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Multicasting routing protocol_for_wsn Multicasting routing protocol_for_wsn Document Transcript

  • National Conference on Current Trends in Computer Science and Engineering - CSECONF2012 Multicast Routing Protocol For WSN Mahesh M [1]. Manasa V B [2]. Manjunath C R [3].Dr Nagaraj G S [4]. 1, 2- M.Tech (CSE) 4th sem, 3- asst professor ,Dept. of Computer science & Engineering. S.B.M.J.C.E Bangalore (Rural). 4-professor R.V.C.E Bangalore [1] maheshmsh88@gmail.com, [2] vb.manasa@gmail.com, [3] manjucr123@gmail.comAbstract: -A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of spatiallydistributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively monitor physical orenvironmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion orpollutants, at different locations. This letter proposes a Sink-initiated Geographic Multicast(SIGM) protocol for mobile sinks in wireless sensor networks. To reduce location updatesfrom sinks to a source and to achieve fast multicast tree construction and data delivery, SIGMallows sinks to construct their own data delivery paths from a source to them and a geographicmulticast tree to beautomatically constructed by merging the data delivery paths. Then, thesource forwards data to the sinks down the multicast tree. This paper also proposes a roundbased virtual infrastructure with a radial shape for growing the merging probability of datadelivery paths and reducing the reconstruction frequency of the multicast tree due to mobilityof sinks.Keywords:Data delivery paths, merging, sink-initiated geographic multicast, wireless sensornetworks, sink mobility.1. INTRODUCTIONA single network may consist of several healthcare applications, home automation, andinterconnected subnets of different topologies. traffic control.Networks are further classified as Local AreaNetworks (LAN), e.g. inside one building, orWide Area Networks (WAN), e.g. betweenbuildings.A wireless sensor network (WSN)is a wireless network consisting of spatiallydistributed autonomous devices using sensorstocooperatively monitor physical orenvironmental conditions, such as temperature,sound, vibration, pressure, motion orpollutants, at different locations.Thedevelopment of wireless sensor networks wasoriginally motivated by military applicationssuch as battlefield surveillance. However,wireless sensor networks are now used inmany civilian application areas, includingenvironment and habitat monitoring, Fig 1. Wireless Sensor Network. 37
  • National Conference on Current Trends in Computer Science and Engineering - CSECONF20122.MAJOR ISSUES OF WSN Smart Dust. A Sensor Node forms a basic unit of the sensor network.The various areas where major researchactivities going on in the field of WSN aredeployment, localization, synchronization,data aggregation, dissemination, databasequerying, architecture, middleware, security,designing less power consuming devices,abstractions and higher level algorithms forsensor specific issues.The major issues that affect the design andperformance of a wireless sensor network are Fig 2. Structure of Sensor Nodeas follows: The nodes used in sensor networks are small1) Hardware and Operating System for WSN and have significant energy constraints. The2) Medium Access Schemes hardware design issues ofsensor nodes are3) Deployment quite different from other applications and4) Localization they are5) Synchronization 1) Radio Range of nodes should be high (1-56) Calibration kilometers).Radio range is critical for ensuring7) Network Layer network connectivity and data collection in a8) Transport Layer network as the environment being monitored9) Data Aggregation and Data Dissemination may not have an installed infrastructure for10) Database Centric and Querying communication. In many networks the nodes11) Architecture may not establishconnection for many days or12) Middleware may go out of range after establishing13) Quality of Service connection.14) Security 2) Use of Memory Chips like flash memory isWireless sensor networks are composed of recommended for sensor networks as they arehundreds of thousands of tiny devices called non-volatile, inexpensive and volatile.nodes. A sensor node is often abbreviated as a 3) Energy/Power Consumption of the sensingnode. What is a Sensor Node? A Sensor is a device should be minimized and sensor nodesdevice which senses the information and should be energy efficient since their limitedpasses the same on to a mote. Sensors are used energy resource determines their lifetime. Toto measure the changes to physical conserve power the node should shut off theenvironment like pressure, humidity, sound, radio power supply when not in use. Batteryvibration and changes to the health of person type is important since it can affect the designlike blood pressure, stress and heartbeat. A of sensor nodes. Battery Protection Circuit toMote consists of processor, memory, battery, avoid overcharge or discharge problem can beA/D converter for connecting to a sensor and a added to the sensor nodes.radio transmitter for forming an ad hoc 4) Sensor Networks consists of hundreds ofnetwork. A Mote and Sensor together form a thousands of nodes. It is preferred only if theSensor Node.The structure of the sensor node node is cheap.is as shown in fig. There can be different To solve the above problems, we propose aSensors for different purposes mounted on a Sink-initiated Geographic Multicast protocolMote. Motes are also sometimes referred to as (SIGM) whichcan achieve fast multicast tree 38
