DRIVE The Surprising TruthAbout What Motivates Us Aravind Sesagiri Raamkumar Ajai Loganathan
Agenda• About the Author• Introduction to DRIVE• Part I – A New Operating System – The Rise and Fall of Motivation 2.0 – 7 reasons why Carrot and Sticks(CAS) don’t work – Circumstances when CAS actually work – Type I and Type X• Part II – The Three Elements – Autonomy – Mastery – Purpose• Part III- The Type 1 Toolkit• Conclusion
Introducing Daniel PinkDaniel H. Pink is an American author and journalist.He received a Bachelors degree from NorthwesternUniversity and a Juris Doctor from Yale Law School.He worked for Vice President Al Gore in the capacity ofchief speechwriter between 1995 to 1997He is the author of four provocative books about thechanging world of work — including the long-runningNew York Times bestseller, A Whole New Mind, and the#1 New York Times bestseller, Drive. His books have beentranslated into 33 languages. Dan lives inWashington, DC, with his wife and their three children.
The Motivation Shift Rules and norms in society are made based on how humans behave and how the world works Motivation 3.0 – Based on the Motivation 2.0 – internal need to Rewards and learn and do better- Punishments- intrinsic motivation External Drive-ThisMotivation 1.0 – method badly failsSurvival-Related for non-routineto Biological tasksdrive
A Reality CheckAmerican job market is primarily based on heuristic work.Heuristic: 70% jobs while Algorithmic:30% jobs Routine work can easily be outsourced and automatedVery difficult to outsource jobs that involve right brained thinking Claim: Mismatch between what Science knows and what Business does
Carrot and Stick Method• Enterprises all around the globe have been using this method to get work of their people.• This is prevalent everywhere• Many of our students take part in surveys only when there are cash gifts or other goodies in offer!!!
Experiments…• Sam Glucksberg of Princeton came to the conclusion that adding cash incentives results in the subjects taking, on average, 3.5 minutes longer to really see the solution.• But this effect goes away if the problem is redesigned to be routine(mechanical) instead of requiring creativity (ex:by taking the tacks out of the box in candle experiment).
Disadvantages of carrots and sticks method• They can extinguish intrinsic motivation• They can diminish performance• They can crush creativity• They can crowd out good behavior• They can encourage cheating, shortcuts, and unethical behavior• They can become addictive• They can foster short-term thinking
But Carrots taste good too!(Some Advantages)Carrot and Stick method can work out if• The employers offer rationale for why the task is necessary. A job that is not inherently interesting can become more meaningful if it’s a part of a larger purpose – I know it sucks, but got to do it!• Acknowledge that the task is boring• Allow people to complete the task their own way (poor man’s chance of autonomy).
Carrots can work for Creativity too “Now That” rewards – non-contingent rewards given after the task is complete, cansometimes work for more creative work.Guidelines for rewarding non-routine, creativework:•Consider non-tangible rewards. Praise andpositive feedback are much less corrosive thancash and trophies.•Provide useful information. Give peoplemeaningful information about their work. Themore feedback focuses on specifics and themore praise is about effort and strategy ratherthan about achieving a particular outcome –the more effective it can be.
Type I and Type X No No, its not typing I and X in Keyboard! Motivation 2.0 fostered Type X Motivation 3.0 needs Type I behavior behaviour Fueled by extrinsic desires and Deals less with external awards concerned less with the for an activity and more with inherent satisfaction of an inherent satisfaction of the activity activity itselfType X Goal is to move from Type X Type I Type X to Type I Rewards Challenge Incentives Curiosity Praise The Flow Type I
Distinctions b/w Type I and XType I behavior is made, not born Type I’s almost always outperform Type X’sType I’s don’t ignore money and recognition Type I behavior is a renewable resource Type I = The Sun, burns and it burns Type X = Coal, burns out eventually Type I behavior promotes greater physical and mental well-being
Pink’s Three Elements Mastery Autonomy Purpose ELEMENTS
Autonomy – its my way on the highwayROWE(Results-Only Work A Cornell University study on workers autonomy at 320Environment) small businesses discovered that businesses that offered autonomy grew at four times the rate of the•People don’t have schedules. control-oriented firms and had one-third the turnover.They show up when theywant. They don’t have to be in Time-When they do itthe office at a certain time – Task-What they door any time for that matter. When’s your best time 3M’s 15% time to work?•They just have to get their Google’s 20% timework done. How they do Best Buy un-scheduleit, when they do it and wherethey do it is up to them. Technique-How they Team-Who they do it do it with Autonomy Zappos case Who do you want to Independence work with?
MasteryMotivation 2.0 (control) needed Mastery begins with “flow” – optimalcompliance while Motivation 3.0 experiences when the challenges we face are(autonomy) demands exquisitely matched to our abilities.engagement(Mastery). In flow, Goals become crystal clear and effortsStart with Goldilocks Tasks… to achieve them are very black and white. People live so deeply engaged, that their sense of time, place and even self melt away. Flow is essential to mastery Flow doesn’t guarantee mastery Flow happens in a moment while mastery unfolds over months, years, sometimes decades.
