answered. Fig. 9.10.8 FinalGUI Signage System for IIT Guwahati 140
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10.5 FINAL GUIDeepak Kumar 3a 3b 3c This third screen in the sequence appears when the user has selected from the options provided in the previous page. In this screeen the user needs to provide the data asked by the system to process, be it event, person or place. Fig. 9.10.8 FinalGUI Signage System for IIT Guwahati 141
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10.5 FINAL GUIDeepak Kumar 4a 4b 4c After geting the data from the user the Information is displayed accordingly. Here the system gives the option for showing the route to the user. Fig. 9.10.8 FinalGUI Signage System for IIT Guwahati 142
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.10.5 FINAL GUIDeepak Kumar 5a 5b 5c The last page or the final page where the route is displayed with some general information about the destination. Clues like landmarks are also provided to help the users. Fig. 9.10.8 Final GUI Signage System for IIT Guwahati 143
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.11 SUSTAINABILITYDeepak Kumar There is an urgency attached to sustainability. All of the world’s living systems are in rapid decline while the population continues to grow at a steady slope. Some people feel as though designers should not be held responsible for solving these issues, but if SOCIAL designers aren’t going to play a part, then who is? Sustainability represents nothing less than a fundamental shift in how business is conducted; we as designers need to recognize Bearable Equitable our potential role in this shift and seize the opportunity it presents, after all “good design comes from constraints.” Rather than looking at sustainability as a set of restrictions or as an impediment to Sustainable good ideas, designers must embrace it as a source of inspiration and a challenge to be met. We need to take a proactive approach ENVIRONMENT ECONOMIC with the environment, development of power generation, building Visible efficiency and engineering a sustainable approach to progress. In this chapter, materials will be discussed for effective use in sustainability. What are the chances of exploiting the resources of Sustainable DEVELOPMENT the energy and manufacturing techniques to attain sustainability in Figure 9.11.1 local context? Signage System for IIT Guwahati 144
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.11.1 Material, Process and EnergyDeepak Kumar ECO-FRIENDLY Steel, cement, glass, aluminum, plastics, bricks, etc. are energy intensive materials, commonly used for building construction. MATERIAL ENERGY TECHNIQUE Generally these materials are transported over great distances. Extensive use of these materials can drain the energy resources and adversely affect the environment. On the other hand, it is difficult to meet the ever-growing demand for buildings by adopting only energy-efficient traditional materials (like mud, thatch, timber, BAMBOO SOLAR RAT TRAP BOND etc.) and construction methods. Hence, there is a need for Figure 9.11.2 optimum utilization of available energy resources and raw materials to produce simple, energy efficient, environment friendly and sustainable building alternatives and techniques to satisfy the increasing demand for buildings. Some of the guiding principles in developing the sustainable alternative building technologies can be summarized as follows: -Energy conservation; -Minimize the use of high energy materials; -Concern for environment, environment-friendly technologies; -Minimize transportation and maximize the use of local materials; -Decentralized production and maximum use of local skills; -Utilization of industrial wastes for the production of materials; -Recycling of building wastes; -Use of renewable energy sources; Figure 9.11.3 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 145
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.11.1 Material, Process and EnergyDeepak Kumar Aluminium Building technologies manufactured by meeting these principles could become sustainable and facilitate sharing the resources Copper - Cable especially energy resources more efficiently, causing minimum Plastics - Polystyrene damage to the environment. Glass -Clear Float • Clear understanding of the sector-wise demand and growth of Paint the Indian construction scenario. Steel - Reinforcement • Estimating current building stock and the contribution of unorganised sector in manufacturing and supply of energy Ceramics - Porcelain intensive building materials. Timber - Particleboard • Assessing the availability (region wise) of local resources, raw Timber - Oregon materials/traditional materials for developing and manufacture of Clay Products - Bricks building products. • Developing alternative building technologies to meet the region Timber - Hardwood specific needs/demands for buildings. Plaster - Gypsum Fibreglass - Insulation Concrete - 20MPa 0 50 100 150 200 Embodied Energy ( GJt-1 ) Figure 9.11.4 Scalar total of energy input required to produce the product Signage System for IIT Guwahati 146
