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HCCI project report. HCCI tried through manifold Injection on KIRLOSKAR AV1 engine.

HCCI project report. HCCI tried through manifold Injection on KIRLOSKAR AV1 engine.

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  • 1. PROJECT REPORT ON “INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE” VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY JNANA SANGAMA, BELGAUM In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING in MECHANICAL ENGINEERING By ADITHYA K [1DS09ME002] ARAVIND V [1DS09ME013] GNANA VISHNU D [1DS09ME031] HEBBATAM VISWANATHA [1DS09ME037] Under the guidance of KAMESH .M.R. ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, DEPT. OF MECHANICAL ENGG., DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, BANGALORE Department of Mechanical Engineering DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING SHAVIGE MALLESHWARA HILLS, KUMARSWAMY LAYOUT, BANGALORE-78 2012-2013
  • 2. Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Shavige Malleshwara Hills, Kumaraswamy Layout, Bangalore-560078 Department of Mechanical Engineering Certificate Certified that the Project Work entitled, ―INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE‖ is a bonafide work carried out by Mr. ADITHYA K (1DS09ME002), Mr.ARAVIND V (1DS09ME013), Mr.GNANA VISHNU D (1DS09ME031), and Mr. HEBBATAM VISWANATHA (1DS09ME037) in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering of the Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum during the year 2011-2012. It is certified that all the corrections/suggestions indicated for internal assessment have been incorporated in the report deposited in the departmental library. The Project Report has been approved as it satisfies the academic requirements in respect of Project Work prescribed for the said degree. ______________ _______________ __________________ Signature of Guide Signature of HOD Signature of Principal [Guide‘s Name] [Dr. C.P.S Prakash] [Dr. A.N.N Murthy] S.No Name of The Examiners Signature With Date 1. ______________________________ ____________________ 2. ______________________________ ____________________
  • 3. DECLARATION We, Mr.ADITHYA K (1DSO9ME002), Mr.ARAVIND V (1DS09ME013), Mr. GNANA VISHNU D(1DS09ME031) and Mr.HEBBATAM VISWANATHA (1DS09ME037), hereby declare that the project work entitled, ―INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE‖, has been independently carried out by us under the guidance of ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR KAMESH M R, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore, in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering of Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum. We further declare that we have not submitted this report either in part of in full to any other university for the reward of any degree. NAME USN SIGN 1. ADITHYA K [1DS09ME002] 2. ARAVIND V [1DS09ME013] 3. GNANA VISHNU D [1DS09ME031] 4. HEBBATAM VISWANATHA [1DS09ME037] Place: Bangalore Date:
  • 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to express our heartfelt Dr.A.N.N.Murthy, Principal,DSCE, who has given us an opportunuity to successfully complete our project. It gives us an immense pleasure to thank Dr. C.P.S. Prakash, Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE, for his valuable advice and guidance which has helped us complete our project. We are very glad to thank Associate Professor, Kamesh M.R., Internal guide ,Department of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE, who has mentored us, and supported us throught the project.He has been instrumental in completing our project work successfully. We take this opportunity to thank Assistant Professor, Jacob John, our automotive engineering subject teacher, whose lectures were influential on our project. Finally We express our thanks to all the teaching and non teaching staff who indirectly helped us to complete this project successfully. Last but not the least we would like to thank our beloved parents for their blessing and love. We would also like to thank our friends for their support and encouragement to successfully complete the task by meeting all the requirements.
  • 5. ABSTRACT Depletion of fossil fuels in the recent times has called for new measures to save fuel. Most of the Heavy duty machines use diesel engines. Diesel engines although efficient and gives good power output, it suffers from the disadvantage of heterogenous combustion. Due to heterogenous combustion the time allowed for mixing fuel with air in particular oxygen is very less, so there is a partial mixing of diesel which makes mixture distribution inside the cylinder non-uniform (having different fuel-air concentrations, varying from rich to lean). This causes incomplete combustion of diesel and results in wastage of fuel and particulate formation. In this study, using pilot fuel blends like 50 (DEE) : 50 (Ethyl Alcohol), 50 (DEE) : 50 (Methyl Alcohol), 70 (DEE) : 30 ( Ethyl Alcohol), 70 (DEE) : 30 (Methyl Alcohol) were used to enhance the combustion. The tests were conducted on 4-stroke, single cylinder, 3.7KW/5BHP diesel engine. Pilot fuel blends were introduced through gravimetric fuel introduction into the intake manifold of the engine. The results on various performance parameters indicated the following on using the blends when compared to the use of neat diesel- increase in brake thermal efficiency & mechanical efficiency, decrease in brake specific fuel consumption & mass of fuel consumption, increase in exhaust gas temperature and decrease in heat unaccounted. Inference drawn from the performance graphs validate the above test results and shows that using pilot fuel blends siginificantly improves of the performance of a diesel engine.
  • 6. Contents
  • 7. List of tables
  • 8. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 1 CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW
  • 9. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 2 OVERVIEW In the current scenario, a major portion of our energy needs is fulfilled by using fossil fuels. Due to rapid growth in the world economy, fossil fuels are getting depleted at unprecedented rates. The World is slowly entering a phase called ‗Peak Oil‘. Peak oil is the point in time when the maximum rate of global petroleum extraction is reached, after which the rate of production enters terminal decline. The Earth's total endowment of oil, before humans started using it, was roughly 2 trillion barrels of recoverable oil. Consumption has been rapidly increasing and about half is used up. Consumption is currently 31 billion barrels each year. At this rate of consumption oil reserves will be exhausted in the next 30 years. Oil geologists, oil company executives and most scientists know that an oil crisis is nearly upon us. World peak oil production is about to happen with profound implications for everyone. In a few years—within the decade—world oil production will decline—slowly at first but then accelerating. Hence, this energy crisis necessitates usage of available resource more effectively by deriving maximum output per unit volume of fuel.
  • 10. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 3
  • 11. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 4 Diesel fuel is one of the important fossil fuels used for transportation, power generation etc. Diesel powered engines are known for their good power output and efficiency. But Diesel engine has a major drawback i.e. incomplete combustion of the diesel fuel leading to wastage of diesel. Hence, absolute power that a diesel engine can produce if the diesel were to combust completely is greater than the power that is produced by the present day diesel engine. To counter this disadvantage of incomplete combustion of the diesel fuel many methods have been suggested. One of which is introduction of a blended pilot fuel through the intake manifold of the engine to enhance combustion of the diesel fuel. Pilot fuels are essentially chemical reagents which are added in minute quantities to enhance combustion and thereby getting more power for less quantity of fuel utilized. Pilot blends like Diethyl- ether [DEE] with alcohols like ethanol and methanol are used. DEE has favorable engine performance characteristics because of its chemical/physical properties such as a low boiling point & high cetane number. DEE also combusts very clean or in other words it is soot less, meaning little to no smoke or particulates are emitted. DEE also has projected lower combustion emissions of carbon dioxide, since it has high oxygen content. Alcohols such as ethanol and methanol are used to improve the stability of DEE. Another important property of alcohols is that they have higher oxygen content in its chemical structure, which enhances combustion of fuels within the engine cylinders and are known to reduce emissions.
  • 12. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY
  • 13. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 6 Studies carried out by earlier researchers with regards to use of Diethyl ether, ethanol and methanol have been presented. [1] Brent Bailey, James Eberhardt, Steve Goguen, and Jimell Erwin have conducted an experimental study on the potential of ― Diethyl Ether (DEE) as a Renewable Diesel Fuel‖. The basic aim of this paper was to study the viability of DEE as a fuel to be used in the transportation sector. This was the first major study conducted by the US Dept. of Energy on the potential of DEE. This paper highlights that DEE has the required properties that a Diesel like fuel should have like high cetane number, good energy density, reduce emissions etc. It also highlights the issues of using DEE like that of stability, volatility. Test results on the effect of DEE on flame speed, ignition delay and emission have also been mentioned. Viable methods of production of DEE have been illustrated. Concluding, the initial study shows that DEE can be a potential replacement in CI engines and has lot of potential for further research. [2] Saravanan D, Vijayakumar T and Thamaraikannan M have conducted an ‗experimental analysis of combustion and emissions characteristics of a CI engine powered with Diethyl Ether blended diesel as fuel‘. The study identifies the major disadvantage of CI engine which being heterogeneous combustion; this causes incomplete combustion thereby leading to reduction in performance and increase in NOx formations. The analysis is conducted on a 4 stroke, single cylinder 4.4KW diesel engine. The test was done with neat diesel, neat DEE, 5% DEE blend with diesel and 10% DEE-Diesel blend. Various performance graphs were plotted; from these graphs significant lower of Brake specific fuel conssumption, increase in brake thermal efficiency and from the emission graphs reduction in NOx formations on using DEE blends were observed. The overall result shows promising characteristics in performance improvement and Emission reduction. [3] Eliana Weber de Menezes, Rosaˆngela da Silva, Renato Catalun˜a , Ricardo J.C. Ortega have conducted test on ―Effect of ethers and ether/ethanol additives on the physicochemical properties of diesel fuel and on engine tests‖. This study highlights that use of oxygenated compounds like alcohols and ethers is an alternative to reduce the emission of particulates .However, the reduction of particulate emissions through the introduction of oxygenated compounds depends on the molecular structure of the diesel and the fuel‘s oxygen content. Therefore, the diesel‘s composition and the use of additives directly affect the properties of density, viscosity, volatility, behavior at low temperatures, and cetane number (CN). This
  • 14. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 7 study evaluates the effect of ether additives (ETBE and TAEE) in diesel and of ether/ethanol/diesel blends on the properties of density, volatility, viscosity, characteristics at cold temperatures, cetane number and performance in engine tests. The formulations were carried out with 5, 10 and 20% v/v of ethyl ter-butyl ether (ETBE) and ter-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE) and with 5, 10 and 20% v/v of ether/ethanol blends (50/50% v/v) starting from a base diesel. The study also shows the difficulty in using ethanol with diesel because of its low cetane number, low viscosity and lubricity. The solution to this problem is using ether- alcohol blends along with diesel. Various physiochemical tests indicate that formulations containing up to 5% v/v of TAEE displayed satisfactory results in the evaluation of physicochemical properties and greater efficiency in the engine tests and others fail to give satisfactory results. [4] Cenk Sayin, conducted an experimental study on ―Engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of methanol and ethanol–diesel blends‖. The paper highlights the advantage of using alcohols like it being a good oxygenate, improve thermal efficiency etc. In This study, different proportions of alcohol- diesel blends are used. The effects of methanol–diesel (M5, M10) and ethanol–diesel (E5, E10) fuel blends on the performance and exhaust emissions were experimentally investigated. For this work, a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, naturally aspirated 7.4KW diesel engine was used. The tests were performed by varying the engine speed between 1000 and 1800 rpm while keeping the engine torque at 30 Nm. Performance and emission graphs were plotted and the results showed that brake specific fuel consumption and emissions of nitrogen oxides increased while brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, emissions of carbon monoxide and total hydrocarbon decreased with methanol–diesel and ethanol–diesel fuel blends. [5] K.Harshavardhan Reddy and N.Balajiganesh, have conducted an ―Experimental Investigation On Four Stroke Diesel Engine Using Diesel –Orange Oil Blends‖. This paper studies the effect of different proportions of orange blends with diesel and its effect on performance and emissions. The significance of this paper from our project point of view was the utilization of a gravimetric fuel introduction setup used in this experiment. In this experiment, orange oil is introduced as a pilot fuel.this technique offers the advantage of easy conversion of the diesel engine to work in the dual fuel mode with volatile fuels and vegetable oils.
