“Education is the most powerful weapon
which you can use to change the world. ”
The life and times of
Nelson Mandelapresented by Fan of
• Full Name: Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela
• Born : 18 July 1918,
Age : 91 Years,
• Place of birth: Mvezo,Dist: Umtata in the
• Father: Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa
served as chief of the town of Mvezo,
• Mother: Nosekeni Fanny,
• Siblings: 3 Brothers & 9 Sisters,
• His Hero of life: Paun Robenson (a
Mandela’s Early Life
He is the First member of his family to attend a
At Sixteen, Mandela Completed his Junior
Certificate in 2yrs instead of 3yrs.
At nineteen, he took an interest
in boxing and running at the school.
Mandela began to study for a Bachelor of
Arts at the Fort Hare University.
At the end of Nelson's first year, he became
involved in a Students' Representative Council
boycott against university policies.
Mandela later started work as an articled
clerk at a Johannesburg law firm.
Mandela completed his B.A. degree at the University of South Africa via
correspondence, after which he began law studies at the University of
Mandela begin actively participate in politics
He led prominently in the ANC's
(Afrikaner-dominated National Party)
1952 Defiance Campaign.
In 1955,he led ”Congress of the People”, whose
adoption of the Freedom Charter provided the
fundamental basis of the anti-apartheid cause.
Mandela and 150 others were arrested on 5
December 1956 and charged with treason.
Mandela starts a law firm & provide free or lowcost help to many black people.
In 1961, Mandela became leader of the ANC's
armed wing, Umkhonto We
Sizwe (translated Spear of the Nation, and also
abbreviated MK), which he co-founded.
He coordinated sabotage campaigns
against military and government targets.
Mandela also raised funds for MK abroad and
arranged for paramilitary training of the group.
Later, mostly in the 1980s, MK waged a
guerrilla war against the apartheid regime in
which many civilians became casualties.
Mandela later admitted that the ANC, in its
struggle against apartheid, also violated human
rights and stop these activities.
Arrest & Rivonia trial
On 5 August 1962 Mandela was arrested after living on the run for seventeen
months, and was imprisoned in the Johannesburg Fort.
On 25 October 1962, Mandela was sentenced to five years in prison.
Police arrested prominent ANC leaders on 11 July 1963, at Liliesleaf Farm, Rivonia,
north of Johannesburg.
Charged by the chief prosecutor Dr. Percy Yutar with the capital crimes of sabotage
(which Mandela admitted) and crimes which were equivalent to treason.
The Republic of South Africa and the declaration of a state of emergency along with
the banning of the ANC.
Mandela went on to explain :
“During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to the struggle of the African people. I have
fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished
the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and
with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be,
it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”
Nelson Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island where he remained for the next
eighteen of his twenty-seven years in prison.
While in jail, his reputation grew and he became widely known as the most
significant black leader in South Africa.
Prisoners were segregated by race ,to blacks they only allow one visitor and one
letter every six months.
In prison Mandela undertook study with the University of London by correspondence
through its External Programme and received the degree of Bachelor of Laws.
Robben Island’s Prison
Nominated for the position of Chancellor of the University of London in the 1981
election, but lost to Princess Anne.
In March 1982 Mandela was transferred from Robben Island to Pollsmoor Prison,
along with other senior ANC leader.
The first meeting between Mandela and the National Party government came in
November 1985 when Kobie Coetsee met Mandela in Volks Hospital in Cape
Town where Mandela was recovering from prostate surgery.
• Throughout Mandela's imprisonment,
local and international pressure mounted on
the South African government to release
him, under the resounding slogan Free
• De Klerk announced Mandela's release in
On 2 February 1990, State President F.W. de
Klerk reversed the ban on the ANC and other
anti-apartheid organizations, and announced
that Mandela would shortly be released from
Mandela was released from Victor Verster
Prison in Paarl on 11 February 1990.