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.12 CONCEPT GenerationDeepak Kumar Now that idea of signage system is clear, an attempt to generate the form of the design can be explored. The exploration would be on the basis of implementation of different ideas and thoughts. So the first concept generated during the pre-study phase when the project was just conceived was quite interesting. In this chapter the discussion would be mainly focused on how the concept was generated and with some diagrams to explain the concept. Since the first concept generated was during the pre study phase so lot of things about the signage system was not clear. There has been a constant reforming of the ideas and thoughts during this phase. The concepts generated would then be analysed and evaluated and the selected concept would go for the realization. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 147
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.12.1 CONCEPT 1 : Technology DrivenDeepak Kumar STEP 1: Identification The idea behind the first concept was to develop a system of As soon as the visitor navigation and communication in IIT Guwahati by exploiting the arrives to the entrance they are provided with an + technologies such as radio frequency and blue tooth. The focus active token which is tagged according to the would be to solve all the problems related to the management & purpose of their visit, this token actually guides the security system in the campus from a strategic location. users throughout in the Security Tokens Entrance Visitor In this system the users are the residents and visitors of the campus campus, and each one gets an identity which act like a tag (either RFID or Bluetooth enabled chip). The residents in the campus will STEP 2: Synchronization be having an active ID card while the people visiting the campus The visitor having the will be given a token. The token becomes the identity of the visitor token can now interact or with the system and get in the campus and thus the visitor would be interacting with the his way and find directions, the token interacts with system through that token. the system giving the visitors complete freedom double Display Visitor Resident (tagged) Unique ID There would be receivers of the signals which would engage the signal and provide the necessary information to the person having that particular tag (the tagging of the token is done at the entrance and tagged according to the purpose of their visit). The STEP 3: Action residents of the campus would be facilitating the service in terms The display unit has two of notices, messages, updated information, complaints and many screens, one is a touch screen and the other is the other possible options. This system can be an example of tagged sense screen so the visitors need not have to Resident Visitor information and network system, as the information displays at the interact with the system manually while the Unique ID (tagged) same time and if any action is to be taken the operator operating residents have to interact manually from a strategic position does the necessary. The displays (interacting device) also have a camera for vigilance. Figure 9.12.1 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 148
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.12.1 CONCEPT 1 : Technology DrivenDeepak Kumar WORKING of the System The display system is provided with two screens, one for the visitors and other for the residents. The screen for the visitors is as soon as the visitor just for the purpose of viewing the messages while the other arrives at the display no screen is for various applications. The people can get information disturbance is caused from the database of the system and the system makes it sure that for the former viewer the information provided is an updated one. For instance, if a student wants to meet the Dean of Academic Affairs, where should he go? Should he go to the department in which he is the professor or should he go to the administration? resident(unique ID) is interacting with the display As previously told that every resident has a unique ID (tagged or activated) so the question answered by the system would be the the signal delivered present location of the dean. This system can be implemented in from the tagged visitor the library also which would give an extra edge to the maintenance causes the screen to and up keeping of the library. formulate and synchro- nize itself to show the This concept has been evolved at the time of Pre study phase information relevant for and thus it may be possible that the scope of work in this concept the visitor surpasses the signage system and moves into the management, so it would not necessarily be implemented. the interaction still goes on without any disturbance with the approach of the tagged visitor Figure 9.12.2 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 149
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.12.2 CONCEPT 2 : Colour CodingDeepak Kumar One of the most simple thing which humans can easily identify is the colour and based on this idea a concept has been generated which actually follows the relationship of spaces with the colours. The idea is to use the system of colour coding in the campus to guide the people. If a person is heading for a place zoom in view of the road and the pedestrian The illustration of colour coded which is coded in blue colour then he/she has to follow that The illustration of the flower bed route colour in order to reach his/her destination. The form of colour code can be any and can range from coloured roads, flower divider bed, boundaries, vegetation, lampposts, or any clue given etc. pedestrian The illustration shows the different ways of using colours in the system of wayfinding and there can be endless options for this concept. To make this system more effective we can add the textual messages with the colours. Figure 9.12.4 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 150
