Energy efficient routing_in_wireless_sensor_networks

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Energy efficient routing_in_wireless_sensor_networks

  1. 1. National Conference on Current Trends in Computer Science and Engineering - CSECONF2012 Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Gunti Spandan1, Prashanth.C2, C R Manjunath3 1,2 nd MTech 2 sem, Dept of CSE, SET, Jain University, spandangunti@gmail.com,prashu.kc@gmail.com 3 Asst prof, Dept of CSE, Jain University, manjucr123@gmail.comAbstract:Wireless Sensor Networks present a great Energy-efficient multicast routing protocol is ofpotential in monitoring systems. Routing problem is one of paramount importance for many new applications beingthe most important issues in a wireless sensor network developed for the resource scarce WSN.(WSN).Any routing protocol designed for wireless sensor II - MULTICAST AD HOC ON-DEMANDnetworks is should take into consideration, the challenging DISTANCE V ECTOR(MAODV)factors like fault tolerance, energy efficiency, scalability, MAODV like DSR has the same on demandlatency, power consumption and network topology.The routing characteristics, but uses an entirely differentstringent requirement of energy budget has been an approach for maintaining routing table information. Asemerging issue in the design specification for a wireless MAODV belongs to the family of on demand routingsensors network (WSN). In this paper we present astudy on protocol,so it follows the conventional scheme ofdemand &clustermulticast routing protocols with energy- maintaining routing table i.e. only one entry will be madeefficiency perspective. for each destination.The entry made contains two informations, first one is it will update its destination withKeywords: multicast, routing, wireless sensor the next hope and then the next hope will update itsnetworks, energyefficient. sequence number which shows that how recently this nodeI - Introduction has updated. Wireless sensor network(WSN) is a multi-hop MAODV also updates the upstream link if anywireless networks consists of a large of small-size, low-cost link associated against this entry goes down.MAODV alsoand low-power sensor nodes which are capable of sensing, uses the same broadcasting mechanism as used by the DSRcomputation and communication. WSN take advantage of for discovery within the network but it is different fromdeployment rapidly and strong survivability without fixed AODV as it only receives route reply from those nodesnetwork support,but also with features of dynamic topology which belongs to a family of multicast group.structure and energy resources are limited and so on.Theapplication of WSN technology is a revolution of perceivedand collection of information andused for variousapplications such as habitat monitoring, automation, andagriculture [1]. Routing in WSNs is very challenging due to theinherent characteristics that distinguish these networksfrom other wireless networks like mobile ad hoc networksor cellular networks.Sensor nodes are tightly constrained interms of energy, processing, and storage capacitiestheyrequire careful resource management. Multicast is thecommunication paradigm of one-to-many or many-to-many, based on defined groups and constituted bymembers, whose interest is to receive/share the sameinformation for a specific application.Multicast routing is tofind a multicast tree which is rooted from the source and Figure 1 MAODV Joining Process- Image reproducedspans all destination nodes.The whole routing process The group leader broadcast a HELLO message to all theincludes two phases. The first phase is to seek a minimal nodes and they update their request table upon this groupenergy path from the sink to the access point based on the HELLO message. If a new node is interested to be a part ofidea of dynamic programming. The second phase is to join this group, initially it will generate a route requestsearch for a broadcast tree between the access point and the packet (RREQ). The node unicast this request if it alreadydestination nodes in the multicast region [2]. knows the group leader address otherwise it will be Energy Efficient Routingmethod is proposed for broadcasted. The group leader or any other node of thea static wireless sensors network, which consists of a large requested group having a grater sequence number than thatnumber of energy-constrained sensors and a few hubs as of the RREQ packet isallowed to respond. As the messagethe cluster heads of sensors.Since each battery-powered is broadcasted the members of the group or the groupsensor only has limited energy resource and the battery leader will receive several RREQ packets but it willrecharge or replacement is impractical, a network with consider only one having the highest sequence number andenergy-aware design becomes important to achieve the least hope count. After selecting the request packet, itdesired lifetime performance. unicast a route reply packet to the desired node. This replying packet consists of the sequence number which is recently updated and the distance of the node from the 63
