A tour of future- smart and on-demand computing

1
Cloud Computing
This presentation demonstrates the
vision , mission and future scope of
the Cloud computing Technology.

I...
3
Definition

4
The Power of Thinking
Cloud computing is using the internet
to access someone else's software
running on someone else's ha...
The Power of Thinking
A cloud is a pool of virtualized
resources that can host a variety of
different workloads, allow wor...
Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

7
NIST CLOUD
Definition

Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

8
NIST
(National Institute of Standard &Technology)
Cloud computing allows computer
users to conveniently rent access to
ful...
NIST
(National Institute of Standard &Technology)
"Cloud computing is a model for
enabling convenient, on-demand
network a...
Essential Characteristics
On-demand

self-service - A
consumer can unilaterally provision
computing capabilities, such as...
Essential Characteristics
Rapid elasticity - Capabilities can

be
rapidly
and
elastically
provisioned,
in
some
cases
auto...
Service Models

Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

13
Service Models
Software as a Service (SaaS) - The

capability provided to the consumer is
to use the provider’s applicati...
Service Models
Platform as a Service (PaaS) - The

capability provided to the consumer
is to deploy onto the cloud
infras...
Service Models
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) -

The capability provided to the
consumer
is
to
provision
processing, ...
Deployment Models
Private

cloud - The cloud
infrastructure is operated solely for
an organization. It may be managed
by ...
Deployment Model

Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

18
Terms use in Cloud
•cloud subscriber or subscriber: a

person or organization that is a
customer of a cloud;
•client: a ma...
Clarification
(Cluster,Grid andCloud)
•A computer cluster is a group of

linked computers, working together
closely thus i...
Clarification
(Cluster,Grid andCloud)
•Requirements

for

computing

increasing fast –
 More data to process.
 More comp...
Clarification
(Cluster,Grid andCloud)
•Grid computing is a term referring

to the combination of computer
resources
from
m...
GridComputing

Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

23
Clarification
(Cluster,Grid andCloud)
•Grid computing is the combination of

computer resources from multiple
administrati...
Clarification
(Cluster,Grid andCloud)
•A large-scale distributed computing

paradigm that is driven by
economies of scale,...
Comparison between Three
Cluster

Grid

Cloud

On demand Self Service

NO

NO

YES

Broad Network Access

YES

YES

YES

R...
Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

27
Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

28
Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

29
Cloud Applications
This presentation demonstrates the
major areas where cloud can play
vital role and their scope in the C...
ECGAnalysis

Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

31
Protein Prediction

Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

32
Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

33
Typical Commercial Terms of Service
A subscriber’s terms of service for a cloud are
determined by a legally binding agreem...
Typical Commercial Terms of Service
Provider promises, including explicit
statements
regarding
limitations, are codified i...
Typical Commercial Terms of Service
2. Force majeure events - Providers

4. Security - Providers generally assert that

ge...
Typical Commercial Terms of Service
(c) Obligations –
1.

2.

Generally, subscribers
must agree to three key obligations:
...
Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

38
Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

39
Cloud Reference Architecture
NIST cloud computing reference
architecture defines five major actors:
1. cloud consumer
2. c...
Actor’s Responsibility
Actor

Definitions

Cloud Consumer

A person or organization that maintains a business
relationship...
Interaction among Actors

Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

42
Example Scenario - 1

Usages Scenario for Cloud Brokers

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43
Example Scenario - 2

Usages Scenario for Cloud Carriers

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44
Example Scenario - 3

Usages Scenario for Cloud Auditors

Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

45
Cloud Consumer
•The cloud consumer is the principal
stakeholder for the cloud computing
service.
•A cloud consumer represe...
Service Available to Cloud Costumers

Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

47
Service Available to Cloud Costumers
•SaaS applications in the cloud and

made accessible via a network to the
SaaS consum...
Service Available to Cloud Costumers
•Cloud consumers of PaaS can employ

the tools and execution resources
provided by cl...
Service Available to Cloud Costumers
•Consumers of IaaS have access to virtual
computers,
network-accessible
storage,
netw...
Cloud Providers
•A cloud provider is a person, an