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.12.3 CONCEPT 3 : Think LOCALDeepak Kumar When we talk about thinking local, the general idea is actually looking into the small matters in details and trying to resolve the problem. The whole signage system is analysed from the different perspective. The idea behind this concept is very simple and no change is required in the current system, instead new ideas must be implemented to make it into a more efficient and effective system. People coming in the IITG campus comes here for a purpose and that purpose ranges from personal visit to official visit. They come here with some reference and those can be visiting card or admission letters or just an invitation or a casual visit. The official Front page and back page illustration of the admission form visit can be further broken down in different categories like Paper presentation Admission, Interview, Conferences, Counseling, etc. So in this case we can actually exploit the References given to the people in the form of invitation letter, visiting cards, admission letters, Internship letters, and other form of the references. The basic idea is to give the clue or message about the campus in the letter itself to help the visitors in every possible way. The layout of these official letters can be altered or reformatted in order to exploit this idea. Thus the idea being very small but quite effective    would help the visitors to develop their idea of the campus and its    services. - Towards NH  Figure 9.12.5 illustration of the admission letter sent to an applicant with the map of IITG campus and relevant notes. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 151
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.12.3 CONCEPT 3 : Think LOCALDeepak Kumar In this process if we exploit the contents and the display of the signboard at the entrances in such fashion that it would add to the experience of the visitors. The idea of providing a 3D model (scale 1:500) of IITG campus would be an effective way of representation for briefing the visitors and the enlisting of all the services at the entrances. The people visit the campus through the public or private vehicles and through the IITG bus service. So if the map of the campus can be installed in the buses of IITG, it would also be quite helpful for the visitors to refer to the map and get down at their destinations within the campus. The bus stops in the campus are not numbered and it would be quite interesting if they would be given an identity so that reference The 1st image shows the illustration of the maps and the bus stops in the campus points can be derived from the stops for the different destinations. & it also indicates the proximity of the buildings from a particular stop for the The bus stops are one of the most prominent features used in the easiness of the visitors. streetscape so if the layout of the campus is installed there it would The 2nd illustration shows the visual serve the purpose effectively. language and how people generate mental model about the campus by seeing the 3D The concept of thinking small is actually inspired from our day scaled model of the campus at the gate. to day life where we learn to solve the problems which we face. The 3rd image is the bus stop where each stop has been given a specific/unique Generally the solutions to these problems are not very big but they nomenclature and within the stops the maps are effective and give satisfaction. are also provided for the visitors. Figure 9.12.6 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 152
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.12.4 CONCEPT 4 : based on Human BEHAVIOURDeepak Kumar We as human have a tendency for the shortcuts. We also movement admire different things which we see in our day to day life, and most importantly we tend to focus ourselves towards the object which outstands itself. The main problem with the signboards is push that they are static & people generally tend to avoid the indications provided. For this purpose there is need to add some newness in water game toy turning plates to change colour on board for languages the product (the newness can be in any form, be it the colour, material, form, sound, actions, technology, movement, lighting or in experience). The newness in the design can also be explored by exploiting the technologies. Therefore it is clear that the goal is to create something which has a point of interest. There are lots of examples to quote for the products based on the application of the point of interest. We can also use the principles Gestalts law for element of surprise also creates point of interest this concept. the energy will be translated into appropriate movement / A case can be taken where we would approach in a sustainable action and will be visible to impact the visitors when they appr- manner, using the principle of energy and would change one form oach the sign board into other. It can be better explained in the case of water game which all of us have played during our childhood. Based on this idea a system is proposed where the vehicles impact on the bump approx dist 25m would be used to generate the mechanism which would lead into sectional view the movement of perpetual motion. The diagram shown here is an push the energy can either be transferred illustration of this example. mechanism mechanically or electrically or as required Figure 9.12.7 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 153