On the day of his release, Mandela made a
speech to the nation
He declared his commitment to peace and
reconciliation with the country's white
He also said his main focus was to bring
peace to the black majority and give them
the right to vote in both national and local
South Africa's president FW de Klerk poses with
Nelson Mandela in Cape Town's government
residence on February 9 1990.
In 1990,Mandela elected as
President of the organization.
Mandela's leadership through the
negotiations, as well as his
relationship with President F.W. de
Klerk, was recognized when they
were jointly awarded the Nobel
Peace Prize in 1993.
The assassination of ANC
leader Chris Hani in April 1993.
While some riots did follow the
assassination, the negotiators were
comes into action, and soon agreed
that democratic elections should
take place on 27 April 1994, just
over a year after Hani's
Presidency of South Africa
• South Africa's first multi-racial
elections were held on 27 April 1994.
• ANC won 62% of the votes in the
election, and Mandela, as leader of the
ANC, was inaugurated on 10 May 1994
as the country's first black President.
• Mandela ordered troops into Lesotho in
September 1998 to protect the
government of Prime Minister Pakalitha
• One of Mandela's trademarks was his
use of Batik shirts, known as "Madiba
shirts", even on formal occasions.[
Reconciliation of Black & White
• Mandela encouraged black South Africans to get behind the previously
hated Springboks (the South African national rugby team) as South Africa hosted
the 1995 Rugby World Cup.
After the Springboks won an epic final over New Zealand, Mandela presented the
trophy to captain Francois Pienaar, an Afrikaner.
• This was a major step in the reconciliation of white and black South Africans.
From the Gallery
Nelson Mandela poses with Michael
Jackson before cutting a birthday cake for
his 78th birthday July 19 1996.
Facing the world
Nelson Mandela poses for photographers
in Cape Town following his first press
conference on February 12 1990, a day
after his release from jail.
From the Gallery
United Nations secretary general Kofi Annan
meets former president Nelson Mandela in
Johannesburg on March 15, 2006 during his
first visit to South Africa.
Nelson Mandela casts his vote at the Transvaal
Automobile Club, Houghton, Johannesburg as
South Africa's third democratic election get off
to a smooth start on April 14 2004. 14
• He decided not to stand for a second term
and retired in 1999.
• He joins & started many social and human
Make Poverty History movement.
South Africa's most successful charitable
sports gathering:”The Nelson Mandela
Invitational charity golf tournament”
Mandela is a vocal supporter of SOS
Children's Villages, the world's largest
organization dedicated to raising
orphaned and abandoned children.
• In July 2001, Mandela was diagnosed and
treated for prostate cancer.
• In June 2004, at age 85, Mandela
announced that he would be retiring from
public life. His health had been declining,
and he wanted to enjoy more time with his
• Mandela's 90th birthday was marked
across the country on 18 July 2008, with
the main celebrations held at his home
town of Qunu.[
• In a speech to mark his birthday, Mandela
called for the rich people to help poor
people across the world.
• In 2003 Mandela's death was incorrectly announced by CNN, due to a fault
in password protection.
“AIDS is no longer just a disease, it’s a Human Right issue”-Nelson Mandela
• One of Mandela's primary commitments
has been to the fight against AIDS.
• He gave the closing address at the XIII
International AIDS Conference in 2000, in
• In 2003, he had already lent his support to
the 46664 AIDS fundraising campaign,
named after his prison number.
In July 2004, he flew to Bangkok to speak
at the XV International AIDS Conference.
• His son, Makgatho Mandela, died of AIDS
on 6 January 2005.
Iraq Invasion Views
• In 2002 and 2003, Mandela criticised the
foreign policy of the administration of U.S.
president George W. Bush in a number of
Criticising the lack of UN involvement in
the decision to begin the War in Iraq.
• He urged the people of the U.S. to join
massive protests against Bush and called on
world leaders to oppose him.
• He attacked the United States for its record
on human rights and for dropping atomic
bombs on Japan during World War II.
Zimbabwe & Robert Mugabe
• Robert Mugabe, the president of Zimbabwe who has led the country since
independence in 1980.