 A Cloud Provider's activities can

organization; it is the entity
res...
Cloud Providers – Major Activities

Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

52
Cloud Auditor
•A cloud auditor is a party that can

•

perform
an
independent
examination of cloud service
controls with t...
Cloud Broker
•As cloud computing evolves, the

integration of cloud services can be
too complex for cloud consumers to
•ma...
Cloud Broker
Service Aggregation: A cloud broker
combines and integrates multiple
services into one or more new
services. ...
Cloud Carrier
•A

cloud carrier acts as an
intermediary
that
provides
connectivity and transport of cloud
services between...
Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

57
Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

58
Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

59
Business Support
Business Support involves the set of
business-related services dealing
with
clients
and
supporting
proces...
Business Support
5. Reporting and Auditing Monitor user operations

Figure

generate reports, etc.

6. Pricing and Ratin...
Provisioning and Configuration
It includes followingRapid provisioning:
Automatically deploying cloud
systems based on th...
Portability and Interoperability
According to NIST, the adoption of
cloud computing depends greatly on
how the cloud can a...
Interoperability
According to Author of [3],
interoperability means:
“In cloud computing, interoperability
typically refer...
65
Cloud Ecosystem
According to [5],
Cloud ecosystem is a term used to

describe the complex system of
interdependent compon...
67
Cloud Business Process Management
•According to [wiki],

“Cloud computing business process
management is the use of (BPM)
...
BPM by Oracle [8]

Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

69
70
Cloud Analytics

Testing Under Control

Virtual Desktop Infrastructure

71
72
Cloud Analytics Needs
•According to [9],

“Few decades back , the problem was
the shortage of information or data. In
mode...
Cloud Analytics
•Cerri et al,gives the new name to

this service “Knowledge in the cloud
” rather than “data in the cloud”...
Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

75
76
What is Desktop Virtualization?
According to [wiki] –

“Desktop
virtualization
is
software
technology that separates the ...
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI)
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) is a

desktop-centric service that hosts user d...
VDI
According to Microsoft [11] –

1.

Microsoft VDI: allows users to
seamlessly access their rich and full
fidelity
Wind...
MicrosoftVDI Model

Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

80
AnotherVDIApplication Model

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81
MicrosoftVDI use case Model

Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

82
VDI
•Desktop computing is ubiquitous
represents a growing cost for IT.

and

•Updating
operating
systems
and
applications ...
Using cloud computing {Testing as a Service (ToS)}

84
What is Testing in the Cloud?
According to Wikipedia, "cloud testing
is a form of software testing in which

Web applicat...
Objectives of the Cloud Testing
It has four major objectives [12]1. To assure the quality of cloud-based

applications
dep...
Advantages of Cloud Based Testing
Reduce costs by leveraging with
computing resources in clouds – This

refers to effecti...
Scope ofCloud Based SoftwareTesting
From [12]

Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

88
Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore

89
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Cloudcomputing basics

  1. 1. A tour of future- smart and on-demand computing 1
  2. 2. Cloud Computing This presentation demonstrates the vision , mission and future scope of the Cloud computing Technology. Introduction to Cloud Definition of Cloud by NIST Cloud Architecture Cloud Reference Architecture Applications of Cloud 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. Definition 4
  5. 5. The Power of Thinking Cloud computing is using the internet to access someone else's software running on someone else's hardware in someone else's data center. Lewis Cunningham A large-scale distributed computing paradigm that is driven by economies of scale, in which a pool of abstracted, virtualized, dynamically scalable, managed computing power, storage, platforms, and services are delivered on demand to external customers over the Internet. A Cloud is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of interconnected and virtualized computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified computing resources based on service-level agreements established through negotiation between the service provider and consumers. Rajkumar Buyya Ian Foster Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 5
  6. 6. The Power of Thinking A cloud is a pool of virtualized resources that can host a variety of different workloads, allow workloads to be deployed and scaled-out quickly, allocate resources when needed, and support redundancy. Greg Boss et al., IBM 6
  7. 7. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 7
  8. 8. NIST CLOUD Definition Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 8
  9. 9. NIST (National Institute of Standard &Technology) Cloud computing allows computer users to conveniently rent access to fully featured applications, to software development and deployment environments, and to computing infrastructure assets such as network-accessible data storage and processing. 9
  10. 10. NIST (National Institute of Standard &Technology) "Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, ap plications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model promotes availability and is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models. 10
  11. 11. Essential Characteristics On-demand self-service - A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service’s provider. Broad network access Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, and personal digital assistants (PDAs)). Resource pooling - The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. There is a sense of location independence in that the subscriber generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines. 11
  12. 12. Essential Characteristics Rapid elasticity - Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned, in some cases automatically, to quickly scale out and rapidly released to quickly scale in. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be purchased in any quantity at any time. Measured Service - Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidt h, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service. 12
  13. 13. Service Models Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 13
  14. 14. Service Models Software as a Service (SaaS) - The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface such as a Web browser (e.g., Web-based email). The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited userspecific application configuration settings. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 14
  15. 15. Service Models Platform as a Service (PaaS) - The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages and tools supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the deployed applications and possibly application hosting environment configurations. 15
  16. 16. Service Models Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) - The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, deployed applications, and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.g., host firewalls). 16
  17. 17. Deployment Models Private cloud - The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise. Community cloud - The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise. Public cloud -The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services. Hybrid cloud - The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for loadbalancing between clouds). 17
  18. 18. Deployment Model Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 18
  19. 19. Terms use in Cloud •cloud subscriber or subscriber: a person or organization that is a customer of a cloud; •client: a machine or software application that accesses a cloud over a network connection, perhaps on behalf of a subscriber. •cloud provider or provider: an organization that provides cloud services. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 19
  20. 20. Clarification (Cluster,Grid andCloud) •A computer cluster is a group of linked computers, working together closely thus in many respects forming a single computer. •The components of a cluster are connected to each other through fast local area networks •Types of Cluster  High Availability Cluster  Load Balancing Cluster  HPC Cluster Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 20
  21. 21. Clarification (Cluster,Grid andCloud) •Requirements for computing increasing fast –  More data to process.  More compute intensive algorithms available. •Approaches to supply demand  Qualitative: Optimized algorithms, faster processors, more memory.  Quantitative: Cluster computing, grid computing, etc. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 21
  22. 22. Clarification (Cluster,Grid andCloud) •Grid computing is a term referring to the combination of computer resources from multiple administrative domains to reach a common goal. Coordinates resources that are not subject to centralized control Uses standard, open, generalpurpose protocols and interfaces Delivers nontrivial qualities of service Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 22
  23. 23. GridComputing Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 23