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.12.5 CONCEPT 5 : FINALDeepak Kumar In design we have got freedom to explore things and it’s not necessary to follow any law or principle. In class we were taught to evaluate our concepts on the basis of different parameters, but what I feel is that it is one way of finalising and not necessarily be implemented in all the solutions. I think that if we look or analyse different concepts and extract the better attributes and features from them then the resultant concept would obviously better than all the proposed solutions. I am following this approach because according to me good ideas must not be overlooked due to some calculations based upon different parameters rather it must be made sure to implement those ideas for a better product to evolve. So, the final proposed solution will be discussed in the next part of the chapter. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 154
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.1 FINAL ConceptDeepak Kumar The proposal for the signage system of IIT Guwahati The final concept is an amalgamation of all the previously created concepts. Following are the details of the final concept. Directional sign board The main purpose of the signage system is to guide the visitors of the campus to their intended destinations, whatever may be the Map of the Campus motive of their visit. This include both type of people being intimated officially by You are Here maps institute through letter (eg. interview, admission, examination) or those coming to the campus without any official visit. If the person Signboard for building identificaton is invited to campus through the letter the back of the letter head can be used for providing the small map of the campus and Information desk important locations marked on it, to a new visitor before actually visiting the campus. Layout of the Letter pad At the very entrance of the campus there would be a large map that displays all the buildings clearly along with the landmarks. Installation of the maps in the buses and the bus stops In addition to this there would be a scaled (1:500) 3D model to give a better understanding of terrain and location of various 3d scaled model of the campus establishments. If a person needs to have specific information about any location / person / event he can take the help that shows him the precise route to reach its destination. These help desks would be located at all the four entrances of IIT to assist the visitors for their specific queries. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 155
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.1 FINAL ConceptDeepak Kumar The person moves along the road either on foot or vehicle. There would be sufficient number of signboards at proper intervals to ensure that one does not lose his way. In addition to this all the bus stops would be numbered to make them unique entities and all the bus stops would have a YOU are HERE maps and also the list of important points which are near to that bus stop. Other than this there would be information desks at all the important building entrance. In this concept the operation of the signage system comprises of three main components: signboards, maps and information desks. The other smaller components of the system are the bus stops and the ideas based on the concept of think local. The concept of human behaviour is not much emphasised due to the fact of not creating greater point of interest, as it would lead to more time of interaction with the form of the signboards reducing the efficiency of the signage system. Finally conceived form is simple in nature thereby allowing the users ample interaction with directions instead of investing time in admiring the form of the sign board. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 156
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.2 SignboardsDeepak Kumar Academic Complex Exit Administration Lathibagicha Gate (Bank/ATM) Auditorium Hospital Guest House Kendriya Vidyalaya Hostels Post Office Sports Complex Reservation Counter Residences Exit (Faculty Gate) Hospital Technology Complex Academic Complex Market Complex Workshop Community Hall Workshop Kendriya Vidyalaya Post Office Reservation Counter Front Elevation Side Elevation Back Elevation Figure 9.13.1 all dimensions are in mm Signage System for IIT Guwahati 157
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.2 SignboardsDeepak Kumar Figure 9.13.2 Illustration of signboard at the junctions in the campus Signage System for IIT Guwahati 158
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.2 Signboard (at the entrances)Deepak Kumar Isometric view of the signboard Institutional Area Bank / ATM / Post Office located at all the entrances of the Hostels campus. It comprises of the Sports Complex directional sign, map of the Community Hall(Student) campus and interactive screen KV IITG Reservation Counter  Residences Guest House i Hospital Community Hall (Staff) Directional signs Market Complex  Residences D 103 -132 E 25 - 60 Interactive screen     space for map       Front Elevation Side Elevation Figure 9.13.3 all dimensions are in mm Signage System for IIT Guwahati 159
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.2 Signboard (at the entrances)Deepak Kumar Figure 9.13.4 Illustration of signboard at the entrances in the campus, comprises of the directional sign, map of the campus and interactive screen Signage System for IIT Guwahati 160