  • 15. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 8 CHAPTER 3 FUELS
  • 16. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 9 DIESEL Diesel is a lightweight mixture of liquid hydrocarbons that are derived from petroleum. The hydrocarbons in diesel oil contain between 13 and 25 carbon atoms. Diesel oil is used as a fuel for diesel engines. Conventional diesel fuels are distillates with a boiling range of about 149°C to 371°C, obtained by the distillation of crude oil. The components of diesel fuels are straight run fractions containing paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons, naphtha and cracked gas oils. The atmospheric gas oils tend to have good ignition quality (cetane number) but many contain some high melting point hydrocarbons (waxes) that can result in high cloud and high pour points. These fractions are blended to produce different seasonal grades of diesel fuels required to meet a wide range of diesel engine uses. Diesel fuel produces power in an engine when it is atomized and mixed with air in the combustion chamber. Pressure caused by the piston rising in the cylinder causes a rapid temperature increase. When fuel is injected, the fuel/air mixture ignites and the energy of the diesel fuel is released forcing the piston downwards and turning the crankshaft. Diesel is composed of about 75% saturated hydrocarbons primarily paraffins including n, iso, and cycloparaffins and 25% aromatic hydrocarbons including naphthalenes and alkylbenzenes. The average chemical formula for common diesel fuel is C17H34.
  • 17. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 10 PRODUCTION OF DIESEL FROM CRUDE OIL Process of obtaining crude oil: 1. Crude oil is the parent ingredient from which Diesel and other fuels are obtained. Crude oil is trapped in areas of porous rock, or reservoir rock, after it has migrated there from the area of origin. Possible areas of oil concentration may be pinpointed by looking for the rock types that are commonly found in those areas. Explorers may examine the surface features of the land, analyze how sound waves bounce off the rock, or use a gravity meter to detect slight differences in rock formation. 2. After a possible oil reservoir is found, a test drill is setup. Core samples are taken from the test wells to confirm rock formations, and the samples are chemically analyzed in order to determine if more drilling is justified. Although the methods used today include using Satellite, there can be still no certainty in oil exploration. 3. Crude oil is recovered through wells that can reach over 5000ft or 1500m into the rock. The holes are made by rotary drillers, which use a bit to bore a hole in the ground as water is added. The water and the soil create a thick mud that helps hold back the oil and prevent it from ‗gushing‘ due to the internal pressure contained in the reservoir rock. When the reservoir is reached. The mud continues to hold back the oil while the drill is removed and the pipe is inserted.
  • 18. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 11 4. To recover the oil, a complicated system of pipes and valves are installed directly into the drilling well. The natural pressure of the reservoir rock brings the oil out of the well and into the pipes. These are connected to the recovery system, which consists of a series of larger pipes taking crude oil to the refinery via an oil (liquid) and a gas (non-liquid) separator. This method allows the oil to be recovered with minimum wastage.
  • 19. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 12 5. Eventually, the natural pressure of the well is expended, though great quantities of oil may still remain in the rock. Secondary recovery methods are now required to obtain a greater percentage of oil. The pressure is restored by either injecting gas into the pocket above the oil or by flooding water into the well, which is far more common. In this process, four holes are drilled around the perimeter of the well and water is added. The petroleum will float on the water and come to the surface. 6. Crude oil is not a good fuel, since it is a proper fluid and requires very high temperatures to burn. The long chains of molecules in the crude oil must be separated from the smaller chains of refined fuels, including Diesel, in a petroleum refinery. Diesel can be produced effectively in the refinery from these two methods:- i) Fractional distillation ii) Chemical processing
  • 20. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 13 FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF CRUDE OIL The various components of crude oil have different sizes, weights and boiling temperatures which need‘s to be separated. As these components have different boiling point temperatures; they are separated by the method of Fractional Distillation. The steps of fractional distillation are as follows: 1. The crude oil mixture is subjected to heating by using high pressure steam of around 600ºC. 2. As the mixture boils and vapors formed are sent into the fractional distillation tower. 3. The vapor enters the bottom of a long column (fractional distillation column) that is filled with trays or plates. The trays have many holes or bubble caps in them to allow the vapor to pass through. They increase the contact time between the vapor and the liquids in the column and help to collect liquids that form at various heights in the column. There is a temperature difference across the column (hot at the bottom, cool at the top). As the vapor rises in the column, it cools. 4. When a substance in the vapor reaches a height where the temperature of the column is equal to that substance's boiling point, it will condense to form a liquid. (The
  • 21. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 14 substance with the lowest boiling point will condense at the highest point in the column; substances with higher boiling points will condense lower in the column.). 5. The trays collect the various liquid fractions. The collected liquid fractions may pass to condensers, which cool them further, and then go to storage tanks, or they may go to other areas for further chemical processing. CHEMICAL PROCESSING Diesel can also be produced by cracking. Cracking is am process where larger Hydrocarbon chains are broken down into smaller ones. Production of diesel is done a two stage process. In the first stage, coking residues from the distillation tower is subjected to heating using superheated steam of around 490ºC and also high pressures. The mixture cracks into heavy oil, gasoline and naphtha. The heavy oil fraction is further subjected to treatment in the second stage. In the second stage, the Heavy oil fraction is broken down catalytically. Catalysts include Zeolite, Aluminum hydrosilicate, bauxite and silica-alumina. Fluid catalytic cracking is employed in which; a hot, fluid catalyst 538ºC cracks heavy gas oil into diesel oils and gasoline.
  • 22. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 15 PROPERTIES OF DIESEL PROPERTIES VALUES DENSITY (Kg/ m³) 850 API GRAVITY 35 FLASH POINT (ºC) 60-80 CLOUD POINT (ºC) -35 TO 5 CETANE NUMBER 40-55 BOILING POINT(ºC) 180-340 KINEMATIC VISCOSITY (mm2 /s) 1.3-4.1 AUTO IGNITION TEMPERATURE(ºC) 210 CALORIFIC VALUE (KJ/Kg) 42500 ADVANTAGES The lifespan of diesel engines is generally up to two times longer than that of gasoline-powered engines due to greater parts strength, less waste heat, and diesel's increased lubrication properties, which helps parts last longer. Diesel generators require less fuel because diesel offers greater efficiency than gasoline through its combination of higher energy content and more efficient combustion. In the long term, this helps recoup the increased costs of diesel over gasoline. By some estimates, diesel costs as much as 50% less per kilowatt produced than gas. Diesel engines require less maintenance because they use compression ignition rather than an electrical ignition system, thereby avoiding tuning requirements. Diesel does not ignite readily, making it safer to use for many applications. In addition, diesel fumes contain less carbon monoxide than gas. DISADVANTAGES Diesel engines, owing to their greater weight and the greater cost of diesel, require higher initial outlay of capital, although costs may be recouped with long-term usage, as noted above. Diesel engines produce more soot, which can cause a number of respiratory problems. Although technological advancements have helped reduce much of the noise associated with diesel engines, they still tend to be louder than gasoline engines. Diesel fuel is in many areas less readily available than gasoline.