  24. 24. Clarification (Cluster,Grid andCloud) •Grid computing is the combination of computer resources from multiple administrative domains applied to a common task, usually to a scientific, technical or business problem that requires a great number of computer processing cycles or the need to process large amounts of data. It is a type of parallel and distributed system that enables the sharing, selection, and aggregation of geographically distributed autonomous resources dynamically at runtime depending on their availability, capability, performance, c ost and users quality-of-service requirements. Applications: •Bio Informatics applications •High Energy Physics Applications •Weather Modeling and Predicting Ocean Currents •Disaster Management •Aerodynamic Simulations Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 24
  25. 25. Clarification (Cluster,Grid andCloud) •A large-scale distributed computing paradigm that is driven by economies of scale, in which a pool of abstracted, virtualized, dynamicallyscalable, managed computing power, storage, platforms, and services are delivered on demand to external customers over the Internet Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 25
  26. 26. Comparison between Three Cluster Grid Cloud On demand Self Service NO NO YES Broad Network Access YES YES YES Resource Pooling Yes Yes Yes Rapid Elasticity NO NO YES Measured Service NO YES YES Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 26
  27. 27. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 27
  28. 28. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 28
  29. 29. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 29
  30. 30. Cloud Applications This presentation demonstrates the major areas where cloud can play vital role and their scope in the Cloud computing Technology. ECG Analysis in the cloud Protein structure prediction Gene Expression Data Analysis Satellite Image Processing CRM and ERP Social Networking Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 30
  31. 31. ECGAnalysis Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 31
  32. 32. Protein Prediction Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 32
  33. 33. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 33
  34. 34. Typical Commercial Terms of Service A subscriber’s terms of service for a cloud are determined by a legally binding agreement between the two parties often contained in two parts: (1) a service agreement - The service agreement is a legal document specifying the rules of the legal contract between a subscriber and provider and (2) a Service Level Agreement (SLA) - SLA is a shorter document stating the technical performance promises made by a provider including remedies for performance failures. Note: Published SLAs between Subscribers and providers can typically be terminated at any time by either party, either “for cause” such as a subscriber’s violation of a cloud’s acceptable use policies, or for failure of a subscriber to pay in a timely manner. Further, an agreement can be terminated for no reason at all. Subscribers should analyze provider termination and data retention policies. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 34
  35. 35. Typical Commercial Terms of Service Provider promises, including explicit statements regarding limitations, are codified in their SLAs. A provider’s SLA has three basic parts: (a) Promises – 1. Availability 2. Remedies for Failure to Perform 3. Data Preservation (a). a collection of promises made to subscribers 4. Legal Care Information (b) a collection of promises explicitly not made to subscribers, i.e., limitations, and (b) Limitation- (c) a set of obligations that subscribers must accept. 1. of Subscriber Schedule Outage - If a provider announces a scheduled service outage, the outage does not count as failure to perform. For some providers, outages must be announced in advance, or must be bounded in duration. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 35
  36. 36. Typical Commercial Terms of Service 2. Force majeure events - Providers 4. Security - Providers generally assert that generally disclaim all responsibility for events outside their realistic control. Examples include power failures, natural disasters, and failures in network connectivity between subscribers and providers. they are not responsible for security, i.e., unauthorized modification or disclosure of subscriber data, or for service interruptions caused by malicious activity. Generally, SLAs are explicit about placing security risks on subscribers. In some cases, providers promise to use best efforts to protect subscriber data, but all of the providers surveyed disclaim security responsibility for data breach, data loss, or service interruptions by limiting remedies to service credits for failure to meet availability promises. 3. SLA Changes - Providers generally reserve the right to change the terms of the SLA at any time, and to change pricing with limited advanced notice. For standard SLA changes, notice is generally given by a provider by posting the change to a Web site. It is then the subscriber’s responsibility to periodically check the Web site for changes. Changes may take effect immediately or after a delay of several weeks. 5. Service API Changes - Providers generally reserve the right to change or delete service APIs at any time. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 36