  • National Conference on Current Trends in Computer Science and Engineering - CSECONF2012construction and data delivery and reduce Fig 3.The path construction between the destinationlocation updates to a source. nodes and the boundarynodes in the proposed protocol.3. RELATED WORK In addition, since the many position update messages are forwarded toward the sourceRecently, there have been proposed protocols node, sensor nodes near it consume quicklyfor supporting efficiently multicasting through their energy. Also, because the source node inonly position information without the topology the SGM approach constructs a multicast treeinformation of the whole sensor field in after obtaining the position information of allwireless ad hoc sensor networks. Such destinations and then forwards its data to themmulticasting protocols exploit a Source through the multicast tree, the SGM approachinitiated Geographic Multicasting (SGM) has the problem of data delivery latency.approach which consists of three phases. The Moreover, if the destinations have mobility,first one is that a source node collects position they sendfrequently position updatemessagesinformation of all destinations in a multicast for updating their new position. Also, sincesession. The second one is that the source node their new position information makes theconstructs a multicast tree spanning from it to source node reconfigure wholly the multicastall destinations through the position tree, the energy consumption of sensor nodesinformation by using the algorithm proposed grows and the data delivery latency rises.in each protocol. The third one is that the Also, when each destination updatessource node forwards its data to all asynchronously its new position, the sourcedestinations through the multicast tree. node in the SGM approach is difficult to findNamely, the SGM approach makes the source an opportune time for reconfiguring thenode lead all three phases of multicasting. multicast tree.However, as shown in Fig, when the number 4. PROPOSED WORKof destinations is high, the SGM approachincreases the energy consumption of sensor We propose a Sink-initiated Geographicnetworks due to the delivery of many position Multicast protocol (SIGM) whichcan achieveupdate messages. fast multicast tree construction and data delivery and reduce location updates to a source. SIGM allows mobile sinks to construct their own data delivery paths from a source to them and then a sink-initiated multicast tree to be simultaneously constructed by merging of the paths. The source immediately forwards data to sinks through the multicast tree. For enhancing scalability and mobility of SIGM, we exploit a Round-based Virtual Infrastructure with a Radial Shape (RVI-RS) via which the data delivery paths from the source to the sinks are constructed. By the RVI-RS, SIGM can achieve more energy saving by raising the merge probability of data delivery paths and reducing the reconstruction frequency of the multicast tree due to mobility of sinks. Simulation results show that SIGM is 39
  • National Conference on Current Trends in Computer Science and Engineering - CSECONF2012superior to other protocols of SOGM approach wheredis(s, s1) is the distance from the sourcesin terms of energy consumption and data s to the sink s1. Secondly, for finding an areadelivery delay. number ns1 for the circle level ns1, we use the included angle 0s1 between the line connecting the source and the sink and the Base Line from the source. The included angle 0s1 can be calculated as followed: (2) To make all sector areas have an equal size, the number of virtual lines that separate the sector areas in the circle level ls1 could be 4 ⋅(2 ⋅ls1 +1). Thus, the area number ns1 is defined as follows: Fig 4. Multicast tree construction by merging delivery (3)paths of sink registration messages from mobile sinks to a source via a RVI-RS in SIGM. B. Construction of Multicast Data Delivery Paths4.1 SINK-INITIATED GEOGRAPHICMULTICAST (SIGM) 1) Data Delivery Path Construction from Sink to Proxy Boundary Node: As shown in Fig. 1,A. Sector Area Calculation of Sink if a mobile sink s1 wants to receive multicast data from a source, it sends a Sink RegistrationWe exploit a RVI-RS in SIGM. Figure 1 Message (SRM) including its locationshows sector areas (l, n) in the RVI-RS, which information and circle level factor alpha to ahave a circle level l and an area number n. To next sensor node n toward the source byconstruct a data delivery path from a source, geographic routing. The next node checksSIGM requests each mobile sink to know its whether it becomes a Boundary Node (BN) onsector area in which it locates. A sector area the RVI-RS or not. By the method presented in(ls1, ns1) of a sink s1 is simply calculated with the section II.A, it calculates the sink’s sectorits location (xs1, ys1), source’s location area information (ls1 ,ns1 ) through the sink’s(xs,ys), and circle level factor alpha. Basically, location information and the circle level factorwe assume that every node can know its alpha in the SRM, and its sector area (ln,Nn)location by GPS or localization schemes and with its location information and the circlesinks can know source’s location by location level factor. Then, it compares its sector areaservice schemes. The circle level factor alpha with the sink’s sector area. If the two sectoris a distancebetween any two neighbor circle areasare the same, i.e. ls1 =!ln and ns1 =!Nn, itlines, which is decided bynetwork operator, only relays the SRM to a next sensor nodeand decides the size of a sector area. Firstly, toward the source by geographic routing. Ifthe circle level ls1 of the sink s1 is defined asfollows: not, i.e., it recognizes itself as a BN and saves the SRM into its (1) memory. We call the BN b1, which firstly 40