  • 23. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 16 DIETHYL ETHER Diethyl ether, also known as ethyl ether, simply ether, or ethoxyethane, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula (C2H5)2O. It is a colorless, highly volatile flammable liquid with a characteristic odor. Diethyl ether has a high cetane number of <125 and is used as a starting fluid, in combination with petroleum distillates for gasoline and diesel engines because of its high volatility and low flash point. For the same reason it is also used as a component of the fuel mixture for carbureted compression ignition model engines.
  • 24. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 17 PRODUCTION OF DIETHYL ETHER Dry (anhydrous) or nearly dry ethyl alcohol is allowed to flow into a mixture of alcohol and sulfuric acid heated to 130°c-140°c. The vapors are collected, and ether and some alcohol and water condense out. The sulfuric acid is a catalyst, but since it becomes more and more diluted as a consequence of the water produced by the reaction, the process becomes inefficient. Ethanol is mixed with a strong acid, typically sulfuric acid, H2SO4. The acid dissociates in the aqueous environment producing hydronium ions, H3O+ . A hydrogen ion protonates the electronegative oxygen atom of the ethanol, giving the ethanol molecule a positive charge: CH3CH2OH + H3O+ → CH3CH2OH2 + + H2O A nucleophilic oxygen atom of unprotonated ethanol displaces a water molecule from the protonated (electrophilic) ethanol molecule, producing water, a hydrogen ion and diethyl ether. CH3CH2OH2 + + CH3CH2OH → H2O + H+ + CH3CH2OCH2CH3 This reaction must be carried out at temperatures lower than 150 °C in order to ensure that an elimination product (ethylene) is not a product of the reaction. At higher temperatures, ethanol will dehydrate to form ethylene. The reaction to make diethyl ether is reversible, so eventually an equilibrium between reactants and products is achieved. Getting a good yield of ether requires that ether be distilled out of the reaction mixture before it reverts to ethanol, taking advantage of Le Chatelier's principle. PROPERTIES OF DIETHYL ETHER PROPERTIES VALUES DENSITY (Kg/ m³) 713.4 FLASH POINT (ºC) -45 CETANE NUMBER <125 BOILING POINT(ºC) 34.6 AUTO IGNITION TEMPERATURE(ºC) 160 CALORIFIC VALUE (KJ/Kg) 33900
  • 25. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 18 ADVANTAGES DEE has a very high cetane number of around 125 which indicates good ignition behavior It is a clean burning synthetic fuel It has reasonable energy density when compared to dimethyl ether It is an oxygenate, hence it prevents a diesel engine from emitting soot and particulate matter to a greater extent than diesel fuel does. DISADVANTAGES It is highly volatile and hence there are stability and storage issues DEE has a viscosity lower than that of diesel Lubricity is also low causing wearing of engine parts(if used alone but effect lesser when compared to dimethyl ether) It is found to react with some rubber components
  • 26. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 19 ETHANOL Ethanol also known as ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol, is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid. Ethanol is a 2-carbon alcohol with the empirical formula C2H6O. Its molecular formula is CH3CH2OH. An alternative notation is CH3–CH2– OH, which indicates that the carbon of a methyl group (CH3–) is attached to the carbon of a methylene group (–CH2–), which is attached to the oxygen of a hydroxyl group (–OH). It is a constitutional isomer of dimethyl ether. METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL The two common methods of producing ethanol are: 1. Production of ethanol from wood 2. Production of ethanol from Sugar cane
  • 27. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 20 PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM WOOD To produce ethanol from wood, the then follows the hydrolysis process of feed stock preparation 1. Pretreatment- In the first step, wood material is sheared and shredded into small bits. These bits are then steeped into hot Sulfuric acid. This causes cellular walls and contents dissolve. The acid pushes lignin out of the way to free hemicellulose, then decomposes hemicelluloses into its four sugars: xylose, mannose, arabinose and galactose. Cellulose is now freed. 2. Hydrolysis- the acid is washed off, and the mixture goes to tanks with enzymes called cellulases, which turn cellulose into glucose. 3. Fermentation- the glucose produced and the four hemicelluloses sugar are mixed with microbe additives and are sent to the fermentation tank where these sugars are converted into ethanol. 4. Distillation- in this process the sillage is removed from the alcohol. The alcohol obtained is hydrated alcohol. 5. Dehydration- the hydrated alcohol is processed to get fuel grade alcohol.
  • 28. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 21 PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM SUGARCANE Production of ethanol from sugarcane requires a fairly simple process since fermentable sugar is directly obtained from the sugar cane. Sugar cane is first cut and ground; the cane sugar is extracted; the extracted liquid is further processed to get molasses. Molasses is the mother liquor left after the crystallization of sugarcane juice. It is a dark coloured viscous liquid. Molasses contains about 60% fermentable sugar. The process is as follows: 1. Dilution- Molasses is first diluted with water in 1:5 (molasses : water) ratio by volume. 2. Addition of ammonium sulphate-If nitrogen content of molasses is small, it is now fortified with ammonium sulphate to provide adequate supply of nitrogen to yeast. 3. Addition of acid- Fortified solution of molasses is then acidifies with small quantity of sulphuric acid. Addition of acid favours the growth of yeast but unfavours the growth of useless bacteria. 4. Fermentation- The resulting solution is received in a large tank and yeast is added to it at 30O C and kept for 2 to 3 days. During this period, enzymes sucrase and zymase which are present in yeast, convert sugar into ethyl alcohol.
  • 29. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 22 C12H22O11 + H2O C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 C6H12O6 C2H5OH + 2CO2 5. Fractional distillation- Alcohol obtained by the fermentation is called WASH, which is about 15% to 18% pure. By using fractional distillation technique, it is converted into 92% pure alcohol which is known as rectified spirit or commercial alcohol. PROPERTIES OF ETHANOL PROPERTIES VALUES DENSITY (Kg/ m³) 789 FLASH POINT (ºC) 14 CETANE NUMBER 5 BOILING POINT(ºC) 78.4 AUTO IGNITION TEMPERATURE(ºC) 363 CALORIFIC VALUE (KJ/Kg) 30000
  • 30. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 23 METHANOL Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH. Methanol acquired the name "wood alcohol" because it was once produced chiefly as a byproduct of the destructive distillation of wood. Modern methanol is produced in a catalytic industrial process directly from carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Methanol is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colorless, flammable liquid with a distinctive odor very similar to, but slightly sweeter than, that of ethanol (drinking alcohol). At room temperature, it is a polar liquid, and is used as an antifreeze, solvent, fuel, and as a denaturant for ethanol.
  • 31. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 24 PRODUCTION OF METHANOL Methanol is produced from synthesis gas; synthesis gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The gas is either obtained from natural gas or from gasification of wood. The production process of methanol is a multistage process which is as follows: 1. Production of Synthesis gas- From wood, moist wood is first dried. The dry wood is then subjected to pyrolysis at around 500ºC. Raw dry wood + heat charcoal+CO+CO2+H2+CH4+ tar + pyroligenous acid Charcoal+O2+H2O CO +H2 +CO2 2. Purification- The raw gas contains about hydrogen (18%), carbon monoxide (23%), carbon dioxide (9%), methane (3%), other HC (1%), oxygen (0.5%) and nitrogen (45.5%). The raw gas is then purified to remove all gases but hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The gas is processes with hot potassium carbonate solution to remove CO2 and then passed through monoethanoloamine (MEA) to remove water vapor, CH4, HC‘s and nitrogen. The purified gas is approximately 44% hydrogen and 56% Carbon monoxide. 3. Synthesis- the synthesis gas obtained is compressed to 14000-28000 KPa and passed into the methanol synthesis reactor. In the reactor, zinc- chromium catalyst is used. The gases react and form methanol; which then purified by distillation.
  • 32. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 25 PROPERTIES OF METHANOL PROPERTIES VALUES DENSITY (Kg/ m³) 791.3 FLASH POINT (ºC) 12 CETANE NUMBER 0-1 BOILING POINT(ºC) 64.7 AUTO IGNITION TEMPERATURE(ºC) 385 CALORIFIC VALUE (KJ/Kg) 23000 ADVANTAGES OF ALCOHOLS Alcohols are oxygenates i.e. they contain oxygen, , hence it prevents a diesel engine from emitting soot and particulate matter to a greater extent than diesel fuel does. It is a clean burning Fuel Helps solve stability issues of Diethyl ether Can be produced easily. DISADVANTAGES OF ALCOHOLS Has very low Cetane number Low viscosity and lubricity
  • 33. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 26 BLENDED PILOT FUEL To achieve the objective of enhanced combustion of diesel in the engine; Diethyl Ether has been identified as a viable pilot fuel [1][2]. Diethyl Ether has high cetane number, it is a good oxygenate, it has relatively good energy density, it is volatile and hence mixes easily, but, it has a major disadvantage of low auto ignition point when compared to diesel. As a result, if only neat Diethyl ether is introduced into the intake manifold, because of its low auto ignition point, it will combust in the intake manifold itself or just as it enters the engine cylinder due to the prevailing high temperatures, prior to when it is actually required to combust, hence, it becomes necessary to raise it‘s auto ignition temperature close to that of diesel but slightly lower than it. This is achieved by blending DEE with suitable alcohols like ethanol and methanol in suitable proportions. From experimentation, it can be determined that pilot fuel blends within the proportion ranges of 70 (DEE) : 30 (Alcohol) and 50 (DEE) : 50 (Alcohol) function effectively as combustion enhancers. In this project the following blends have been used for combustion enhancement. The Proportions of the pilot fuel blends are: 50 (DEE) : 50 (Ethyl Alcohol) 50 (DEE) : 50 (Methyl Alcohol) 70 (DEE) : 30 ( Ethyl Alcohol) 70 (DEE) : 30 (Methyl Alcohol) If blends outside the proportion ranges are used, then the efficiency of the blends decreases leading to unsatisfactory results. If Percentage of alcohol is increased beyond 50%, the tendency of the engine to knock increases. Also, the calorific value of the entire fuel decreases and it may sometimes lead to corrosion of internal parts. Percentage of DEE is increased beyond 70%, then the auto ignition temperature of the blend will drop below the required value. Hence, the proportions of 70 (DEE) : 30 (Alcohol) and 50 (DEE) : 50 (Alcohol) serve as the borderline for the effective functioning of the blended pilot fuel.