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.2 SignboardsDeepak Kumar These displays are placed at the opposite of the lake to indicate the a building from a group of buildings, the water body acts as 60 an appreciating ground for those buildings located across and this display would facilitate the users showing the building from Side Elevation Front Elevation quite a distance. At places where we require to get a brief idea about the smaller area within the campus, for example the area of A & B type residences. To get the precise information of the building and the contents within that building. these would consist of the maps of Figure 9.13.3 all dimensions are in mm the local area and its legend. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 161
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.2 SignboardsDeepak Kumar Figure 9.13.6 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 162
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.2 Building IdentificationDeepak Kumar Signboard for the purpose of identifying the building. 1450 350 690 Side Elevation Top View Figure 9.13.7 all dimensions are in mm Signage System for IIT Guwahati 163
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.2 Information DeskDeepak Kumar      i      Side Elevation Front Elevation If a person needs to have specific information about any The interaction part of the information desk works on the micro location / person / event he can take the help that shows him controller based system, similar to an ATM machine. The screen the precise route to reach its destination. These help desks of this help desk is a touch screen. The prototype of the working would be located at all the four entrances of IIT to assist the for the interaction of the screen with the users was made in visitors for their specific queries. Adobe Flash CS3. The purpose was to test the interaction with the users. Figure 9.13.9 all dimensions are in mm Signage System for IIT Guwahati 164
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.2 Information DeskDeepak Kumar Figure 9.13.10 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 165
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.2 You are Here MapsDeepak Kumar ADMINISTRATION BLOCK IIT Guwahati Map LEGEND - 31 >>   INSTITUTIONAL  Academic Complex Towards NH  River Ghoramara  Administration Building   Auditorium  Lecture Hall   Library/ Computer Centre  Workshop D50-102   HOSTELS   Barak  i G2(ASEB)  Dihing  D1-49   Kameng G1  i (Main Gate)    Kapili i     Manas E1-24 i    Married Scholar Hostel      Siang  Subhansiri E 25-60      Umiam  D103-132 SERVICES i     ATM / Canteen i i  SAC  Akshara Kids School Riv   Community Hall (STAFF) er G horamara   Community Hall (STUDENTS)    GuestHouse  Cricket  Hospital Ground 1st Floor 2nd Floor  i i   Kendriya Vidyalaya Academic Affairs Research & Development    Post office JEE/ GATE Office Students Affair   RAILWAY(Reservation Counter) YOU ARE HERE i     Transit Complex    Shopping Complex    Sports Complex  Director Office Deputy Director    Swimming Pool  i   Registrar Office Finance HOUSING   Board Room Accounts   A  D 103-132 i  B   E 001-024 Internal Audit i i  G4(Faculty Gate)    C D 001-102    E 025-060 F Ground Floor  Bus stops S1- S12 Public Relations Stores & Purchase  s Entrance Toward >> at 2.5 km Ferry Gh i Information Engineering Cell Establishment Rive  i  i  Parking r Gh Training & Placement Security Head  You Are Here ora    (Lathia Bagicha Gate) G3 ma ra  Despatch & Reception << Towards Amingaon River Bramhputra Figure 9.13.11 Generally people look at the map to get the location but cannot get any clue about the directions, because they donot know where they are? For this reason the You are Here maps are installed at the entrances to give the users a complete idea of the campus and redirect them with the help of the orientations. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 166
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.2 You are Here MapsDeepak Kumar Orientation of the maps: The maps are the most important factor of the wayfinding Type A Quarters system and people generally lead themselves through this tool. As they build the mental model of the campus, by looking the map for Type B Quarters the first time many things come into play: Community - whether the direction specified is directly oriented to the Hall (Staff)  geographical North. Children Park - whether the map is according to the layout of the campus or i Serpentine Lake totally independent from the directions. - people look for the landmarks and the paths and try to establish a relation between the map and actual conditions In the proposed solution for the maps, the layout has been done in such a manner that a user can locate them in the map Area map for Type A & B Quarters A similar model for the campus through YAH symbol in the map. Whenever a person looks the map they try to put the mental picture of the map in such a way that it aligns to the actual topography of the campus, for example they tend to align the directions of the map with the geographical directions. To make wayfinding more comfortable a 3D model is also proposed for the campus at the entrance roundel where people coulld view it and some proposals for area map have also been made which has been discussed earlier in this chapter. Figure 9.13.12 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 167