  2. 2. National Conference on Current Trends in Computer Science and Engineering - CSECONF2012group leader. The requesting node at its end also attribute from the user. The CH broadcasts the attribute,receivesnumerous replies from different nodes and group hard threshold (HT), soft threshold (ST), schedule andleader but selects only one having the shortest distance count time (CT) parameters to the cluster members. Theamong all RREP packets and most recently received. After sensor nodes sense continuously. If the sensed value isselecting the most suitable route it generates a multicast above the HT it is stored in the internal variable (SV) andactivation packet (MCAT) to its neighbor node to enable transmitted to the CH through the TDMA schedulethe desired route.Figure2 shows the node joining process of assigned for it. All the clusters formed here may not haveMAODY. uniform number of sensor nodes. The cluster formed with maximum number of nodes requires more time to aggregateIII - THRESHOLDSENSITIVEENERGY the captured data from nodes and transmit to BS than theEFFICIENT SENSOR NETWOR K ( TEEN) cluster with minimum number of nodes. Threshold sensitive Energy Efficient sensor Suppose in any cluster, adjacent nodes have theNetwork (TEEN)[5] belongs to on-demand routing similar sensed data to transmit then those nodes are formedprotocols category and mostly used for time crucial as a pair. Only one node from the pair will respond to theapplications. In TEEN, nodes have two levels of cluster query while the another node goes to sleep mode. The nodeheads and also they follow hierarchical clustering design. which responds to the query is considered as active nodeAfter nodes haveselected their cluster head, user needs to and the other node which goes to sleep mode is consideredmanually enter the attribute values, which will be as sleep node. This protocol supports one time query,broadcasted by cluster head in form of two parameters soft historical query and persistent query. The BS needs tothreshold and hard threshold. respond to nodes query only after receiving the data from The sensor nodes will start transmitting data all the CHs.when minimum threshold value is greater than hard As the cluster head of cluster with maximumthreshold. Another variable called sensed value is used for members require more time to communicate with BS atransmitted data.Teen savesdata continuously. The soft modified TDMA schedule is assigned as per which BSthreshold also saves energy by reducing the transmission, needs to wait until data from CH of cluster with morewhen there no or little change in the attribute value. Cluster members reaches it. Apart from responding to time criticalhead will definitely consume more energy than a normal events, the nodes were also forced to transmit data to CH atnode because it needs to do extra processing. periodic intervals as CT even though the sensed data does not exceed the threshold value. Where CT is the maximum time period between two successive reports sent by a node. Due to this periodic transmission, frequent updates of the nodes sensed value are transmitted to its CH. In this protocol the energy consumption can be reduced by properly selecting the CT and threshold values. CDMA schedule is used to avoid collisions during cluster heads communicating with BS. The attributes can be changed during the every cluster head change time. The main drawback ofthis protocol is the additional complexity required to implement the threshold functions and CT. Figure 2 Operational Flow of TEENThe biggest disadvantage of this protocol is that when hardthreshold value is higher than sensed value there will be notransmission to clustered head from node, so the clusterhead will have no information updation even if the node isno more in network. This problem can easily be addressedby fixing soft threshold to as minimum value as possibleeven though it would increase energy consumption butnodes sensibility will also be increased. This protocol usesTime Division Multiple Access (TDMA) as a scheduler tosend data between nodes and their cluster heads.Figure 2shows operational flow diagram of TEEN protocol.IV - Adaptive Periodic Threshold-sensitiveEnergyEfficient sensor network protocol(APTEEN) APTEEN, is a hybrid protocol proposed in [5] for V - SPEED Protocolboth periodic data collection and time criticalevents. In this, SPEED maintains a desired delivery speed acrosscluster is formed with 1st level and 2nd level cluster heads. sensornetworks by both diverting traffic at theAfter selecting the cluster head (CH) it receives the 64