  • 34. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 27 PRINCIPLE OF ENHANCEMENT OF DIESEL FUEL COMBUSTION WITH THE HELP OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL Normally in diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center .The liquid fuel is usually injected at high velocity as one or more jets through small orifices or nozzles in the injector tip. It atomizes into small droplets and penetrates into the combustion chamber. The atomized fuel absorbs heat from the surrounding heated compressed air, vaporizes, and mixes with the surrounding high-temperature high-pressure air. As the piston continues to move closer to top dead center (TDC), the mixture (mostly air) temperature reaches the fuel‘s ignition temperature. Instantaneous ignition of some premixed fuel and air occurs after the ignition delay period. This instantaneous ignition is considered the start of combustion (also the end of the ignition delay period) and is marked by a sharp cylinder pressure increase as combustion of the fuel-air mixture takes place. Increased pressure resulting from the premixed combustion compresses and heats the unburned portion of the charge and shortens the delay before its ignition. However, this process does not facilitate complete combustion of the diesel fuel. As a result, some amount of the diesel remains unburnt and comes out with the exhaust gases; thereby resulting in the wastage of the unburnt diesel fuel. To facilitate better combustion of diesel and to reduce wastage; the pilot fuel blend is introduced gravimetrically, in low quantities, into the intake manifold. Pilot fuel because of its high volatility readily mixes with air. During the suction stroke, this mixture of pilot fuel and air is drawn into the engine cylinder and forms a uniform mixture in the cylinder volume. As the piston rises up during the compression stroke, the uniform charge in the cylinder gets heated. Just before the diesel fuel is injected, the charge which is uniformly distributed throughout the cylinder reaches its autoignition temperature and begins to combust at multiple points. During this period Diesel fuel is injected. As combustion is initiated at multiple points; the burning of this mixture provides additional heat and oxygen for enhanced combustion of the injected diesel fuel. Also, the prior combustion of the mixture, provides the necessary heat for the preflame reactions of the diesel fuel thereby reducing the ignition delay period, which ensures smoother combustion of the diesel fuel. Therefore, this process of introduction of the blended pilot fuel results in enhanced combustion of the diesel fuel
  • 35. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 28 thereby reducing producing more power output compared to the normal operation and also reduces the wastage of the unburnt diesel.
  • 36. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 29 CHAPTER 4 EXPERIMENTAL SET UP
  • 37. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 30 RIG PHOTO <tomorrow from my camera>
  • 38. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 31 ENGINE RIG SPECIFICATIONS Parameter Specification Manufacturer Kirloskar oil engine ltd Model AV1 Type 4 stroke, single cylinder, water cooled CI engine Rated power 3.7 KW/ 5 Hp Compression ratio 16.5 : 1 Bore 80mm Stroke 110mm Injection Pressure 175 bar The Engine Rig of above mentioned specifications present at Energy Conversion Lab in Mechanical Engineering Department, DSCE, Bangalore-78 was used for the project work.
  • 39. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 32 RECONDITIONING The First operation or process taken up on the single cylinder four stroke engine was Reconditioning the engine, which involved fitting of thermocouples at various positions on the rig. And then these sensors/ Thermocouples were connected to an Electronic Display, the Engine Electronic Display System.The Calorimeter was dismantled and cleaned, for a better heat exchange, and ultimately to obtain better performance from the rig.The Sensors with various range were checked and fitted. Engine was run for 2 to 3 days for 45 mins/day regularly to condition the engine. Engine Electronic Display Front View Engine Electronic system Wiring Sensors pic will come here
  • 40. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 33 GRAVIMETRIC FUEL INTRODUCTION SET UP After the reconditioning of engine, Gravimetric Pilot Fuel introduction system was set up to introduce the pilot blends into the intake air manifold. From Literature survey, the set up was It consists of : Burette Pilot fuel line Wall Mounting pad for Burette SPECIFICATIONS OF FUEL INTRODUCTION SET-UP Burette : Height= 0.65m ; Dia= 0.015m ; Volume=50ml Pilot Fuel line : Length=1m ; Dia=0.005m <Temporary pic><new pic tomo> Gravimetric Fuel Introduction Set up
  • 41. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 34 OPERATING PROCEDURE 1. Switch on the Engine Electronics mains. 2. Switch on the engine electronic display by using the key and switch. 3. Open Cooling water valves and Set the cooling water. (Here it was set to 2.85 LPM for engine cooling water, 1.17 LPM for Calorimeter cooling water.) 4. Open Fuel tank valve and allow the burette on the rig to be full and then close the valve. 5. Now put the decompression lever in vertical postion and crank the engine and then put the lever in horrizontal position to start the engine. 6. Switch on the Dynamometer on display unit and set it to zero torque condition. 7. Run the engine only on diesel for 15 mins at zero torque, which is required for the rig to attain steady state conditions. 8. Now Introduce a set quantity of a pilot fuel blend from the burette in the gravimetric pilot fuel introduction set up (DEE-ETHANOL 50:50 @ 1.5cc/min) into the intake manifold. 9. Note down the Temperatures (T1 to T8), head of water from manometer, Speed from electronic display, and finally the time taken for 10cc of Diesel fuel consumption. 10. Increase the torque in steps of 3 N-m and repeat the above steps. 11. Feed the Values to Engine Performance Calculator.xls on the computer and obtain the graphs on the computer. 12. Similarly conduct the above test for various blends and obtain the performance results.
  • 42. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 35 CHAPTER 5 OBSERVATION & TABULAIONS
  • 43. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 36 FORMULAE USED IN CALCULATIONS 1. Brake power, 2. Mass of fuel consumed, 3. Specific fuel consumption, - 4. Brake thermal efficiency, 5. Head of air, 6. Actual volume, Vact 7. Theoretical volume, 8. Volumetric effieciency, 9. Indicated power, 10. Indicated thermal efficiency, 11. Mechanical efficiency, 12. Heat Input, 13. Heat Loss to Water, - 14. Heat Loss to Exhaust - 15. Heat Unaccounted , -
  • 44. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 37 STANDARDS USED QUANTITY UNIT Brake power (BP) KW Friction power(FP) KW Indicated power (IP) KW Mass of fuel consumed (mf ) Kg/s Specific fuel consumed (sfc) Kg/ KWhr Brake thermal efficiency (ηbth ) % Head of air (Ha ) M Actual volume (Vact ) m³/s Theoretical volume (Vtheo ) m³/s Volumetric efficiency (ηvol) % Mechanical efficiency (ηmech) %
  • 45. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 38 STANDARDS USED QUANTITY UNIT Speed (N) Rpm Torque (T) Nm Volume (V) m³ Calorific value (CV) KJ/Kg Density of water (ρw) Kg/ m³ Density of air (ρa) Kg/ m³ Co-efficient of discharge (Cd) 0.62 (Constant) Diameter of orifice (d0 ) m Diameter of bore (dbore ) m Stroke length (L) M
  • 46. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 39 OBSERVATIONS & TABULATIONS FOR NEAT DIESEL OBSERVATION SL. NO Torque (N-m) Speed (rpm) Time For 10cc of fuel Consumption (sec) T1 (0 c) T2 (0 c) T3 (0 c) T4 (0 c) T5 (0 c) T6 (0 c) T7 (0 c) T8 (0 c) Hm (cm) 1 0 1571 56 30 40 30 37 129 109 30 32 2.1 2 3 1555 52 30 40 30 38 140 121 30 32 2 3 6 1536 48 30 40 30 39 153 133 30 33 1.8 4 9 1530 45 30 40 30 40 162 142 30 33 1.6 5 12 1525 41 30 40 30 41 174 150 30 34 1.8 6 15 1522 38 30 40 30 42 184 159 30 35 1.6 7 18 1520 35 30 40 30 43 194 170 30 36 1.4 TABULATION SL. NO Torque (N-m) mf (Kg/S) BP (KW) IP (KW) Q (KW) BTH (%) IPTH (%) Vact (m3 /S) Vtheo (m3 /S) Vol. Eff (%) SFC (Kg/KW- hr) FP (KW) HAIR (m) Mechanical Efficieny (%) 1 0 0.0001 5 0 4.7 6.375 0 73.7254 902 0.00336 4814 0.00723 8648 46.4840 0401 #DIV/0! 4.7 16.241 2993 0 2 3 0.0001 61538 0.48851 7658 5.1885 17658 6.8653 84615 7.1156 6336 75.5750 4711 0.00328 3722 0.00716 4926 45.8305 0811 1.19041441 5 4.7 15.467 9041 9.4153608 3 6 0.0001 75 0.96509 7263 5.6650 97263 7.4375 12.976 09766 76.1693 7497 0.00311 5212 0.00707 738 44.0164 5927 0.65278394 6 4.7 13.921 1137 17.03584631 4 9 0.0001 86667 1.44199 1028 6.1419 91028 7.9333 33333 18.176 3575 77.4200 5497 0.00293 705 0.00704 9734 41.6618 5741 0.46602231 7 4.7 12.374 3233 23.47758278 5 12 0.0002 04878 1.91637 1519 6.6163 71519 8.7073 17073 22.008 74853 75.9863 3957 0.00311 5212 0.00702 6696 44.3339 5505 0.38487368 9 4.7 13.921 1137 28.96408573 6 15 0.0002 21053 2.39075 2009 7.0907 52009 9.3947 36842 25.447 78049 75.4757 917 0.00293 705 0.00701 2873 41.8808 4221 0.33286157 3 4.7 12.374 3233 33.71648037 7 18 0.0002 4 2.86513 25 7.5651 325 10.2 28.089 53431 74.1679 6569 0.00274 7359 0.00700 3657 39.2274 8794 0.30155673 4 4.7 10.827 5329 37.87286607