  37. 37. Typical Commercial Terms of Service (c) Obligations – 1. 2. Generally, subscribers must agree to three key obligations: Acceptable Use Polices - Subscribers generally must agree to refrain from storing illegal content, such as child pornography, and from conducting illegal activities such as: (1) gambling, (2) sending spam, (3) conducting security attacks (e.g., denial of service or hacking), (4) distributing spyware, (5) intrusive monitoring, and (6) attempting to subvert cloud system infrastructures. Acceptable use policies vary among providers. Licensed Software - All providers state that third-party software running in their clouds must conform to the software’s license terms. In some cases, providers bundle such software and include monitoring to ensure that license restrictions are enforced. 3. Timely Payments - Cloud service costs are generally incurred gradually over a billing period, with the fee due to the provider at the period’s end. Failure to pay, after a grace period, usually subjects a subscriber to suspension or termination “for cause” which can result in loss of subscriber data. 4. Security - Providers generally assert that they are not responsible for security, i.e., unauthorized modification or disclosure of subscriber data, or for service interruptions caused by malicious activity. Generally, SLAs are explicit about placing security risks on subscribers. In some cases, providers promise to use best efforts to protect subscriber data, but all of the providers surveyed disclaim security responsibility for data breach, data loss, or service interruptions by limiting remedies to service credits for failure to meet availability promises. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 37
  38. 38. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 38
  39. 39. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 39
  40. 40. Cloud Reference Architecture NIST cloud computing reference architecture defines five major actors: 1. cloud consumer 2. cloud provider 3. cloud carrier 4. cloud auditor and 5. cloud broker. Each actor is an entity (a person or an organization) that participates in a transaction or process and/or performs tasks in cloud computing. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 40
  41. 41. Actor’s Responsibility Actor Definitions Cloud Consumer A person or organization that maintains a business relationship with, and uses service from, Cloud Providers. Cloud Provider A person, organization, or entity responsible for making a service available to interested parties. Cloud Auditor A party that can conduct independent assessment of cloud services, information system operations, performance and security of the cloud Implementation. Cloud Broker An entity that manages the use, performance and delivery of cloud services, and negotiates relationships between Cloud Providers and Cloud Consumers. Cloud Carrier An intermediary that provides connectivity and transport of cloud services from Cloud Providers to Cloud Consumers. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 41
  42. 42. Interaction among Actors Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 42
  43. 43. Example Scenario - 1 Usages Scenario for Cloud Brokers Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 43
  44. 44. Example Scenario - 2 Usages Scenario for Cloud Carriers Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 44
  45. 45. Example Scenario - 3 Usages Scenario for Cloud Auditors Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 45
  46. 46. Cloud Consumer •The cloud consumer is the principal stakeholder for the cloud computing service. •A cloud consumer represents a person or organization that maintains a business relationship with, and uses the service from •a cloud provider. A cloud consumer browses the service catalog from a cloud provider, requests the •appropriate service, sets up service contracts with the cloud provider, and uses the service. The cloud •consumer may be billed for the service provisioned, and needs to arrange payments accordingly.      Cloud consumers need SLAs to specify the technical performance requirements fulfilled by a cloud provider. SLAs can cover terms regarding the quality of service, security, remedies for performance failures. A cloud provider may also list in the SLAs a set of promises explicitly not made to consumers, i.e. limitations, and obligations that cloud consumers must accept. A cloud consumer can freely choose a cloud provider with better pricing and more favorable terms. Typically a cloud provider's pricing policy and SLAs are non-negotiable, unless the customer expects heavy usage and might be able to negotiate for better contracts. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 46
  47. 47. Service Available to Cloud Costumers Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 47
  48. 48. Service Available to Cloud Costumers •SaaS applications in the cloud and made accessible via a network to the SaaS consumers. •The consumers of SaaS can be organizations that provide their members with access to software applications, end users who directly use software applications, or software application administrators who configure applications for end users. •SaaS consumers can be billed based on the number of end users, the time of use, the network bandwidth consumed, the amount of data stored or duration of stored data. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 48
  49. 49. Service Available to Cloud Costumers •Cloud consumers of PaaS can employ the tools and execution resources provided by cloud providers to develop, test, deploy and manage the applications hosted in a cloud environment. •PaaS consumers can be application developers who design and implement application software, application testers who run and test applications in cloudbased environments, application deployers who publish applications into the cloud, and application administrators who configure and monitor application performance on a platform. •PaaS consumers can be billed according to, processing, database storage and network resources consumed by the PaaS application, and the duration of the platform usage. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 49
  50. 50. Service Available to Cloud Costumers •Consumers of IaaS have access to virtual computers, network-accessible storage, network infrastructure components, and other fundamental computing resources on which they can deploy and run arbitrary software. •The consumers of IaaS can be system developers, system administrators and IT managers who are interested in creating, installing, managing and monitoring services for IT infrastructure operations. •IaaS consumers are provisioned with the capabilities to access these computing resources, and are billed according to the amount or duration of the resources consumed, such as CPU hours used by virtual •computers, volume and duration of data stored, network bandwidth consumed, number of IP addresses used for certain intervals.. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 50
