Taxonomies and Metadata


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Presentation prepared for my supervisor on the topics Taxonomy and Metadata

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  • KOS Definition Source: slide 5Image Source: slide 3
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  • Source:Whittaker, M., & Breininger, K. (2008, August). Taxonomy development for knowledge management. In 74th General Conference and Council of the World Library and Information, Quebec, Canada.
  • Source:Woods, E. (2004). Building a corporate taxonomy: Benefits and challenges.Ovum expert advice.
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  • Taxonomies and Metadata

    1. 1. Taxonomies and Metadata
    2. 2. Agenda • Introduction to Metadata and Taxonomy • Folksonomies • Ontologies • Metadata and Taxonomy combined • Taxonomy Development • Software and Tools • Current Challenges
    3. 3. What is Metadata? Metadata is structured information that describes, explains, locates, or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use, or manage an information resource[NISO] Title Author(s) Year of publication Metadata Types • Descriptive -> for resource discovery and identification • Structural -> defines the physical/logical structure of resources • Administrative -> for managing resources “Metadata is simply data about data”
    4. 4. Purposes of Metadata Additionally… • Facilitate interoperability between systems • For Archiving and Preservation Retrieval Resource Discovery & Identification Management Classification Connect with other resourcesAuthorship & Access Rights
    5. 5. Evolution of global metadata standards… Metadata Scheme – set of metadata elements designed for a particular purpose Metadata Specification – when metadata scheme is adopted by many other organizations Metadata Standards – when metadata specification is accepted by a ‘standards’ body such as ISO “Metadata Standards are required at a global level mainly for enforcing Interoperability between systems”
    6. 6. Popular Metadata Standards
    7. 7. What are Taxonomies • In KM perspective, taxonomy is a hierarchical topic structure where information items are assigned through the dual processes of classification (filing to a location) and categorization (tagging with corresponding metadata) [centralized taxo] • Taxonomies facilitate discovery (browsing & searching), retrieval and content re-use of resources within a system “Taxonomies are hierarchical classification systems”
    8. 8. Where are they?
    9. 9. Most commonly used taxonomy
    10. 10. Taxonomy and Knowledge Organisation Systems (KOS) • In the Information Science domain, Taxonomies are a type of Knowledge Organisation Systems (KOS) which are meant to model the underlying semantic structure of a domain [Hodge] • Among KOS types, taxonomies are somewhere in the “middle” in terms of creation/maintenance complexity and expressive power taxonomies-to-ontologies
    11. 11. Structured KOS and their applicability Type Directionality Description Applicability Taxonomy Groups resources into categories For creating simple classification schemes Thesaurus Captures different names of resources and finds close relationships For creating classification schemes along with associative relationships Ontology Captures multi- dimensional relationships b/w both within and between groups of resources For maintaining a network of resources with multiple relationships and properties
    12. 12. Folksonomies – Web 2.0 based alternative to Taxonomies • A new breed of web 2.0 resource sharing systems allow users to add their own keywords(or tags) to resources • Tags used for both resource description & classification and for later retrieval • Outcome of tagging activity in a systems => Folksonomy • Folksonomies are the most dynamic KOS system • Two types : – Broad folksonomies: Anyone can add any resource and tag any resource – Narrow folksonomies: The author adds the resources and adds the tags while other users are restricted in adding tags • Popular systems: Flickr (Image sharing system), Delicious (Social bookmarking system)
    13. 13. Taxonomy created with Experts Folksonomy developed through users Professional touch Highly compliant with historical resources Rigid Dependent on experts People power Highly compliant with current resources Volatile Takes time for vocabulary convergence Spelling mistakes Spams Why Folksonomies ?
    14. 14. Leveraging both Taxonomies and Folksonomies 1. Start with a controlled vocabulary created by experts 2. Create the taxonomies based on the controlled vocabulary 3. Provide the users with the feature to add tags to the resources in the system 4. Monitor tagging activity and tag convergence for resources 5. Modify the controlled vocabulary to include the popular tags thereby modifying the taxonomy too Expert touch + People choice = Relevant Taxonomies (Controlled (Tags) Vocabs)
    15. 15. Ontologies – most advanced KOS type • What are Ontologies? – A networked collection of concepts and their corresponding properties and relationships in a particular knowledge domain • Support for all different properties – Transitive – Symmetrical – Functional & Inverse Functional • The biggest benefit of ontology is its inferencing ability Can Taxonomies and Ontologies co-exist? • Both ontologies and taxonomies can be built from each other • The relationship between components in a taxonomy is implicitly understood by users • The relationship between components in a ontology is explicitly specified and can be understood by semantic systems • In reality, ontology subsumes taxonomy and therefore taxonomy can be built from ontology without any loss of data