  • 47. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 40 HEAT BALANCE SHEET FOR NEAT DIESEL For Torque = 0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 6.375 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 0 0 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 1.391845 21.83286275 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.163254 2.560847059 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 4.819901 75.6062902 6 TOTAL 6.375 100 6.375 100 For Torque = 3.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 6.865384615 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 0.488517658 7.11566336 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 1.59068 23.16956863 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.163254 2.377929412 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 4.622932958 67.3368386 6 TOTAL 6.865384615 100 6.865384615 100 For Torque = 6.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 7.4375 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 0.965097263 12.97609766 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 1.789515 24.06070588 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.244881 3.292517647 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 4.438006737 59.67067881 6 TOTAL 7.4375 100 7.4375 100
  • 48. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 41 HEAT BALANCE SHEET CONTINUED…. For Torque = 9.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) ` 1 HEAT INPUT 7.933333333 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 1.441991028 18.1763575 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 1.98835 25.06323529 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.244881 3.086735294 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 4.258111305 53.67367192 6 TOTAL 7.933333333 100 7.933333333 100 For Torque = 12.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 8.707317073 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 1.916371519 22.00874853 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.187185 25.11893137 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.326508 3.749811765 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 4.277252554 49.12250833 6 TOTAL 8.707317073 100 8.707317073 100 For Torque = 15.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 9.394736842 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 2.390752009 25.44778049 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.38602 25.39741176 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.408135 4.344294118 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 4.209829833 44.81051363 6 TOTAL 9.394736842 100 9.394736842 100
  • 49. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 42 HEAT BALANCE SHEET CONTINUED…. For Torque = 18.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 10.2 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 2.8651325 28.08953431 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.584855 25.34171569 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.489762 4.801588235 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 4.2602505 41.76716176 6 TOTAL 10.2 100 10.2 100
  • 50. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 43 CALCULATIONS FOR TORQUE = 18 N-m : 1. Brake Power, BP= 2. Mass of Fuel Consumed, mf = 0.00024 3. Specific Fuel Consumption, sfc 0.301556734 4. Heat Input, 5. Brake Thermal Efficiency = 28.08953431 6. Head of air, 10.8275329 7. Actual volume, Vact 0.002747359 8. Theoretical volume, 0.007003657 9. Volumetric effieciency, 39.2274879 10. Indicated power, 7.5651325 11. Indicated thermal efficiency, 74.16796569 12. Mechanical efficiency, 10.8275329 13. Heat Loss to Water, - 2.584855 14. Heat Loss to Exhaust - 0.489762 15. Heat Unaccounted, - - 4.2602505
  • 51. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 44 OBSERVATIONS & TABULATIONS FOR DEE-ETHANOL 50:50 OBSERVATION SL. NO Torque (N-m) Speed (rpm) Time For 10cc of fuel Consumption (Sec) T1 (0 c) T2 (0 c) T3 (0 c) T4 (0 c) T5 (0 c) T6 (0 c) T7 (0 c) T8 (0 c) Hm (cm) Bcr (cc/min) 1 0 1560 66 30 47 30 38 127 108 30 32 1.8 1.7 2 3 1542 58 30 47 30 42 142 118 30 34 1.6 1.5 3 6 1536 53 30 47 30 43 155 127 30 34 1.7 1.5 4 9 1529 48 30 47 30 44 166 137 30 35 1.5 1.5 5 12 1521 45 30 46 30 44 167 152 30 35 1.4 1.4 6 15 1519 40 30 40 30 46 182 161 30 35 1.2 1.3 7 18 1515 38 30 37 30 47 198 167 30 35 1 1.3 TABULATIONS SL. NO Torque (N-m) mf (Kg/S) BP (KW) IP (KW) Q (KW) BTH (%) IPTH (%) Vact (m3 /S) Vtheo (m3 /S) Vol. Eff (%) SFC (Kg/KW- hr) FP (KW) HAIR (m) 1 0 0.00012 7273 0 3.8 5.40909 0909 0 70.2521 0084 0.00311 5212 0.00718 7964 43.3392 8298 #DIV/0! 3.8 13.9211 137 2 3 0.00014 4828 0.48443 3587 4.28443 3587 6.15517 2414 7.87034 9596 69.6070 4427 0.00293 705 0.00710 5026 41.3376 4062 1.07626581 7 3.8 12.3743 233 3 6 0.00015 8491 0.96509 7263 4.76509 7263 6.73584 9057 14.3277 745 70.7423 4032 0.00302 7442 0.00707 738 42.7763 0943 0.59120055 5 3.8 13.1477 185 4 9 0.00017 5 1.44104 855 5.24104 855 7.4375 19.3754 4269 70.4678 7967 0.00284 3787 0.00704 5126 40.3653 0253 0.43718166 2 3.8 11.6009 281 5 12 0.00018 6667 1.91134 497 5.71134 497 7.93333 3333 24.0925 8366 71.9917 4332 0.00274 7359 0.00700 8265 39.2016 9735 0.35158488 4 3.8 10.8275 329 6 15 0.00021 2.38603 962 6.18603 962 8.925 26.7343 3748 69.3113 683 0.00254 356 0.00699 905 36.3415 0569 0.31684302 3.8 9.28074 246 7 18 0.00022 1053 2.85570 7722 6.65570 7722 9.39473 6842 30.3968 8892 70.8450 6819 0.00232 1942 0.00698 0619 33.2626 951 0.27866628 9 3.8 7.73395 205
  • 52. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 45 HEAT BALANCE SHEET FOR DEE- ETHANOL 50:50 For Torque = 0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 5.409090909 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 0 0 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 1.250218667 23.11328627 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.156277333 2.889160784 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 4.002594909 73.99755294 6 TOTAL 5.409090909 100 5.409090909 100 For Torque = 3.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 6.155172414 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 0.484433587 7.870349596 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 1.875328 30.46751373 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.312554667 5.077918954 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 3.48285616 56.58421772 6 TOTAL 6.155172414 100 6.155172414 100 For Torque = 6.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 6.735849057 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 0.965097263 14.3277745 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.031605333 30.16108758 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.312554667 4.64016732 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 3.426591793 50.8709706 6 TOTAL 6.735849057 100 6.735849057 100
  • 53. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 46 HEAT BALANCE SHEET CONTINUED…. For Torque = 9.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 7.4375 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 1.44104855 19.37544269 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.187882667 29.4169098 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.390693333 5.253019608 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 3.41787545 45.9546279 6 TOTAL 7.4375 100 7.4375 100 For Torque = 12.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 7.933333333 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 1.91134497 24.09258366 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.187882667 27.57835294 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.390693333 4.924705882 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 3.443412363 43.40435752 6 TOTAL 7.933333333 100 7.933333333 100 For Torque = 15.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 8.925 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 2.38603962 26.73433748 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.500437333 28.01610458 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.390693333 4.37751634 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 3.647829713 40.8720416 6 TOTAL 8.925 100 8.925 100
  • 54. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 47 HEAT BALANCE SHEET CONTINUED…. For Torque = 18.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 9.394736842 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 2.855707722 30.39688892 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.656714667 28.27875556 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.390693333 4.158640523 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 3.49162112 37.165715 6 TOTAL 9.394736842 100 9.394736842 100
  • 55. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 48 CALCULATIONS FOR TORQUE = 18 N-m: 1. Brake Power, BP = 2. Mass of Fuel Consumed, mf 0.000221053 3. Specific Fuel Consumption, sfc 0.278666289 4. Heat Input, 9.394736842 5. Brake Thermal Efficiency = 30.39688892 6. Head of air, 7.73395205 7. Actual volume, Vact 0.002321942 8. Theoretical volume, 0.006980619 9. Volumetric effieciency, 33.2626951 10. Indicated power, 6.655707722 11. Indicated thermal efficiency, 70.84506819 12. Mechanical efficiency, 42.90614674 13. Heat Loss to Water, - 2.656714667 14. Heat Loss to Exhaust - 0.390693333 15. Heat Unaccounted, - - 3.49162112