3 Laws of Mastery • It requires the capacity to see your abilities not as finite, but as infinitely improvableMastery is a • Use learning goals instead of performance goals. mindset • It demands effort, grit, and deliberate practice • Intense practice of more than 10 yearsMastery is a • “Being a professional is doing the things you love to do, on the days you pain don’t feel like doing them” – Julius Erving • It’s impossible to fully realize, which makes it simultaneously frustrating and alluringMastery is • You can approach it, home in on it but you’ll never touch it. The joy is in an the pursuit more than the realization.asymptote
Purpose A third leg – purpose, which provides a context for its two mates, activation energy for living Motivation Motivation 2.0 3.0 Purpose maximization is Traditional businesses taking its place alongside have long considered profit maximization - Purpose “ornamental” inspiration , guiding principle. As an emotional catalyst, wealth The new “purpose motive” maximization lacks the is expressing itself in three power to fully mobilize ways: Goals, Words, Policies human energies.Work Volunteerismdisengagement
Purpose offered in organization Companies use profits to reach purpose, giving employees control over how Goals the organization gives back to the community might do more to improve their overall satisfaction than one more “if-then” financial incentive. Their goal is to pursue purpose- and to use profit as the catalyst rather than the objective. Emphasize more than self-interest, Change in pronoun “I” to “We”. In Words motivation 3.0 “We” wins. Stringent corporate policies led to unethical behavior, better approach to enlist the power of autonomy in the service of purpose maximization. Policy e.g. Fixing some budget to charitable well-being,20% time with a purpose.The Good lifeStudy conducted at University of Rochester, soon to begraduated students about their life goals.Profit goals – ill being, depression, anxietyPurpose goals – well being, Intrinsic motivation
• Understanding the mismatch between what science knows and what business does – gap is wide, results are alarming.• Things we consider “natural” – carrot and stick – not only ineffective in many situations but crush the high-level, creative, conceptual abilities, future economic and social abilities.• The secret to high performance isn’t our biological drive or our reward- and-punishment but our third drive- desire to direct our own lives, to extend and expand our abilities and to live a life of purpose.• We’re designed to be active and engaged and not to be passive and compliant.
Tool Kit - Type 1 for Individuals Set a reminder on you computer or mobile phone 40 times a week (5 to 6 times a day). Each time the device beeps write down what you’re doing, how you’re feeling, whether you’re in “flow”. Record your observations, look at the patterns, and consider the following questions,Which moments produced feelings of “flow”? Where were you? What were you working on?Are certain times of day more flow-friendly than others? Restructure based on your findings.How might you increase the number of optimal experiences and reduce the moments when you felt disengaged?
repairing continues…Ask a Big Question? – orienting your life toward greater purposee.g. She invented a device that made people’s lives easierShe taught two generations of children how to read.What’s your sentence? Keep asking small question – to keep yourself motivated Ask yourself whether you were better today than yesterday? Did you do more? Less? Specifically, did you learn your ten vocabulary? You need not be a master by day 3, but is the best way of ensuring you will be one by day 3,000. So , before sleeping ask yourself “Was I better today than yesterday?”Take a SAGMEISTER – Stefan Sagmesiter takesSabbatical once in 7 year.Self-performance review.
Moving closer to mastery Remember deliberate practice: is about changing performance, setting goals and straining yourself to reach a bit higher each time Repeat, repeat, repeat Seek constant, critical feedback Focus ruthlessly on where you need help Prepare for the process to be mentally and physically exhaustingTake Blank three-by-five inch card, write your answer to these question; What gets you up in the morning? What keeps you up at night?Repeat it until you have crafted something you can live with.
Tool Kit - Type 1 for Organizations Try implementing 20% time progressively (e.g. Google) Encourage peer to peer “now-that” rewards Conduct autonomy audit3 steps towards giving control Involve people in goal-setting (individuals are interested in pursuing goals they had created) Use non controlling language (instead of “must” say “consider”) Hold office hours ( transparency within leaders and employee)Intrinsic Motivation, setup an environment that makes people feel good about participating.Give users autonomy.
• Ensure internal and external fairness• Pay more-than-average (giving bonus at the initial stage and bypass if-then rewards and helps take money off the tableApply autonomy, mastery and purpose while giving assignment.Have a FedEx day ( students to work on any problem to solve it).Give kids some allowance (helps them to save or spend money , offers them ameasure of autonomy)Do not combine chores(understanding mutual family obligations) with money. ,Why am I learning this?How is it relevant to the world I live in now?Apply what they are studying.
Check out these 5 schoolsAutonomy, mastery and purpose provided in these schools,1) Big picture learning – students in charge of their own education2) Sudbury valley school3) The Tinkering School4) Puget sound community school5) Montessori schoolsTurn students into TeachersGive an opportunity for students to teach, proves them a way towardsmastery.