  3. 3. National Conference on Current Trends in Computer Science and Engineering - CSECONF2012networkinglayer and locally regulating packets sent to theMAC layer. VI - REAL-TIME POWER-AWARE ROUTINGIt consists of the following components: An API, A IN SENSOR NETWORKS (RPAR)neighbor beacon exchange scheme, A delay estimation RPAR is a real time protocol proposed in which achievesscheme, the Stateless Non-deterministic Geographic application-specified communication delays at low energyForwardingalgorithm (SNGF), A Neighborhood Feedback cost by dynamically adapting transmission power andLoop (NFL), Backpressure Rerouting, Last mile processing routing decisions based on packet deadlines. The primaryAs shown in Figure 4,.SNGF is the routing module design objective of RPAR is to increase the number ofresponsible for choosing the next hop candidate that can packets which meets their deadlines. Anothersupport the desired delivery speed. NFL and Backpressure distinguishing feature of RPAR is that it handles realisticRerouting are two modules to reduce or divert traffic when properties of WSN such as lossy links, limited memory,congestion occurs, so that SNGF has available candidates and bandwidth. RPAR has four components:to choose from. The last mile process is provided to support A. Dynamic velocity assignment policythe three communication semantics mentioned before. It uses the velocity assignment policy to map a packet’sDelay estimation is the mechanism by which a node deadline to a required velocity.determineswhether or not congestion has occurred. And B. Delay estimatorbeacon exchange provides geographic location of the This evaluates the one-hop delay of each forwarding choiceneighbors so that SNGF can do geographic based routing. in the neighbor table, i.e. the time a node takes to deliver a packet to neighbor N at power level p. C. Forwarding policy Based on the velocity requirement and the information provided by the delay estimator, It forwards the packet using the most energyefficient forwarding choice in its neighborhood table that meets the required velocity. D. Neighborhood manager This manager attempts to find a new forwarding choice that meets the required velocity through power adaptation and neighbor discovery, when the forwarding policy cannot find a forwarding choice that meets the required velocity in the neighbor table. RPAR trades-off between thecommunication delay and throughput. It trades capacity Figure 4 SPEED Protocol- Image reproduced and energy for improving latency byincreasing transmission power and when there are loose deadlines, the transmission power isadjusted accordingly. The delaySPEED facilitates real-time communication because it bounds for each packet is provided by the applicationprovides desired transfer rate over the network. It providesdifferent types of communication services i.e. VII - MULTIPATH AND MULTIPLE-SPunicast,multicast and any cast. Stateless Non-deterministic EED(MMSPEED)Geographic Forwarding (SNGF) identifies next hop MMSPEED is an extension of SPEEDwhenever source node transmit the data. protocol[4]. The aim of MMSPEED is to make routing decisions locally on the nodes and also to facilitateSPEED only stores the information of very next node, so it differentiated QOS in timeless and reliable domain. Torequires less memory. Neighboring beacon is used for make decisions locally without maintaining end-to-endinformation interchange between nodes. To identify routes, it uses geographic routing method. It assumes thattrafficchanges in the network two types of on demand main identifier for destination is its geographic locationbeacons are used i.e. delay estimation and back pressure rather than node ID. Periodic location update packets arebeacon. used to instantly update the location information with SPEED uses Backpressure rerouting mechanism neighbors, so that every node is aware of its very nextfor congestion controlhandling in the network. Packets are neighbor