  • National Conference on Current Trends in Computer Science and Engineering - CSECONF2012receives the SRM, a Proxy Boundary Node the circle level i and is closest to the (Qb3 +1)-(PBN) of the sink s1. The PBN sends a reply th line path, by the right-hand rule in GPSR.message with its location information to the This process also continues until a BN (whosesink by geographic routing. area number is one less than that of the PBN) on the (Qb3+1)-th line path receives the SRM.2) Data Delivery Path Construction fromProxy Boundary Node to Source: A PBN If a PBN such as b2 locates on a line path in awhich receives a SRM sends it to the source circle level i, it sends the SRM to a sensorby using routing with the RVI-RS. The PBN node which is on the line path and is closet tolocates on either a circle path or a line path one the source. The sensor node checks whetherRVI-RS according to its location. If a PBN, the circle level of its sector area is one lesssuch as b3 in Fig. 1, locates on a circle path of than that of the PBN’s sector area. If not, thelevel i, it sends the SRM to the closest line sensor node becomes a BN and also sends thepath in the circle level i. To calculate the SRM to a sensor node which is on the line pathclosest line path, it first calculates the included and is close to the source. This processangle 0b3 between the line connecting from continues until a BN onacirclepathof (i − 1)itself to the source and the Base Line by using level receives the SRM.the equation (2). Next, it calculates theincluded angle 0i between two neighbor line As shown in Fig. , if a BN m on the RVI-RSpaths of circle level i as follows: receives multiple SRMs from different BNs p1 and p2,itforwards further only one of them to a BN toward the source. We call the BN m as a (4) Merging Boundary Node (MBN). Therefore,Where 4(2 ⋅i+1) is the number of line paths of these two rules, the line path rule and the circlecircle level i. When 0b3 is divided by 0i, let path one, repeat until SRMs are finallythe quotient and the remainder be Qb3 and received by the source or MBNs.Rb3, respectively. If 0 ≤ Rb3 <0i/2, the C. Multicast Data Delivery from Source toclosestline path is the Qb3-th line in level i. Mobile SinksThe area number of the Qb3-th line is onemore than the area number of b3. Then,the In SIGM, a geographic multicast tree isPBN sends the SRM with its sector area constructed by merging data delivery pathsinformation to asensor node, which is on the from sinks to a source. Hence, when the sourcecircle level and is closest tothe Qb3-th line wants to send multicast data to the sinks, it justpath, by the left-hand rule in GPSR. Thesensor forwards the multicast data through thenode checks whether its area number is one geographic multicast tree which consists ofmore thanthe area number of the PBN. If not, BNs. A BN (or a MBN) on the multicast treethe sensor node becomesa BN and also sends sends the multicast data to a next BN (or BSs)the SRM to a sensor node closest to the Qb3-th down the multicast tree. For example in Fig. 1,line path by the left-hand rule. This process a MBN m sends the multicast data to both nextcontinues until a BN (whose area number is BNs p1 and p2. This process continues untilone more than that of the PBN) on the Qb3-th the multicast data is received by all PBNs. Theline path receives the SRM. If 0i /2 ≤Rb3 <0i, PBNs send the multicast data to sinks bythe closest line path is the (Qb3 +1)-th line in geographic routing. However, since mobilethe circle level i. The area number of the (Qb3 sinks can freely move in sensorfield, SIGM+1)-th line is one less than the area number of should support data delivery to the mobileb3. The PBN sends the SRM with its sector sinks. In SIGM, a sink has two types ofarea information to a sensor node, which is on mobility: intra-sector area mobility and inter 41
  • National Conference on Current Trends in Computer Science and Engineering - CSECONF2012sector area mobility. Thus, SIGM supports the Fig 7. Energy consumption for sink speed.two mobility types. For the intra-sector areamobility, a sink sends its new location to itsPBN whenever it moves farther than a specificthreshold distance within a sector area. Thus,the intra-sector area mobility does not requestany reconstructions of the multicast treeconsisting of BNs. For the inter-sector areamobility, a sink selects a new PBN throughgeographic routing toward the sourcewhenever it moves into a new sector area.However, the inter-sector area mobility of a Fig 8.Data delivery delay for sink speed.sink does not bring about any change in paths We compare the performance of SIGM withof the othersinks on multicast tree because that of GMR(without sink mobility support)SIGM requests only the sinkto reconstruct its and SEAD (with sinkmobility support) in themulticast