• Criticised internationally for the
1980s fighting which killed about 3000
people as well as corruption, incompetent
oppression(cruelty) and favoritism that has
ultimately led to the economic collapse of
• Mandela criticised Mugabe in 2000.
• In June 2008, at the height of the crisis
over the Zimbabwean presidential election,
Mandela condemned the "tragic failure of
leadership" in Zimbabwe.[
Awards & Honours
• Mandela has received more than two hundred and fifty awards over four
decades, most notably the Nobel Peace Prize.
• The Order of Merit and the Order of St. John from Queen Elizabeth II.
• The Presidential Medal of
Freedom from George W. Bush in
• In 2001, he was the first living person
to be made an honorary Canadian
• In 1990, he received the Bharat
Ratna Award from the government of
• And also received the last ever Lenin
Peace Prize from Russia.
• Many artists have dedicated songs to
• The most popular was from the The
Specials who recorded the song "Free Nelson
Mandela" in 1983.
• A summary of Mandela's life story is featured
in the 2006 music video "If Everyone Cared"
Raffi's song "Turn This World Around" is
based on a speech given by Mandela where
he explained the world needs to be "turned
around, for the children".
• A tribute concert for Mandela's 90th birthday
took place in Hyde Park, London on 27 June
From the Gallery
Former US president Bill Clinton and Nelson
Mandela attend the third Nelson Mandela Annual
Lecture on July 19 2005 in Johannesburg.
Nelson Mandela throws a rose on to the coffin
of his son Makgatho on January 15 2005.
Mandela said his son had died of HIV/Aids.
From the Gallery
Nelson Mandela receives a Barcelona
Football Club jersey from club manager
Albert Perrin at the Mandela Foundation in
Houghton on June 20 2007
Nelson Mandela receives an England
team jersey with "Mandela" on the back
from team captain David Beckham on
May 21 2003.
From the Gallery
Nelson Mandela attends the launch of his new
book Mandela: The Authorised Portrait in
Nelson Mandela, wearing a New York Yankee
Johannesburg on October 9 2006.
cap and jacket, takes an unannounced rush hour
stroll in northwest Washington, June 26, 1990.
• Mandela's autobiography, ”Long Walk to
Freedom”, was published in 1994 by Little
Brown & Co.
• Mandela had begun work on it secretly
while in prison.
• In that book Mandela did not reveal
anything about the alleged complicity
of F.W. de Klerk in the violence of the
eighties and nineties
• Journalist Anthony Sampson who
issued ”Mandela: The Authorised
• James Gregory was the author of fraudulent
book, ”Goodbye Bafana”, and Mandela said
he shows my life in a wrong manner.
Cinema & television
• The film Mandela and De Klerk told the story of Mandela's release from prison.
• Its world premiere shown at the Berlin film festival on 11 February 2007.
• The film, entitled Invictus,was directed by Clint Eastwood, and featured Freeman
as Nelson Mandela and Matt Damon as Pienaar.
• In a forthcoming BBC television one-off drama Mrs Mandela, Nelson Mandela will
be portrayed by David Harewood and Sophie Okonedo will play his former
wife Winnie Mandela.
Statues & Civic tributes
On 30 April 2001, Nelson Mandela
Gardens in Millenium
Square, Leeds was officially opened
On 31 March 2004, Sandton Square
in Johannesburg was renamed Nelson Mandela
Statues & Civic tributes
On 29 August 2007, a statue of Nelson Mandela
was unveiled at Parliament Square in London.
On 27 August 2008, a statue of Nelson Mandela
was unveiled at Groot Drakenstein Correctional
Centre between Paarl and Franshhoek on the R301
road, near Cape Town.
Statues & Civic tributes
in Oakland, California
England there is a Nelson Mandela Park with the
slogan "South Africa belongs to all those who live
there, Black and White". It is opposite Leicester
Tigers ground Welford Road.
Postage Stamps & Coins
Frederik Willem de Klerk
as State President of
President of South Africa
Andrés Pastrana Arango
Secretary General of