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# Unit ii-ppt

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### Unit ii-ppt

1. 1. I. OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM Learning Objectives:  Ability to formulate a linear program.  Ability to represent graphically the decision space of a linear program.  Ability to find, based on the graphical representation, the optimal solution of the linear program. Objectives:  Translate word problems into mathematical functions.  Determine the absolute maximum and minimum values of a function over an interval [a,b].  Utilize a graphing calculator to represent and solve optimization problems
2. 2. Optimization: The Idea  Transform the program to improve efficiency  Performance: faster execution  Size: smaller executable, smaller memory footprint Steps to Optimization:  Read the problem.  Reread the problem.  Draw a picture or graph if appropriate.  Identify the given information  What quantity needs to be maximized or minimized?  Find an appropriate equation for what needs to be maximized or minimized, and reduce it to one variable.  Reread the question and make sure you have answered what was asked
3. 3. Optimization Problem:  An optimization problem is the problem of finding the best solution from all feasible solutions.  A set of instances of an optimization problem,  A set of valid solutions e.g.  Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)  Minimal Spanning Tree (MST)  Shortest Path (SP)  Linear Programming (LP)
4. 4. Ingredients: An optimization problem is specified by defining instances, solutions, and costs.  Instances: The instances are the possible inputs to the problem.  Solutions for Instance: Each instance has an exponentially large set of solutions. A solution is valid if it meets a set of criteria determined by the instance at hand.  Measure of Success: Each solution has an easy-to-compute cost, value, or measure of success that is to be minimized or maximized Specification of an Optimization Problem:  Preconditions: The input is one instance.  Postconditions: The output is one of the valid solutions for this instance with optimal (minimum or maximum as the case may be) measure of success. (The solution to be outputted need not be unique.)
5. 5. II. GRAPH SEARCH ALGORITHM: A "graph" in this context is made up of "vertices" or "nodes" and lines called edges that connect them.  A graph G = (V,E) is composed of: V: set of vertices E: set of edges connecting the vertices in V  An edge e = (u,v) is a pair of vertices  Example: a b c d e
6. 6.  Types of graphs  Undirected: edge (u, v) = (v, u); for all v, (v, v) E (No self loops.)  Directed: (u, v) is edge from u to v, denoted as u v. Self loops are allowed.  Weighted: each edge has an associated weight, given by a weight function w : E R.  Dense: |E| |V|2.  Sparse: |E| << |V|2.
7. 7. Oriented (Directed) Graph:  A graph where edges are directed Directed vs. Undirected Graph:  An undirected graph is one in which the pair of vertices in a edge is unordered, (v0, v1) = (v1,v0)  A directed graph is one in which each edge is a directed pair of vertices, <v0, v1> != <v1,v0>
8. 8. III. Generic Search Algorithm This algorithm to search for a solution path in a graph.  The algorithm is independent of any particular graph. The Reachability Problem:  Preconditions: The input is a graph G (either directed or undirected) and a source node s.  Postconditions: The output consists of all the nodes u that are reachable by a path in G from s.
9. 9. Code: algorithm GenericSearch (G, s) <pre-cond>: G is a (directed or undirected) graph, and s is one of its nodes. <post-cond>: The output consists of all the nodes u that are reachable by a path in G from s.€ begin foundHandled = ∅ foundNotHandled = {s} loop <loop-invariant>: See LI1, LI2. exit when foundNotHandled = ∅ let u be some node from foundNotHandled for each v connected to u if v has not previously been found then add v to foundNotHandled end if end for move u from foundNotHandled to foundHandled end loop return foundHandled end algorithm
10. 10. 1: Procedure Search(G,S,goal) 2: Inputs 3: G: graph with nodes N and arcs A 4: S: set of start nodes 5: goal: Boolean function of states 6: Output 7: path from a member of S to a node for which goal is true 8: or ⊥ if there are no solution paths 9: Local 10: Frontier: set of paths 11: Frontier ←{⟨s⟩: s∈S} 12: while (Frontier ≠{}) 13: select and remove ⟨s0,...,sk⟩ from Frontier 14: if ( goal(sk)) then 15: return ⟨s0,...,sk⟩ 16: Frontier ←Frontier ∪{⟨s0,...,sk,s⟩: ⟨sk,s⟩∈A} 17: return ⊥
11. 11. IV.Breadth-First Search  In breadth-first search the frontier is implemented as a FIFO (first-in, first-out) queue. Thus, the path that is selected from the frontier is the one that was added earliest.