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.2 Exploiting Present SystemsDeepak Kumar The people visit the campus through the public or private vehicles and through the IITG bus service. So if the map of the campus can be installed in the buses of IITG, it would also be quite helpful for the visitors to refer to the map and get down at their destinations within the campus. The information provided at the back of the seat would be delivered by stating the proximity of the buildings near to the stops. The bus stops in the campus are not numbered and it would be quite interesting if they would be given an identity so that reference points can be derived from the stops for the different destinations. The bus stops are one of the most prominent features used in the streetscape so if the layout of the campus is installed there it would serve the purpose effectively. This would also help the visitors to find their location with the vicinity of the numbered bus stops. The bus stops are also provide with the detailed map of the campus to facilitate the users. The numbers given to the bus stops are to place in such a strategic location that people could easily see the numbers from the bus itself. Illustration of the maps and the bus stops in the campus & it also indicates the proximity of the buildings from a particular stop for the easiness of the visitors. Bus stop where each stop has been given a specific / unique nomenclature and within the stops the maps are also provided. Figure 9.13.13 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 168
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.2 Exploiting Present SystemsDeepak Kumar P Pe People coming in the IITG campus comes here for a purpose a d and that purpose ranges from personal visit to official visit. They c m com come here with some reference and those can be visiting card or a m adm admission letters or just an invitation or a casual visit. The official v t visit can be further broken down in different categories like A m Adm Admission, Interview, Conferences, Counseling, Paper p s pres presentation etc. S in this case we can actually exploit the References given to So th he the people in the form of invitation letter, visiting cards, admission le e ette letters, Internship letters, and other form of the references. The b s bas basic idea is to give the clue or message about the campus in the le lette ette letter itself to help the visitors in every possible way. The layout of Front page and back page illustration of the admission form th s these official letters can be altered or reformatted in order to hes e p exp exploit this idea. Thus the idea being very small but quite e c efec efective would help the visitors to develop their idea of the campus a d and its services.       - Towards NH  Figure 9.13.14 illustration of the admission letter sent to an applicant with the map of IITG campus and relevant notes. ith th f d l t t Signage System for IIT Guwahati 169
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.3 MaterialsDeepak Kumar BASE INDICATIVE The material used for the construction of the signboards and CATEGORY NAME OF MATERIALS UNIT IS CODE MATERIAL COST/UNIT other installations must possess some of the following LOW HIGH characteristics to satisfy the signage design, • No marks or construction details should be prominently Civil Materials Cement Cement 43 Grade Bag of 50Kg 150 8112:1989 visible from the outside. All details should be worked out from Civil Materials Cement Portland Pozzolana 1489:1991 Cement Flyash Based Bag of 50Kg 148 the inside. Civil Materials Concrete Ready Mix Cement 456:2000 • The finish of the surface should be free from all kind of marks Concrete M7.5 - M60 (6CUMT. = 1 Truck) CUMT 2200 2600 and must be uniform throughout, but the surface must not be Civil Materials MS 2062:1999, reflective as it will create problem in visibility. 2385:1977, • Using sustainable materials for the installations so that it M.S sheets KG 42 45 412:1975 Civil Materials MS 432:1982, could resist rusting, discolouration and deformation. Weather Tor Steel Re-bar 8mm M.T. 31500 2062:1999 proof and good UV resistance is also to be considered. Civil Materials Bitumen 15462:2004 Rubber Modified Bitumen There are many materials available in the market but the (Bulk) CR-50 M.T. 17601 best available material perfect for the condition in the campus Civil Materials Sand 1542:1992, of IITG is Aluminium Composite Material Sheets (ACP) and Sand BRASS 1900 2100 2116:1980 Civil Materials Brick 1077:1992 Polycarbonate sheets (UV stabilised). Both these materials are Bricks Ist Class 9x6x4 1000 NOS. 3400 quite suitable for this project as they have all the qualities for Civil Materials Fly-ash Fly-ash Bricks 13757:1993, 220X105X80mm NOS 3.75 3812:1981 the signboards. The polycarbonate sheets are available in Paving, Fly-ash 3812:1981, translucent which can be used in the boards for the purpose of Flooring, Tiles and Similar Fly-ash Interlocking Paving Blocks(50-60mm) 10360:1982 backlighting. finishes M20 grade SQFT 25 Properties of ACP are Lightweight and high strength and density, Weatherproof and good UV resistance, Excellent flatness and good anti-scratching surface, Resistance to water, acid and alkali, Easy maintenance, Environment friendly. It is eco-friendly as it is recyclable and reusable, leaving no harmful Figure 9.13.15 Cost list of the Materials effects on the environment. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 170
