Toffler’s Three Waves
First Wave: Agricultural Age
8000 B.C. 1750
Family business was agriculture.
People traveled on foot or horses and communicated
Unemployment was as low as 1.7% in 1906 to as high as
8% in 1908.
Oral limited books, multiage groups, and home schooling.
The Second Wave The Industrial Age
Top down bureaucratic factories
Automobiles and planes
Books videos, and filmstrips were used.
Children were grouped by age and gender in schools.
The Third Wave Informational Age
One both parents in the household worked.
Collaborative teamwork, flexible hours and location.
Automobiles, cell phones, and computers.
Digital hyperlinks and the internet .
The Fourth Wave
In this age where we have information at the tip
of our fingers through the worldwide web via the
internet, the use of the iPad a portable notebook,
cloning of animals and genetic manipulation.
Toffler, Alvin (1980). The third wave. New York,
NY: Bantam Books.
Technology: Key advances and
innovations for each decade
1901-Herbert Booth a compact modern vacuum cleaner
1903-Wright Brothers -first motored and manned
1910-Thomas Edison -demonstrated the first talking
1914-Garrett A Morgan- the first Morgan gas mask
1919-Charles Strite - pop-up toaster
1923-Garrett A Morgan traffic light
1925John Logie Baird mechanical television
(precursor to the modern television)
1930-Harold Edgerton - stop-action photography
1932-Edwin Herbert Land Polaroid photography
1933Edwin Howard Armstrong frequency
modulation (FM radio)
1940-Peter Goldmark-colored television
1942-John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry first
electronic digital computer
1946-Percy Spencer microwave oven
1951-Charles Ginsburg first video tape recorder
1957-Fortran (computer language)
1962-the audio cassette
1964-(an early computer language)
1965-Janes Russell compact disk
1968-Robert Dennard RAM (random access
1985-Windows by Microsoft
1990-Tim Berners-Lee the World Wide Web and
Internet protocol (HTTP) and WWW language
1993- the Pentium processor
1996- Web TV
2000 and onwards
2001-Apple portable music digital player iPod
2010- Apple iPad
Work: Business and corporate
philosophies by decade
1900-US Steel Corporation organized
1900-Twenty-four million workers age10 and older
1902-Approximately 150 thousand United Mine
Workers strike for wage increase
1913-Labor Department established
1914-World War I began in Europe
1921-The Black Labor Party strike of mine workers failed
1929-The Dow Jones closed a 381.17.
1929-Stock Market crashed on the 24th of October, was
called “Black Thursday” began the Great Depression
1930-Unemployment rate was high
1930-The population of the US was at 123 million
1934-100 million acres were ruined by the Dust Storm and
200 million acres of cropland
1938-Fair Labor Standards Act establishes minimum wages
1940-First Social Security benefit checks are paid out
1941-Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor starts World War II
1943-The president freezes prices, salaries and wages to
1947-Taft-Hartley Act passed
1955-AFL and CIO merge and becomes AFL-CIO
1955-1975 Vietnam War
1963-Equal Pay Act passes
1969-ATM began operating in New York
1980-The Federal Hourly Wage was set to $3.10 an hour
1980-60,000 oil refinery workers strike
1980-Unemployment rate 7.1 percent
1991-The Persian Gulf War (January 16th-April 6th)
1993-North American Free Trade Agreement passes
2000 and onwards
2004-Congress extends tax cuts
2005-Hurricane Katrina leaves millions homeless and
2007-Minimum wages goes from $5.15 per hour to $5.85
2009-Wages went to $7.25 per hour
2009-Unemployment reaches 9.3 percent
Education: Important theories of learning
and instruction by decade
1901-Dewey publishes Psychology and How We Think
describing his Functional Theories.
1912-Frederic Burk developed one of the first individual
1913-Thorndike’s Connectionism of Learning =Stimulus-
Responses became the leading educational psychology.
1919-The Winnetka Plan was developed by Carleton W.
Washburn which provided self-instructional and self-
corrective practice materials.
1920-Kurt Lewin’s Field Theory and a Science of Instruction.