12. 12. Pseudocode Input: A graph G and a root v of G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 procedure BFS(G,v): create a queue Q create a set V enqueue v onto Q add v to V while Q is not empty: t ← Q.dequeue() if t is what we are looking for: return t for all edges e in G.adjacentEdges(t) do u ← G.adjacentVertex(t,e) if u is not in V: add u to V enqueue u onto Q return none
13. 13. Breadth-first search is useful when • space is not a problem; • you want to find the solution containing the fewest arcs; • few solutions may exist, and at least one has a short path length; and • infinite paths may exist, because it explores all of the search space, even with infinite paths. It is a poor method when all solutions have a long path length or there is some heuristic knowledge available. It is not used very often because of its space complexity.
14. 14. V. Dijkstra’s Algorithm: Finding shortest paths in order Closest node to s is 1 hop away 2nd closest node to s is 1 hop away from s or w” 3rd closest node to s is 1 hop away from s, w”, or x Find shortest paths from source S to all other destinations w' z w x s w " z' x'
15. 15. Dijkstra’s shortest path  Find shortest paths from source (s) to all other destinations
16. 16. Pseudocode 1 function Dijkstra(Graph, source): 2 for each vertex v in Graph: // Initializations 3 dist[v] := infinity ; // Unknown distance function from 4 // source to v 5 previous[v] := undefined ; // Previous node in optimal path 6 end for // from source 7 8 dist[source] := 0 ; // Distance from source to source 9 Q := the set of all nodes in Graph ; // All nodes in the graph are 10 // unoptimized – thus are in Q 11 while Q is not empty: // The main loop 12 u := vertex in Q with smallest distance in dist[] ; // Source node in first case 13 remove u from Q ; 14 if dist[u] = infinity: 15 break ; // all remaining vertices are 16 end if // inaccessible from source 17 18 for each neighbor v of u: // where v has not yet been 19 // removed from Q. 20 alt := dist[u] + dist_between(u, v) ; 21 if alt < dist[v]: // Relax (u,v,a) 22 dist[v] := alt ; 23 previous[v] := u ; 24 decrease-key v in Q; // Reorder v in the Queue 25 end if 26 end for 27 end while 28 return dist; 29 endfunction
17. 17. VI. Depth-First Search The first strategy is depth-first search. In depth-first search, the frontier acts like a last-in first-out (LIFO) stack. The elements are added to the stack one at a time. The one selected and taken off the frontier at any time is the last element that was added.
18. 18. Depth-First Search Algorithm DFS(v); Input: A vertex v in a graph Output: A labeling of the edges as “discovery” edges and “backedges” for each edge e incident on v do if edge e is unexplored then let w be the other endpoint of e if vertex w is unexplored then label e as a discovery edge recursively call DFS(w) else label e as a backedge
19. 19. Depth-first search is appropriate when either • space is restricted; • many solutions exist, perhaps with long path lengths, particularly for the case where nearly all paths lead to a solution; or • the order of the neighbors of a node are added to the stack can be tuned so that solutions are found on the first try. It is a poor method when • it is possible to get caught in infinite paths; this occurs when the graph is infinite or when there are cycles in the graph; or • solutions exist at shallow depth, because in this case the search may look at many long paths before finding the short solutions.
20. 20. DFS vs. BFS F B A G DFS Process D C start E destination A DFS on A G D B A B DFS on B A Call DFS on G C B A DFS on C D B A Call DFS on D Return to call on B found destination - done! Path is implicitly stored in DFS recursion Path is: A, B, D, G
21. 21. DFS vs. BFS Contd… F B A start G destination D C E BFS Process rear front A rear front B Initial call to BFS on A Dequeue A Add A to queue Add B rear front G Dequeue D Add G rear front D C Dequeue B Add C, D found destination - done! Path must be stored separately rear front D Dequeue C Nothing to add
22. 22. VII.Recursive Depth First Search Recursive: Recursion is the process of repeating items in a self-similar way. For instance, when the surfaces of two mirrors are exactly parallel with each other the nested images that occur are a form of infinite recursion A classic example of recursion is the definition of the factorial function, given here in C code: unsigned int factorial(unsigned int n) { if (n == 0) { return 1; } else { return n * factorial(n - 1); } }
23. 23. Code: algorithm DepthFirstSearch (s) begin if s is marked as found then do nothing else mark s as found for each v connected to s DepthFirstSearch (v) end for end if end algorithm