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.3 MaterialsDeepak Kumar The construction of the components are based on the concept same to as of the buildings. First the frames are prepared and then the frames would be covered with the panels giving a proper finish. The frames for the sign boards can be derived from the previous signage installations which can be reused in this project. The MS frames would then be clamped & covered by the ACP. The MS frames would actually be installed into ground with the concrete foundation. The UV stabilised Plate design : an illustration of the fixing of the ACP with frame translucent polycarbonate sheets (5mm thickness) are used as the side covering of the panel and for the top inside lighting of the red coloured component for the purpose to create UV stabilised translucent (red) polycarbonate sheet 3mm interest. UV stabilised translucent (yellow) polycarbonate sheet 3mm Self adhesive vinyls ACP PCC over the concrete foundation Figure 9.13.16 Signage System for IIT Guwahati 171
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.4 Critical AppraisalDeepak Kumar The proposed signage system is significantly different from the present one, as it utilises different available technologies to cater the various requirements of the visitors in the campus, for e.g. externally illuminated signage system, wayfinding help desk (touch screen), etc. It not only provides help to the visitors but also reflects the identity of IIT Guwahati. But before considering the new signage system there are several pertaining issues which are required to be looked into. They are as following: - The huge cost of installation. - Regular maintenance of the system i.e. detection of errors and rectification - Cost of replacements. - Issues related to acceptance of new system. But despite the issues involved, there are many advantages that favour the introduction of the proposed signage system which are as follows: - Though the cost of installation is initially high the running cost is significantly low as the materials used are durable and more appealing. - Though the replacement cost is high, most of the components are durable and hence there are negligible replacements even for the electrical components. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 172
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati MY Interpretation & Exploration 9.13.4 Critical AppraisalDeepak Kumar - Pertaining to the use of new system, any visitor who has used ATM, mobile phone or computer can easily operate the interface to find their way. - The only issue that remains is the use of resources required for detecting, rectifying and maintaining the system. But if we actually consider the multipurpose use of the proposed system and the identity it adds to the present signage system, the implementation of the proposed signage system is justified in spite of cost and resource utilisation factor. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 173
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 10 CONCLUSIONDeepak Kumar The thesis started with the aim of integrating the signage system with the management and security system. Later it was discovered that signage system actually deals with the problem of navigation and wayfinding in a particular space. Signage system is just not putting arrows on the boards but a lot more than that, here we need to enter into the psychology of the people and assist them with right information at right place and time. In the study phase a lot of details of the signage system have been perceived and other things were also explored about the human behaviour, brand, forms, colours, distance, location, placement, user perception, sustainability and identity. In this project an approach of standardisation and modularisation has also explored. It was quite interesting to learn different elements in the signage system and more interesting was the way it has been perceived and interpreted. Different explorations have also been tried and while exploring these, constraints were also clarified. The basic approach was to discuss every aspect of the signage system and then apply it to the current situation. In this process, signage at IITG has also been audited and different options were also proposed. In the start of the project it was thought that the form of the product is the main concept but later it was rectified and then different ways of solving the problem was explored. Different concepts were derived, some feasible and some very childish. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 174
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 10 CONCLUSIONDeepak Kumar Later these concepts were discussed but there was a certain change in the selection of the concepts. Generally a comparison chart is prepared to evaluate the concepts but in this case no such chart was prepared, instead better ideas were given importance and a new concept was made by adding the points. In this project system approach was also followed to make an interface for the visitor and there was great learning involved during this phase. There was a continuous process of analysis and synthesis which actually helped a lot in making the system more efficient. The only thing which still is not clear is the form but different options were tried. The work carried out for this project was not a synchronised one; rather it would be better to say that as problems were faced solutions were also tried out. The proposed solution is actually far better than the existing one. It satisfies different problem areas which were conceived, but due to the current system a better system has been found, after all design is a never ending process. So it is clear that the proposed solution is not the final solution and much can be done in the future. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 175