  • 56. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 49 OBSERVATIONS & TABULATIONS FOR DEE-ETHANOL 70:30 OBSERVATION Sl. No Torque (N-m) Speed (rpm) Time For 10cc of fuel Consumption (Sec) T1 (0 c) T2 (0 c) T3 (0 c) T4 (0 c) T5 (0 c) T6 (0 c) T7 (0 c) T8 (0 c) Hm (cm) Bcr (cc/min) 1 0 1554 61 30 69 30 35 135 109 30 35 2 1.2 2 3 1539 55 30 67 30 40 144 117 30 36 1.8 1.2 3 6 1535 52 30 64 30 41 157 133 30 37 1.7 1.5 4 9 1528 47 30 58 30 42 173 158 30 38 1.6 1.5 5 12 1525 43 30 40 30 44 177 163 30 34 1.5 1.3 6 15 1522 40 30 36 30 45 185 159 30 34 1.4 1.3 7 18 1518 37 30 38 30 46 204 162 30 35 1.3 1.3 TABULATION SL. NO Torque (N-m) mf (Kg/s) BP (KW) IP (KW) Q (KW) BTH (%) IPTH (%) Vact (m3 /s) Vtheo (m3 /s) Vol. Eff (%) BSFC (Kg/KW -hr) FP (KW) HAIR (m) Mechanical Efficieny (%) 1 0 0.0001 37705 0 3.9 5.8524 59016 0 66.638 65546 0.0032 83722 0.00716 0318 45.860 00007 #DIV/0! 3.9 15.467 9041 0 2 3 0.0001 52727 0.4834 91109 4.3834 91109 6.4909 09091 7.4487 42582 67.532 7762 0.0031 15212 0.00709 1203 43.930 65721 1.137183 644 3.9 13.921 1137 11.02981841 3 6 0.0001 61538 0.9644 68945 4.8644 68945 6.8653 84615 14.048 28715 70.855 00984 0.0030 27442 0.00707 2772 42.804 17674 0.602962 35 3.9 13.147 7185 19.82680855 4 9 0.0001 78723 1.4401 06072 5.3401 06072 7.5957 44681 18.959 37966 70.303 91748 0.0029 3705 0.00704 0519 41.716 38864 0.446775 601 3.9 12.374 3233 26.96774283 5 12 0.0001 95349 1.9163 71519 5.8163 71519 8.3023 25581 23.082 34602 70.057 13594 0.0028 43787 0.00702 6696 40.471 17874 0.366972 587 3.9 11.600 9281 32.94788706 6 15 0.0002 1 2.3907 52009 6.2907 52009 8.925 26.787 13736 70.484 61635 0.0027 47359 0.00701 2873 39.175 94065 0.316218 494 3.9 10.827 5329 38.00423234 7 18 0.0002 27027 2.8613 62589 6.7613 62589 9.6486 48649 29.655 57865 70.075 74672 0.0026 47421 0.00699 4442 37.850 35632 0.285632 202 3.9 10.054 1377 42.3193188
  • 57. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 50 HEAT BALANCE SHEET FOR DEE- ETHANOL 70:30 For Torque = 0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 5.852459016 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 0 0 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 0.994175 16.98730392 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.408135 6.973735294 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 4.450149016 76.03896078 6 TOTAL 5.852459016 100 5.852459016 100 For Torque = 3.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 6.490909091 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 0.483491109 7.448742582 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 1.98835 30.63284314 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.489762 7.545352941 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 3.529305982 54.37306134 6 TOTAL 6.490909091 100 6.490909091 100 For Torque = 6.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 6.865384615 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 0.964468945 14.04828715 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.187185 31.85815686 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.571389 8.322752941 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 3.142341671 45.77080305 6 TOTAL 6.865384615 100 6.865384615 100
  • 58. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 51 HEAT BALANCE SHEET CONTINUED…. For Torque = 9.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 7.595744681 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 1.440106072 18.95937966 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.38602 31.41258824 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.653016 8.597129412 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 3.116602608 41.03090269 6 TOTAL 7.595744681 100 7.595744681 100 For Torque = 12.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 8.302325581 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 1.916371519 23.08234602 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.78369 33.52903922 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.326508 3.932729412 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 3.275756063 39.45588535 6 TOTAL 8.302325581 100 8.302325581 100 For Torque = 15.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 8.925 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 2.390752009 26.78713736 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.982525 33.41764706 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.326508 3.658352941 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 3.225214991 36.13686264 6 TOTAL 8.925 100 8.925 100
  • 59. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 52 HEAT BALANCE SHEET CONTINUED…. For Torque = 18.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 9.648648649 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 2.861362589 29.65557865 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 3.18136 32.97207843 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.408135 4.229970588 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 3.19779106 33.14237233 6 TOTAL 9.648648649 100 9.648648649 100
  • 60. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 53 CALCULATIONS FOR TORQUE = 18 N-m: 1. Brake Power, BP= 2. Mass of Fuel Consumed, mf 0.000227027 3. Specific Fuel Consumption, sfc 4. Heat Input, 9.648648649 5. Brake Thermal Efficiency = 6. Head of air, 7. Actual volume, Vact 0.002647421 8. Theoretical volume, 9. Volumetric effieciency, 35.85035362 10. Indicated power, 11. Indicated thermal efficiency, 70.07574672 12. Mechanical efficiency, 42.3193188 13. Heat Loss to Water, - 3.18136 14. Heat Loss to Exhaust - 0.408135 15. Heat Unaccounted, - - 3.19779106
  • 61. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 54 OBSERVATIONS & TABULATIONS FOR DEE-METHANOL 50:50 OBSERVATION Sl. no Torque (N-m) Speed (rpm) Time For 10cc of fuel Consumption (Sec) T1 (0 c) T2 (0 c) T3 (0 c) T4 (0 c) T5 (0 c) T6 (0 c) T7 (0 c) T8 (0 c) Hm (cm) Bcr (cc/min) 1 0 1561 60 30 44 30 40 138 110 30 31 2.2 1.7 2 3 1550 53 30 43 30 42 151 120 30 34 2 1.5 3 6 1541 50 30 44 30 44 160 134 30 35 1.9 1.7 4 9 1534 46 30 44 30 45 172 146 30 36 1.7 1.7 5 12 1529 43 30 45 30 46 179 161 30 36 1.6 1.7 6 15 1516 38 30 44 30 48 193 171 30 36 1.4 1.8 7 18 1511 36 30 44 30 49 208 172 30 36 1.3 1.7 TABULATION SL. NO Torque (N-m) mf (Kg/s) BP (KW) IP (KW) Q (KW) BTH (%) IPTH (%) Vact (m3 /s) Vtheo (m3 /s) Vol. Eff (%) SFC (Kg/KW- hr) FP (KW) HAIR (m) Mechanical Efficieny (%) 1 0 0.0001 4 0 4.1 5.95 0 68.907 56303 0.0034 43997 0.0071 92572 47.882 68608 #DIV/0! 4.1 17.014 6945 0 2 3 0.0001 58491 0.4869 46861 4.5869 46861 6.7358 49057 7.2291 83095 68.097 53043 0.0032 83722 0.0071 41887 45.978 34846 1.1717213 58 4.1 15.467 9041 10.6159255 3 6 0.0001 68 0.9682 38856 5.0682 38856 7.14 13.560 76829 70.983 73748 0.0032 00576 0.0071 00418 45.075 8816 0.6246392 58 4.1 14.694 5089 19.10404942 4 9 0.0001 82609 1.4457 60939 5.5457 60939 7.7608 69565 18.628 85244 71.457 98409 0.0030 27442 0.0070 68165 42.832 08037 0.4547026 32 4.1 13.147 7185 26.06965852 5 12 0.0001 95349 1.9213 98067 6.0213 98067 8.3023 25581 23.142 88988 72.526 64338 0.0029 3705 0.0070 45126 41.689 10519 0.3660125 54 4.1 12.374 3233 31.90950084 6 15 0.0002 21053 2.3813 27231 6.4813 27231 9.3947 36842 25.347 46073 68.988 91731 0.0027 47359 0.0069 85227 39.330 99055 0.3341789 67 4.1 10.827 5329 36.74135168 7 18 0.0002 33333 2.8481 679 6.9481 679 9.9166 66667 28.721 02084 70.065 55865 0.0026 47421 0.0069 62188 38.025 70543 0.2949264 33 4.1 10.054 1377 40.99163896
  • 62. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 55 HEAT BALANCE SHEET FOR DEE- METHANOL 50:50 For Torque = 0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 5.95 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 0 0 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 1.98835 33.41764706 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.081627 1.371882353 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 3.880023 65.21047059 6 TOTAL 5.95 100 5.95 100 For Torque = 3.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 6.735849057 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 0.486946861 7.229183095 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.38602 35.42270588 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.326508 4.847317647 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 3.536374195 52.50079338 6 TOTAL 6.735849057 100 6.735849057 100 For Torque = 6.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 7.14 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 0.968238856 13.56076829 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.78369 38.9872549 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.408135 5.716176471 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 2.979936144 41.73580034 6 TOTAL 7.14 100 7.14 100
  • 63. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 56 HEAT BALANCE SHEET CONTINUED…. For Torque = 9.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 7.760869565 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 1.445760939 18.62885244 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.982525 38.43029412 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.489762 6.310658824 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 2.842821626 36.63019462 6 TOTAL 7.760869565 100 7.760869565 100 For Torque = 12.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 8.302325581 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 1.921398067 23.14288988 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 3.18136 38.31890196 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.489762 5.899094118 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 2.709805514 32.63911404 6 TOTAL 8.302325581 100 8.302325581 100 For Torque = 15.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 9.394736842 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 2.381327231 25.34746073 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 3.57903 38.09611765 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.489762 5.213152941 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 2.944617611 31.34326869 6 TOTAL 9.394736842 100 9.394736842 100