within its range. Each node makes pre-packetgiven an alternative route to destination and normally no decisions depending on the geographic location of thepackets are dropped in Backpressure rerouting mechanism. neighbor.Only when there is no alternative route to destination and The geographic localized routing mechanism hasnetwork become very congested than the packets are many advantagesover traditional routing approach:dropped. It will consume less energy if there is no i) This approach is suitable for larger networkscongestion in the network and also it will save energy by (scalability).selecting shortest path to the destination but if there is ii) Minimum delay suitable for time-critical applications.congestion in the network, the energy consumption will be iii) Dynamic adoption to network topology changes.slightly higher. SPEED is a hybrid protocol because it To achieve higher performance, MMSPEEDcombines the functionality of MAC and network layer to needs MAC layerto support following function:minimize the delay and to provide better response to i) To assign priority for accessing shared-mediumcongestion. Figure 4 shows the protocol structure of dependingupon the speed layer.SPEED protocol. ii) Reliable packet delivery 65
  4. 4. National Conference on Current Trends in Computer Science and Engineering - CSECONF2012iii) Average delay measurement (3)The cluster head node need to communicate with theiv) Measurement of loss to individual neighbors sink node to complete the data fusion work, energy consumption increased. VIII - Conclusion: Providing an energy-efficient multicast routing protocol is of paramount importance for many new applications being developed for the resource scarce in WSNThis paper presents an overview of different energy efficientmulticast routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. Generally,all of them needs low processing and memory forrouting that means lower energy requirements. References [1].D.Baghyalakshmi, Jemimah Ebenezer, S.A.V. Satyamurty,”LOW LATENCY AND ENERGY EFFICIENTROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESSSENSOR Figure 5 MMSPEED Protocol- Image NETWORKS” ICWCSC,2010.To achieve above MAC layer goals another protocol is [2].Abid Ali Minhas, Fazl-e-Hadi, Danish Sattar, KashifMustaqprofromposed in. MMSPEED establishes redundant path to and S. Ali Rizvi” Energy Efficient Multicast Routing Protocols foreach destination and also provides multi-speed Wireless Sensor Networks” IEEE 2011. [3]. Ricardo Silva #1, Jorge S´a Silva #2.”Why Should Multicasttransmission. Fordifferent speeds different QOS levels can be used in WSNs” IEEE ISWCS 2008be set to improve performance. MMSPEED and SPEED [4]. W. B. Jaballah and N. Tabbane, "Multi path multi speedare different in way that MMSPEED offers different level contention window adapter," IJCSNS International Journal ofof QOS according to network and traffic requirements. Computer Science and Network Security" vol. 9, no. 2, 2009.Figure 5 shows the protocol structure of MMSPEED [5]. A. Manjeshwar and D. P. Agarwal, "Teen: A routing protocolprotocol for enhanced efficiency in wireless sensor networks," Proceedings 15th International Parallel and Distributed Processing. IPDPS, 2001VIII - LEACH Protocol 6.PAN Xue-feng, LI La-yuan,”Design of an Energy Balanced Based Routing Protocol for WSN”IEEE 2011. In the LEACH protocol, random, adaptive, self- 7.Taehee Kim, Hosung Park, Min-Sook Jin, BatzorigSambuu, andorganizing cluster formation method. Figure 6depicts a Sang-Ha Kim “Energy-balancing Multicast Routing Protocolforwireless sensor network protocol based on LEACH is Wireless Sensor Networks” IEEE 2008.divided into five clusters, each cluster has a black circlerepresents the first cluster node , the rest of the white circleindicates a non cluster head node. Each cluster has a clusterhead node, protocol randomly selecting cluster head nodecycle, the energy of the entire network load equallydistributed to each sensor node can achieve lower energyconsumption, the purpose of improving network lifetime Figure 6 LEACH protocol cluster structureFrom the above analysis shows that LEACH protocol hasthe following deficiencies: (1) the use of cluster head nodes in random rotationmethod which can reduce the energyconsumption, butrepeatedly re-clustering will still consume more energy.(2) different clusters, the cluster head node and cluster headnodes from non-different, the communication processincreases the energy consumption of cluster head. 66

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