    16. 16. More on Ontology… • Ontology is the central binding component of the proposed “Semantic Web” architecture • Semantic Web represents the next generation web of data where systems understand data • Semantic Web technologies such as RDF, OWL and SPARQL are already used in many websites • Anyone can design an ontology using the Web Ontology Language (OWL) or Resource Description Framework (RDF) and publish in the web • Simple Knowledge Organisation System (SKOS) is an vocabulary that can be used by organisations to express their taxonomies, thesauri and other classification schemes
    17. 17. More on SKOS and KM… • Use SKOS type ontologies in your company if you are interested in using semantic technologies • Semantic technologies aid the “Linked Data” vision where the aim is to connect data in one organisation to data from other organisations to facilitate re-use and better understanding • Caveat: These technologies have not reached mainstream adoption yet SKOS is able to express both taxonomy relationships (broader/narrow) and thesaurus relationships (preferred label)
    18. 18. Taxonomy and other KOS systems – a summary • Taxonomies are not just a set of folders • They are an entry point to the pool of resources (documents) • They are built on top of controlled vocabularies • Taxonomies can be built through expert analysis • Folksonomies make use of the public vocabulary for providing continual updates to taxonomies • Ontologies help in re-using concepts and applying semantics to the concepts • Web based ontologies help in inter-operability across other systems
    19. 19. Complimentary relationship of Metadata and Taxonomy • Metadata describes a resource well and is very much part of the resource • Metadata doesn’t capture relationships between resources sufficiently -> this is where taxonomies come in • Taxonomies are external to the resource and are good for modelling relationships between resources • Taxonomies are road-maps and serve dual purposes of describing current resources and also predicting where the future resources will be placed Metadata Taxonomy Data about items Classification & Labeling  Finding resources  Helping in decision making by providing a pool of resources with their corresponding information
    20. 20. Visualizing the integrated working mechanism of metadata and taxonomies Document, Content & Records Management Thesauri Ontologies Filing & Storage Resource Metadata & Tagging Search Engine Visualisation Resource Navigation Intranet / Portal User Interface Back End Components Front End Components Taxonomies Knowledge Organisation Systems [Centralized taxonomy]
    21. 21. What are the indications of a good taxonomy? • Taxonomy vocabularies need to be understandable and meaningful to common users • The users should be able to get an overall idea of the structure of the domain by looking at the taxonomy • The resources are to be easily located in taxonomies with smaller paths • The users should also be able to anticipate where new resources would be placed • Most importantly, taxonomies should be easy to navigate
    22. 22. Taxonomy Development • Taxonomies are essentially “living organisms” with dynamic nature -> continually evolving over a period of time • One-time development followed by periodic updates is the norm with taxonomy management Whittaker’s seven steps of taxonomy development Determine Requirements Identify Concepts Develop draft taxonomy Review with Users and SMEs Refine taxonomy Apply taxonomy to content Manage and maintain taxonomy
    23. 23. Other Approaches to Taxonomy Development Ovum’s approach • Start with a knowledge/information audit – Study of the requirements • Build on top of existing taxonomies and categorisation models – Use internal draft taxonomies or adopt from other companies • Develop a draft taxonomy – By making use of categorisation tools • Refining the taxonomy – To ensure navigability and logical correctness • Testing – Piloting with few users to iron out the defects • Applying the classification model – Bring in the documents • Monitoring
    24. 24. Challenges related to Taxonomy Development and Management • There is not just ‘one’ correct taxonomy for the entire organization • Development from scratch vs. Adapting someone else’s • Taxonomy creation at start or end of information lifecycle • User-oriented or content-oriented taxonomies • Document-centric or people-centric taxonomies • Taxonomy integration
    25. 25. Popular Software Software and Tools • Synaptica – Commercial taxonomy building software • Poolparty – Thesaurus management software with SKOS editor • MultiTes Pro – Thesaurus building software • Protégé – Free ontology building software • TopBraid Composer – Ontology editing software • Microsoft Sharepoint – Most popular content and document management platform with enterprise search
    26. 26. References Academic References Whittaker, M., & Breininger, K. (2008, August). Taxonomy development for knowledge management. In 74th General Conference and Council of the World Library and Information, Quebec, Canada. Woods, E. (2004). Building a corporate taxonomy: Benefits and challenges.Ovum expert advice. General Web Reference Hodge, G. (2013, June 18). Taxonomies and ontologies: definitions, differences and use. Retrieved from Lei Zeng, M. (2004). Metadata standards. Retrieved from NISO. ANSI, (2004). Understanding metadata. Retrieved from website: Ten taxonomy myths. (2002, November). Retrieved from Slideshare References Barbosa, D. (2008, September 29). Centralized taxonomy management for enterprise information systems. Retrieved from presentation Champeau, D. (2009, November 24). Taxonomy and metadata. Retrieved from Connors, C. (2010, January 21). From taxonomies to ontologies. Retrieved from Cooksey, D. (2008, April 08). Taxonomy is user experience. Retrieved from is-user-experience Metaschool Project. (2006, December 16). Retrieved from White, L. (2012, May 22). Taxonomy: Do i need one. Retrieved from need-one