1922-Dewey publishes Human Nature and Conduct
describing the interaction of the individual and his
1925-1935-Henry Clinton Morrison’s Morris Plan
1929-Piaget presents his learning theory of genetic
epistemology. Learning is the construction of meaning.
1938-Skinner publishes Behavior of Organisms that
repopularizes behaviorist classroom models.
1953 - Burrhus Frederic (B.F.) Skinner's Science and Human
Behavior is published. His form of behaviorism (operant
conditioning), which emphasizes changes in behavior due to
reinforcement, becomes widely accepted and influences many
aspects of American education
1954-Skinner publishes The science of Learning and the Art of
1956-Edward Bloom Blooms Taxonomy
1962-Vygotsky publishes Thought and Language that
explores social development theories of learning.
1965-The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
1966-Bruner publishes Toward a Theory of Instruction
where he introduces Constructivist Learning Theory.
1977-Sternberg publishes Intelligence, Information
Processing, and Analogical Reasoning informing a Triarchic
1982 –Gardner publishes Art Mind and brain in which he
introduces his Multiple Intelligences Learning Theory.
1982 - Madeline C. Hunter's book, Mastery Teaching, is
1985 - Microsoft Windows 1.0, the first independent version
of Windows is released.
2000 and onward
2000-David Wiley LODAS Learning Object Design and
2001 - The controversial No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
is approved by Congress and signed into law.
2003 - Ruth Clark Efficiency of Learning
Toffler, Alvin (1980). The third wave. New York, NY: Bantam Books.
Society and culture: Events that
determined the thinking of each decade
1903 – Wright brothers make the first controlled, sustained flight in
heavier-than-air aircraft at Kitty Hawk, N.C.
1906 - San Francisco earthquake and three-day fire; more than 500
1907 – First blood transfusion with human blood.
1916 – Polio epidemic in the US.
1918 - Worldwide influenza epidemic strikes; by 1920, nearly 20
million are dead. In U.S., 500,000 perish.
1920-Women gained the right to vote.
1922 – Insulin discovered.
1928 – Penicillin discovered.
1928 – First Mickey Mouse Cartoon.
1931 – Empire State Building completed.
1933 – Prohibition ends.
1944- D Day
1946 – Dr. Spock’s common Book on Baby
1950 – First “Peanuts” Cartoon Strip.
1952- Car seatbelt introduced.
1954 – Segregation ruled illegal in the US.
1964 – Civil Rights Act passes in the US.
1965 – New York City black out.
1967 – First heart transplant.
1969 – Sesame Street airs.
1973 – Roe versus Wade.
1981 – New plague identified as AIDS.
1982 – Michael Jackson’s song “Thriller”
1986 – Challenger Space Shuttle explodes.
1999 – Killing spree at Columbine High School.
2000 and onward
2000 - George W Bush accepts the presidency
following questions about ballots.
2000 - Y2K Bug.
2000 – Mapping the human genome.
1902 –Cuba gains independence from Spain.
1905 - Russian Revolution “Bloody Sunday”
1907 – Second Hague Peace Conference.
1909 – National Association of Colored People founded by
1920 – 19th Amendment ratified Women’s
1923 - Adolf Hitler's "Beer Hall Putsch" in Munich
fails; in 1924 he is sentenced to five years in
prison where he writes Mein Kampf.
1924 – Teapot Dome Scandal.
1932 – Famine is widespread in the U.S.S.R.
1940 – Winston Churchill becomes Britain’s Prime
1941 – First US Lend Lease shipment of food sent
1942 – Declaration of United nations is signed in
1950- Korean War begins
1963 – John F Kennedy assainated.
1964 – Civil Rights Act signed.
1972 – Watergate Scandal.
1974 – US President Nixon resigns.
1981 – Sandra Day O Connor first woman
appointed to Supreme Court.
1985 – PLO terrorist hijack the Achille Lauro
1986 – President Regan freezes Libyia assests.
2000 and onwards
2000 – Mad Cow Disease alarms Europe.
2001 – Sept. 11th terrorist attack on the US.
2001 – 178 nations reach an agreement on
climate and global warming