  • 64. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 57 HEAT BALANCE SHEET CONTINUED…. For Torque = 18.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 9.916666667 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 2.8481679 28.72102084 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 3.777865 38.09611765 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.489762 4.938776471 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 2.800871767 28.24408504 6 TOTAL 9.916666667 100 9.916666667 100
  • 65. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 58 CALCULATIONS FOR TORQUE = 18 N-m: 1. Brake Power, BP= 2. Mass of Fuel Consumed, mf = 0.000233333 3. Specific Fuel Consumption, sfc 0.294926433 4. Heat Input, 9.916666667 5. Brake Thermal Efficiency = 28.72102084 6. Head of air, 10.0541377 7. Actual volume, Vact 0.002647421 8. Theoretical volume, 0.006962188 9. Volumetric effieciency, 38.02570543 10. Indicated power, 6.9481679 11. Indicated thermal efficiency, 70.06555865 12. Mechanical efficiency, 40.99163896 13. Heat Loss to Water, - 3.777865 14. Heat Loss to Exhaust - 0.489762 15. Heat Unaccounted, - - 2.800871767
  • 66. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 59 OBSERVATIONS & TABULATIONS FOR DEE-METHANOL 70:30 OBSERVATION SL. NO Torque (N-m) Speed (rpm) Time For 10cc of fuel Consumption (Sec) T1 (0 c) T2 (0 c) T3 (0 c) T4 (0 c) T5 (0 c) T6 (0 c) T7 (0 c) T8 (0 c) Hm (cm) Bcr (cc/min) 1 0 1561 64 30 53 30 40 140 108 30 33 1.8 1.5 2 3 1551 59 30 51 30 41 145 117 30 35 1.6 1.2 3 6 1545 55 30 53 30 42 155 125 30 36 1.4 1.3 4 9 1523 50 30 54 30 44 163 136 30 35 1.3 1.3 5 12 1517 42 30 37 30 47 185 165 30 36 1.2 1.2 6 15 1509 40 30 37 30 48 195 173 30 38 1 1.2 7 18 1500 36 30 37 30 49 214 178 30 39 1 1.3 TABULATION SL. NO Torque (N-m) mf (Kg/s) BP (KW) IP (KW) Q (KW) BTH (%) IPTH (%) Vact (m3 /s) Vtheo (m3 /s) Vol. Eff (%) SFC (Kg/KW- hr) FP (KW) HAIR (m) Mechanical Efficieny (%) 1 0 0.0001 3125 0 4.3 5.5781 25 0 77.086 83473 0.0031 15212 0.0071 92572 43.311 51918 #DIV/0! 4.3 13.921 1137 0 2 3 0.0001 42373 0.4872 61021 4.7872 61021 6.0508 47458 8.0527 73169 79.117 19894 0.0029 3705 0.0071 46495 41.097 77037 1.0518846 19 4.3 12.374 3233 10.17828396 3 6 0.0001 52727 0.9707 5213 5.2707 5213 6.4909 09091 14.955 56503 81.202 06363 0.0027 47359 0.0071 18849 38.592 73895 0.5663836 99 4.3 10.827 5329 18.41771546 4 9 0.0001 68 1.4353 93683 5.7353 93683 7.14 20.103 55299 80.327 64263 0.0026 47421 0.0070 1748 37.726 09383 0.4213478 2 4.3 10.054 1377 25.02694257 5 12 0.0002 1.9063 18422 6.2063 18422 8.5 22.427 27556 73.015 51085 0.0025 4356 0.0069 89834 36.389 41802 0.3776913 61 4.3 9.2807 4246 30.71576887 6 15 0.0002 1 2.3703 31657 6.6703 31657 8.925 26.558 3379 74.737 6096 0.0023 21942 0.0069 52973 33.394 95233 0.3189427 09 4.3 7.7339 5205 35.5354393 7 18 0.0002 33333 2.8274 33388 7.1274 33388 9.9166 66667 28.511 93333 71.873 27786 0.0023 21942 0.0069 11504 33.595 32205 0.2970892 27 4.3 7.7339 5205 39.66972729
  • 67. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 60 HEAT BALANCE SHEET FOR DEE- METHANOL 70:30 For Torque = 0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 5.578125 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 0 0 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 1.98835 35.6454902 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.244881 4.390023529 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 3.344894 59.96448627 6 TOTAL 5.578125 100 5.578125 100 For Torque = 3.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 6.050847458 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 0.487261021 8.052773169 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.187185 36.1467549 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.408135 6.745088235 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 2.968266437 49.05538369 6 TOTAL 6.050847458 100 6.050847458 100 For Torque = 6.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 6.490909091 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 0.97075213 14.95556503 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.38602 36.75941176 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.489762 7.545352941 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 2.644374961 40.73967027 6 TOTAL 6.490909091 100 6.490909091 100
  • 68. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 61 HEAT BALANCE SHEET CONTINUED…. For Torque = 9.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 7.14 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 1.435393683 20.10355299 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 2.78369 38.9872549 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.408135 5.716176471 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 2.512781317 35.19301564 6 TOTAL 7.14 100 7.14 100 For Torque = 12.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 8.5 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 1.906318422 22.42727556 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 3.380195 39.767 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.489762 5.761905882 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 2.723724578 32.04381856 6 TOTAL 8.5 100 8.5 100 For Torque = 15.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 8.925 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 2.370331657 26.5583379 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 3.57903 40.10117647 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.653016 7.316705882 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 2.322622343 26.02377975 6 TOTAL 8.925 100 8.925 100
  • 69. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 62 HEAT BALANCE SHEET CONTINUED…. For Torque = 18.0 N-m SL.NO PARTICULARS INPUT (KW) % OUTPUT (KW) % 1 HEAT INPUT 9.916666667 100 2 HEAT EQUIVALENT TO BP 2.827433388 28.51193333 3 HEAT LOSS TO WATER 3.777865 38.09611765 4 HEAT LOSS TO EXHAUST 0.734643 7.408164706 5 HEAT UNACCOUNTED 2.576725278 25.98378432 6 TOTAL 9.916666667 100 9.916666667 100
  • 70. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 63 CALCULATIONS FOR TORQUE = 18 N-m : 1. Brake Power, BP= 2. Mass of Fuel Consumed, mf = 0.00024 3. Specific Fuel Consumption, sfc 0.301556734 4. Heat Input, 5. Brake Thermal Efficiency = 28.08953431 6. Head of air, 10.8275329 7. Actual volume, Vact 0.002747359 8. Theoretical volume, 0.007003657 9. Volumetric effieciency, 39.2274879 10. Indicated power, 7.5651325 11. Indicated thermal efficiency, 74.16796569 12. Mechanical efficiency, 10.8275329 13. Heat Loss to Water, - 2.584855 14. Heat Loss to Exhaust - 0.489762 15. Heat Unaccounted, - - 4.2602505
  • 71. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 64 CHAPTER 6 PERFORMANCE GRAPHS
  • 72. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 65 BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY vs TORQUE Here pilot fuel blend is introduced into the intake air manifold and they vaporize, mix with air and enter the cylinder as a mixture. These blends ( like DEE-Alcohol(Ethanol/Methanol)), which contain oxygen in them provide additional oxygen for combustion to that from the usual air intake. Due to this, combustion of diesel improves. And as combustion gets better, the thermal efficiency increases.Hence Brake Thermal Efficiency increases. From the graph it can be seen that NEAT DIESEL has produced low brake thermal effficiencies at most loads than when blends are used. DEE-ETHANOL taken in ratio of 50:50 has produced the best result here. 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 BRAKETHERMALEFFICIENCY(%) TORQUE (N-m) NEAT DIESEL DEE- ETHANOL 50-50 DEE- ETHANOL 70-30 DEE-METHANOL 50-50 DEE-METHANOL 70-30
  • 73. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 66 MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY vs BRAKE POWER Addition of Blends, has resulted in smoother combustion due to reduction in friction loses, producing more power output. Mechanical Efficiency is ratio is a ratio of output power to the power input. As power output is Brake Power and it is increasing with the addition of blend and friction power being constant for each blend and neat diesel, mechanical efficiecny increases. Mechanical Efficiency = ; Here, Brake Power is increasing, so Mechanical Efficiency also increases. From the graph it can seen that Mechanical efficiency has increased with the use of blends than with NEAT DIESEL. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 MECHANICALEFFICIENCY(%) BRAKE POWER (KW) NEAT DIESEL DEE- ETHANOL 50-50 DEE- ETHANOL 70-30 DEE-METHANOL 50-50 DEE-METHANOL 70-30
  • 74. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 67 MASS OF FUEL CONSUMED vs TORQUE Blends enhance combustion of diesel fuels, thereby producing higher power output for the same quantity of the diesel fuel, compared to the normal combustion of diesel fuel where only neat diesel is used without the blend. Conversely, to produce a given power output, the required quantity of diesel fuel (with blend) is much lesser compared to neat diesel. Hence the mass of fuel consumed for a particular load is higher in case of ‗neat diesel‘ than ‗diesel with blend‘. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 5 10 15 20 MASSOFFUELCONSUMED(Kg/hr) TORQUE (N-m) NEAT DIESEL DEE- ETHANOL 50-50 DEE- ETHANOL 70-30 DEE-METHANOL 50-50 DEE-METHANOL 70-30