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 11 FUTURE WORKDeepak Kumar The scope of this project is limited to some extent up to the wayfinding and guiding the visitors to their destination and this is done through different components like Maps, Information desk, Signboards along the path. The signboard component could further be looked upon and extended to guide the visitors inside the building to individual rooms and cabins. The other prospects of the signage system can be utilizing it in commercial and social communication; exploiting it for maximum utilization for the resident of the campus also. The system could further be digitised so as to display dynamic updated information. In future this can also lead to a strategically controlled system managing the campus. Signage System for IIT Guwahati 176
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 12 REFERENCESDeepak Kumar [1] Society for Environmental Graphic Design http://www.segd.info/resources/publications.html [2] Chris Calori , “Signage and Wayfinding Design: A Complete Guide to Create Environmental Graphic Design Systems” [3] Craig M. Berger , “Wayfinding: Designing and Implementing Graphic Navigational Systems” [4] Andreas Ubele, “Signage Systems & Information Graphics- A Professional Sourcebook” Thames & Hudson [5] Arthur, Paul and Romedi Passini, 1992, Wayfinding: People, Signs, and Architecture, Ontario: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 2002 Focus Strategic Communications, Inc. [6] Downs, Roger and David Stea, eds., 1977, Maps in Minds, New York: Harper and Row. [7] Evans, G. and M. McCoy, 1998, “When Buildings Don’t Work: The Role of Architecture in Human Health,” Journal of Environmental Psychology, v. 18: 85-94. [8] Golledge, R.G., ed., 1999, Wayfinding Behavior: Cognitive Mapping and Other Spatial Processes, Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins Univerity Press. [9] Hillier, B. and J. Hanson, 1988, The Social Logic of Space, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [10] Lynch, Kevin, 1960, The Image of the City, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. [11] Peponis, J., and J. Wineman, 2002, “Spatial Structure of Environment and Behavior,” pp. 271-291 [12] Bechtel, R. and A. Churchman, eds., 2002, Handbook of Environmental Psychology, New York: John Wiley & Sons. [13] Weisman, J., 1981, “Evaluating Architectural Legibility: Way-finding and the Built Environment,” Environment and Behavior, v. 13(2): 189-204 [14] Colette Miller and David Lewis, 1999 “Wayfinding” http://www.informationdesign.org/bookwatch/miller_01.html [15] Dumas & Redish 1999“A Practical Guide to Usability Testing” Published by Intellect Books [16] Signage: System overview and implementation FIP Manual, December 1992 [17] NHS Estates2005 “Wayfinding: Effective Wayfinding and Signing Systems; Guidance for Healthcare Facilities” The Stationery Office, [18] Roger Fawcett-Tang .”Mapping Graphic Navigational Systems”, Published by Rotovision [19] Rayan Abdullah, Roger Hübner, “ Pictograms, icons & signs: a guide to Information graphics ” [20] http://www.asktog.com/basics/firstPrinciples.html Signage System for IIT Guwahati 177
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati 12 Table of FIGURESDeepak Kumar Figure No. Page No. Source Figure 5.3.1 19 Andreas Ubele, “Signage Systems & Information Graphics- A Professional Sourcebook” Thames & Hudson. David Gibson, “The Wayfinding HandbookInformation Design for Public Spaces. Figure 5.3.2 20 Andreas Ubele, “Signage Systems & Information Graphics- A Professional Sourcebook” Figure 5.4.1 21 Minnaert building, Utrecht University, The Netherlands; Bauhaus, Dessau Figure 5.4.3 23 John Lewis, “Typography: Design and Practice” Figure 5.5.1 24 Andreas Ubele, “Signage Systems & Information Graphics- Figure 5.5.2 24 A Professional Sourcebook” Thames & Hudson. Figure 5.5.2 25 http://www.freevectors.net/details/56+Professional+Vector+Arrows http://www.identifont.com/show?87O Figure 5.6.1 26 http://www.designworkplan.com/design/signage-and-color-contrast.htm Figure 5.6.2 27 http://www.waytorussia.net/Moscow/images/metro.gif Figure 5.7.2 29 Rayan Abdullah, Roger Hübner, “ Pictograms, icons & signs: a guide to information graphics ” Figure 5.8.1 30 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Livingston-Greenwich-map.jpg Figure 5.8.2 31 http://campusapps.fullerton.edu/cisl/Shine/Images/world%20map.jpg Figure 7.0.1 40 http://news.softpedia.com/images/extra/NEWS/large/LGFM33.jpg Figure 9.0.1 52 http://campusapps.fullerton.edu/cisl/Shine/Images/world%20map.jpg Figure 9.11.13 137 http://www.addictlab.com/labfiles/creatives/sustainable%20energy%20icons%20.jpg Signage System for IIT Guwahati 178
    • M.Des’09Department of DESIGN, IITGuwahati Hi..! about meDeepak Kumar Thank you for reading my report. I hope that it was of some use to you. For any suggestions you can write me to the following address. email: archideepak@gmail.com deepak.k@iitg.ernet.in Address: c/o Mr. S.N. Singh N-28/4, Telco Colony, Jamshedpur - 831004 Jharkhand M . D e s ’ 0 7 - ’ 0 9 , Department of D E S I G N , I I T G 179