path to the source or a MBN. SOGM approach. We implementedthem in5. RESULTS Network Simulator Qualnet 4.0. Sensor nodes follow the specification of MICA2 and their transmission range is 25m. The size of the sensor network is set to 1000m*1000m where 2000 nodes are randomly distributed. The circle level factor alpha is 100m. Sinks know a source’s location and send their SRMs to it by geographic routing, and follow the random way mobility as the mobility pattern. The source sends multicast data to sinks every 5 Fig 5. Energy consumption for the number of sinks. seconds. We use two metrics for performance evaluation. The Energy Consumption is defined as the total communication energy the sensor nodes consume. The Data Delivery Delay is defined as the elapsed time that a sink requests multicast data to a source and the sink receives the multicast data from the source.Figure 5 shows energy consumption for the number of sinks. When the number of sinks is few, SIGM consumes more energy Fig 6. Data delivery delay for the number of sinks than GMR and SEAD due to low merging probability of SRMs. However, although the number of sinks increases, the energy consumption of SIGM does not rapidly increase because it can reduce the delivery frequency of SRMs to the source due to their high merging probability. However, GMR and SEAD consume energy in proportion to the number of sinks because all sinks must send their SRMs to the source. Figure 6 shows data 42
  • National Conference on Current Trends in Computer Science and Engineering - CSECONF2012delivery delay for the number of sinks. SEAD wireless sensor networks. For achieving fasthas high delay because the source constructs a multicast tree construction and data delivery,multicast tree after receiving all SRMs and SIGM allows sinks to construct their own datathen sends data through the multicast tree. delivery paths to a source and a multicast treeHowever, GMR has the lowest delay because to be automatically constructed by merging theit selects next nodes to forward multicast data data delivery paths. The proposed protocolto sinks per hop after receiving all SRMs. If also exploits a round-based virtualthe number of sinks increases, the delay of infrastructure with a radial shape forGMR increases rapidly due to high increasing the merging probability of datacomputational complexity for selecting such delivery paths and reducing reconstructionnext nodes. However, SIGM has low delay frequency of the multicast tree due to mobility.because it constructs automatically a multicast Simulation results demonstrate that SIGM hastree by merging data delivery paths and then better performance than GMR and SEAD inforwards multicast data through the multicast SOGM approach.tree. Figure 7 shows energy consumption forthe speed of sinks. If the speed increases, the 7. REFERENCESenergy consumption of both GMR and SEAD [1]. Destination-initiated Geographic Multicastingincreases due to frequent location updates to a Protocol in Wireless Ad hoc Sensor Networkssource. Only, SEAD consumes less energy [2]. J. Sanchez, et al., “Bandwidth-efficientthan GMR because SEAD reconstructs a geographic multicast routing for wirelessmulticast tree locally instead of globally. sensor networks,” IEEE Sensors, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 627–636,May 2007.However, SIGM consumes less energy than [3]. GMP: Distributed Geographic Multicastboth GMR and SEAD because it reduces Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks.location updates to a source due to their [4]. GMR: Geographic Multicast Routing formerging for inter-sector area mobility and does Wireless Sensor Networksnotneed any location updates to a source for [5]. Hierarchical Geographic Multicast Routing for Wireless Sensor Networksintra-sector area mobility.Figure 8 shows data [6]. G. Zeng, et al., “Grid multicast: an energy-delivery delay for the speed of sinks. If the efficient multicast algorithm for wireless sensorspeed increases, the delay of all protocols networks,” in Proc. 2007 INSS.increases due to frequent reconstructions of the [7]. H.S.Kim, et al., “Minimum-energymulticast tree. However, GMR has high delay asynchronous dissemination to mobile sinks in wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. 2003 ACMbecause it forwards multicast data after global SenSys,pp. 193–204.reconstruction of the multicast tree for both [8]. J. Hill and D. Culler, “Mica: a wires platformglobal and local mobility of sinks. SEAD has for deeply embedded networks,” IEEE Micro,less delay than GMR because it carries out vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 12 24, Nov.-Dec. 2002only local reconstruction of the multicast tree [9]. J. Sanchez, P. Ruiz, J. Liu, and I. Stojmenovic, “Bandwidth-Efficient Geographic Multicastfor local mobility. On the other hand, SIGM Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEEhas less delay than both GMR and SEAD SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL.7, NO. 5, pp.because it requests a sink to update its location 627-636, May 2007.to its PBN for intra-sector area mobility and to [10]. Research on Multicast Routing Protocol inreconstruct locally the multicast tree to the Wireless Sensor Network.source or a MBN through its new PBN forintesector area mobility.6. CONCLUSIONIn this letter, we propose a Sink-initiatedGeographic Multicast protocol (SIGM) in 43