  • 75. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 68 VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY vs TORQUE As blends enhance combustion of diesel fuels, higher heat release takes place in the engine cylinder resulting in higher temperatures inside the cylinder. Therefore the temperature of the residual gases will also be higher. During the succeeding suction stroke when the charge is drawn in, this excessive heat of the residual gases is transferred to the incoming charge thereby reducing charge density. Hence lesser volume of the charge enters the cylinder leading to lower volumetric efficiencies (when blends are used). However this reduction in volumetric efficiency will not serve as a negative point because although lesser charge enters the cylinder, due to higher heat release, the required power output is obtained. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 0 5 10 15 20 VOLUMETRICEFFICIENCY(%) TORQUE (N-m) NEAT DIESEL DEE- ETHANOL 50-50 DEE- ETHANOL 70-30 DEE-METHANOL 50-50 DEE-METHANOL 70-30
  • 76. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 69 WILLIANS LINE GRAPH This is a willians line graph (without extrapolation). Willians line graph gives the Friction Power. As blends are oxygenates,they aide in better and smoother combustion. Thereby reducing friction loses, hence reducing friction power. From the graph it is evident that all blends will definitely give less friction powers than NEAT DIESEL. Thus addition of blend reduces friction power. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 MASSOFFUELCONSUMED,mf(Kg/hr) Brake Power (KW) NEAT DIESEL DEE-ETHANOL 50-50 DEE-ETHANOL 70-30 DEE-METHANOL 50-50 DEE-METHANOL 70-30 FRICTION POWERS •NO BLEND = 4.7 KW •DEE-METHANOL 70-30 = 4.3 KW •DEE-METHANOL 50-50 = 4.1 KW •DEE-ETHANOL 70-30 = 3.9 KW •DEE-ETHANOL 50-50 = 3.8 KW
  • 77. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 70 BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY vs BRAKE POWER Blends being oxygenates, result in better combustion of diesel fuel. Better Combustion leads to higher power output, ie Higher Brake Power. Brake Thermal efficiency is the percentage ratio of Brake Power to Heat Input. So Brake Power Increases, it is natural that Brake Thermal Efficiency increases. As seen from the graph, with the use of blend Brake Power obtained is more compared to NEAT DIESEL and hence the Brake Thermal Efficiency is more. 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 0 1 2 3 4 BRAKETHERMALEFFICIENCY(%) BRAKE POWER (KW) NEAT DIESEL DEE- ETHANOL 50-50 DEE- ETHANOL 70-30 DEE-METHANOL 50-50 DEE-METHANOL 70-30
  • 78. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 71 SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION vs BRAKE POWER Specific Fuel Consumption is the amount of fuel consumed to produce 1 Kilowatt for 1 hour.As Blend results in better combustion, an effective utilization of diesel fuel is made. Therefore Specific fuel consumption reduces with blends for a given output. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 SPECIFICFUELCONSUMPTION(Kg/KW-hr) BRAKE POWER (KW) NEAT DIESEL DEE -ETHANOL 50-50 DEE -ETHANOL 70-30 DEE-METHANOL 50-50 DEE-METHANOL 70-30
  • 79. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 72 SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION vs TORQUE As Blends result in better combustion, diesel consumed to produce 1KW for 1hr reduces. Therefore for a given output, Specific fuel consumption reduces with blend. From the graph it is evident that use of blends reduce SFC than when compared with NEAT DIESEL. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 SPECIFICFUELCONSUMPTION(Kg/KW-hr) TORQUE (N-m) NO BLEND DEE- ETHANOL 50-50 DEE- ETHANOL 70-30 DEE-METHANOL 50-50 DEE-METHANOL 70-30
  • 80. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 73 EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE vs TORQUE As Blends result in better combustion, higer output is otained.Due to higher output production, combustion temperatures increase or in other words there is higher heat release and therefore exhaust gas temperature also increases. From the graph it can be seen that Exhaust Gas Temperature increases with blends when compared to NEAT DIESEL. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 EXHAUSTGASTEMPERATURE(T5 OC) TORQUE (N-m) NEAT DIESEL DEE -ETHANOL 50-50 DEE -ETHANOL 70-30 DEE -METHANOL 50-50 DEE -METHANOL 70-30
  • 81. INTRODUCTION OF BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 74 HEAT UNACCOUNTED vs TORQUE This graph is an Inference from heat balance sheet, and it points out that most of the heat unaccounted is reducing for a given torque with the use of blend. This is due to increase in engine exhaust gas temperature which ultimately results in higher heat exchange between exhaust gases and cooling waters,(Engine cooling water and Calorimeter Cooling Water). Previously unaccounted heat is now accounted as cooling effect on the Engine Rig. Thus engine is cooled more efficiently. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 HEATUNACCOUNTED(%) TORQUE (N-m) NEAT DIESEL DEE- ETHANOL 50-50 DEE- ETHANOL 70-30 DEE-METHANOL 50-50 DEE-METHANOL 70-30
  • 82. INTRODUCTION OF A BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 75 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION, FUTURE SCOPE & BIBLIOGRPAHY
  • 83. INTRODUCTION OF A BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 76 CONCLUSION Experiment was carried out on a 4 stroke, single cylinder Diesel engine using the following blends 50 (DEE) : 50 (Ethyl Alcohol), 50 (DEE) : 50 (Methyl Alcohol), 70 (DEE) : 30 ( Ethyl Alcohol), 70 (DEE) : 30 (Methyl Alcohol). Graph only Diesel Diesel+blend Load vs ηbth (%) 26 31 BP vs ηmech (%) 37 43 Load vs ηvol (%) 39 33 Load vs mf (Kg/hr) 0.86 0.7 William’s line (FP) (KW) 4.7 3.8 BP vs ηbth (%) 27 31 Load vs SFC (Kg/KWhr) 1.2 1.05 BP vs SFC (Kg/KWhr) 1.2 1.05 Torque vs Exhaust gas temperature (ºC) 194 216 Torque vs Heat unaccounted (%) 42 26
  • 84. INTRODUCTION OF A BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 77 From the graphs and the table above it is clearly evident that, pilot fuel blends have resulted in enhanced combustion of the diesel fuel. The blends 70 (DEE) : 30 (Methyl Alcohol) and 50 (DEE) : 50 (Ethyl Alcohol) have shown significant increase in performance and hence can be used as effective combustion enhancers. Large scale implementation of the above system a solution can be obtained for the current energy crisis and the longevity of the fossil fuels can be increased…
  • 85. INTRODUCTION OF A BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 78 FUTURE SCOPE There is lot of potential for further research on this topic. Some of which are: Using other Pilot fuels like Dimethyl Ether, Ethylene Glycol, Ethers blended with peroxides etc. Different blends can be used at various proportions for further study. Emission study for the above project. Effect of pilot fuel blends on combustion products like carbon monoxide. Carbon dioxide, NOx, unburnt Hydrocarbons and other particulates can be studied. Using pilot fuels along with Exhaust gas recirculation and pre-heater systems. Both EGR and pre heater systems result in better vaporization of the pilot fuel particles; hence, their effect can be studied. Changing the injector pressure of diesel injection. Increasing injector pressure helps distribute fuel particles in the cylinder more uniformly. The effect of this can be studied. Currently the gravimetric system is feasible only for stationary diesel engines; with modification in the method of introduction of blended pilot fuels, enhanced performance can be obtained also in mobile engines.
  • 86. INTRODUCTION OF A BLENDED PILOT FUEL TO ENRICH THE CHARGE IN A CI ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG, DSCE 79 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Brent Bailey, James Eberhardt, Steve Goguen, and Jimell Erwin,― Diethyl Ether (DEE) as a Renewable Diesel Fuel‖, National Research Laboratory, US Departmemt of Energy, Jul 2007. 2. Saravanan D, Vijayakumar T, and Thamaraikannan M, “Experimental analysis of combustion and emmisions characteristics of CI Engine Powered with Diethyl Ether blended Diesel as Fuel”, School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore-632014, TamilNadu, INDIA ,School of Mechanical Engineering, Veltech Dr RR and SR Technical University, Chennai, TamilNadu, INDIA 3. Eliana Weber de Menezes, Rosaˆngela da Silva, Renato Catalun˜a *, Ricardo J.C. Ortega, ―Effect of ethers and ether/ethanol additives on the properties of diesel fuel and on engine tests‖, Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul,Avenida Bento Gonc¸alves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil ,Received 20 April 2005. 4. Cenk Sayin, ―Engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of methanol and ethanol–diesel blends‖, Department of Automotive Engineering Technology,Marmara University, 34722 Istanbul, Turkey,Received 18 December 2009 5. K.Harshavardhan Reddy & N.Balajiganesh, “Experimental investigation on four stroke diesel engine using diesel–Orange oil blends”, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aditya College of Engineering & Technology,Madanaalli, Andhra Pradesh, India, received on June 2, 2012. 6. Deepali Bharti, Professor Alka Agrawal, Assistant Professor Nitin Shrivastava, Bhupendra Koshti,“Experimental Investigation and Performance Parameter on the Effect of N-Butanol Diesel Blends on an Single Cylinder Four Stroke Diesel Engine”, UIT RGPV, Bhopal, received on 8 August 2012. 7. Ismet Sezer*, ―Thermodynamic, performance and emission investigation of a diesel engine running on dimethyl ether and diethyl ether‖, Mechanical Engineering Department, Gümüs¸ hane University, 29100 Gümüs¸ hane, Turkey, Received 12 August 2010.