Theory of Reasoned Action

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A brief presentation on the theory of reasoned action

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Theory of Reasoned Action

  1. 1. THEORY OF REASONED ACTION (TRA) Aravind Sesagiri Raamkumar
  2. 2. AGENDA Example Introduction Development of Theory Usage in IS Discussion
  3. 3. LETS START WITH A REAL WORLD EXAMPLE
  4. 4. COMPONENTS Attitude towards behavior Intentions for Behavior behavior Subjective Norms Dependent Variables Independent Variables  Behavior  Attitude towards the behavior  Intentions for behaviors  Subjective Norms or Normative Beliefs  Intentions for behaviors
  5. 5. BACKGROUND Domain: Social Psychology Base Theory: Dulany’s Theory of Propositional Control(1968) Objective: To establish relationship between attitude and overt behavior Main Contributors: Icek Ajzen and Martin Fishbein Period of Work: 1965-1980s
  6. 6. MAIN PAPERS Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1973). Attitudinal and normative variables as predictors of specific behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27(1), 41-57. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior : An introduction to theory and research. Reading, Mass. ; Don Mills, Ontario: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co
  7. 7. THE THEORY B ≈ BI = (w1)AB + (w2)SN B -> Behavior | BI -> Behavioral Intention | AB -> Attitude towards behavior SN -> Subjective Norms | W1 -> Weight for AB | W2 -> Weight for SN
  8. 8. STEP BY STEP VERIFICATION WITH EMPIRICAL DATA Step 1: Behavior (B) and Behavioral Intentions (BI) • Experiment: Prisoner’s Dilemma based games with two persons • Motivational Orientations: Competitive, Cooperative or Individualistic • Correlation of 0.822 (p < 0.001) between B and BI over 20 trails • Confirmatory findings from other researchers- Hornik (1970) & Darroch (1971) Constraints 1. The measurement of intentions needs to be taken in close proximity to the behavior 2. Mediating variables can cause changes in behaviors independent of measured intentions
  9. 9. STEP BY STEP VERIFICATION WITH EMPIRICAL DATA Step 2 and Step 3: Attitude & Normative Beliefs with Behavioral Intentions • Same set of experiments • AB was measures by rating the behavior in question using semantic differential scales • SN or NB was measured by a direct question concerning expectations of others • Average correlation was found to be 0.808 -> High predictive value • Attitudinal component (AB)has more influence than normative beliefs(NB) Constraints Prediction of B varies based on 1) Type of Behavior 2) Situation 3) Individual Difference between the actors
  10. 10. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
  11. 11. OTHER FACTORS Beliefs play an important role in Attitude formation  Existence of a circular loop between behavior to belief External variables don’t’ directly cause changes in intentions rather it is through AB and SN General attitude towards an object is a summation of the attitudes related to different behaviors related to the particular object
  12. 12. ISSUES WITH THE THEORY Only works when the individual has volitional control Difficulty in differentiating attitudes and social norms Doesn’t take factors such as skills, unconscious habits and restricted environment into account
  13. 13. SUCCESSORS TO THE THEORY Theory of Planned Behavior(TPB) Technology Acceptance Model(TAM) Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technolog
  14. 14. USAGE OF TRA IN IS Mainly used in studies related to user intentions Examples:  Consumer online grocery buying intention (2004)  Study of students’ interest in IS career (2011)  Study of Social Networking Behavior (2012) Methodology of usage  Check if the TRA model fits the problem space  Factor analysis  Take the measurements and use them for prediction  Structural Equation Modeling
  15. 15. DISCUSSIONWhere can we use this model?  TRA model finds application if the problem space involves understanding and changing the behavior of users  Most studies try to compare TRA, TPB and TAM and see which model performs fits and performs better Conversion of conceptual variables into measurable variables can be tricky
  16. 16. Q&A…
  17. 17. Consumer online grocery buying intention (2004) Home
  18. 18. Consumer online grocery buying intention (2004) Home
  19. 19. Study of Social Networking Behavior (2012) Home

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