  51. 51. Cloud Providers •A cloud provider is a person, an  A Cloud Provider's activities can organization; it is the entity responsible for making a service available to interested parties. be described in five major areas, as shown in Figure,  a cloud provider conducts •A Cloud Provider acquires and activities in the areas of manages the computing infrastructure required for providing the services, runs the cloud software that provides the services, and makes arrangement to deliver the cloud services to the Cloud Consumers through network access. 1. service deployment 2. service orchestration 3. cloud service management 4. Security 5. its privacy. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 51
  52. 52. Cloud Providers – Major Activities Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 52
  53. 53. Cloud Auditor •A cloud auditor is a party that can • perform an independent examination of cloud service controls with the intent to express an opinion thereon. •Audits are performed to verify conformance to standards through review of objective evidence. •A cloud auditor can evaluate the services provided by a cloud provider in terms of security controls, privacy impact, performance, etc. • Auditing is especially important for federal agencies as “agencies should include a contractual clause enabling third parties to assess security controls of cloud providers” [4] (by Vivek Kundra, Federal Cloud Computing Strategy, Feb. 2011.). Security controls [3] are the management, operational, and technical safeguards or countermeasures employed within an organizational information system to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the system and its information. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 53
  54. 54. Cloud Broker •As cloud computing evolves, the integration of cloud services can be too complex for cloud consumers to •manage. •A cloud consumer may request cloud services from a cloud broker, instead of contacting a cloud provider directly. •A cloud broker is an entity that manages the use, performance and delivery of cloud services and negotiates relationships between cloud providers and cloud consumers.  Cloud broker can provide services in three categories –  Service Intermediation: A cloud broker enhances a given service by improving some specific capability and providing valueadded services to cloud consumers. The improvement can be managing access to cloud services, identity management, performance reporting, enhanced security, etc. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 54
  55. 55. Cloud Broker Service Aggregation: A cloud broker combines and integrates multiple services into one or more new services. The broker provides data integration and ensures the secure data movement between the cloud consumer and multiple cloud providers. Service Arbitrage: Service arbitrage is similar to service aggregation except that the services being aggregated are not fixed. Service arbitrage means a broker has the flexibility to choose services from multiple agencies. The cloud broker, for example, can use a credit-scoring service to measure and select an agency with the best score Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 55
  56. 56. Cloud Carrier •A cloud carrier acts as an intermediary that provides connectivity and transport of cloud services between cloud consumers and cloud providers. • The distribution of cloud services is normally provided by network and telecommunication carriers or a transport agent •Cloud carriers provide access to • a transport agent refers to a business organization that provides physical transport of storage media such as highcapacity hard drives. consumers through network, telecommunication and other access devices. •For example, cloud consumers can obtain cloud services through network access devices, such as computers, laptops, mobile phones, mobile Internet devices (MIDs), etc . Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 56
  57. 57. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 57
  58. 58. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 58
  59. 59. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 59
  60. 60. Business Support Business Support involves the set of business-related services dealing with clients and supporting processes . It includes1. Customer Management-  Manage customer accounts Manage service contracts  setup/negotiate/close/terminate contract, etc.  open/close/terminate accounts  manage user  Profiles  manage customer relationships by providing points-of-contact and resolving customer problems, etc.  3. Inventory Management-   2. Contract management – Set up and manage service catalogs 4. Accounting and Billing   issues and Manage customer billing information send billing statements  Process received payments  track invoices, etc. 60
  61. 61. Business Support 5. Reporting and Auditing Monitor user operations Figure generate reports, etc. 6. Pricing and RatingEvaluate cloud services and determine prices handle promotions Pricing rules based on a user's profile, etc. 61
  62. 62. Provisioning and Configuration It includes followingRapid provisioning: Automatically deploying cloud systems based on the requested service/resources/capabilities. Resource changing: Adjusting configuration/resource assignment for repairs, upgrades and joining new nodes into the cloud. Monitoring and Reporting: Discovering and monitoring virtual resources, monitoring cloud operations and events and generating performance reports.  Metering: Providing a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, band width, and active user accounts).  SLA management: Encompassing the SLA contract definition (basic schema with the QoS parameters), SLA monitoring and SLA enforcement according to defined policies.  Figure 62
  63. 63. Portability and Interoperability According to NIST, the adoption of cloud computing depends greatly on how the cloud can address users‟ concerns on security, portability and interoperability. Figure Portability - customers are interested to know whether they can move their data or applications across multiple cloud environments at low cost and minimal disruption. Interoperability - Users are concerned about the capability to communicate between or among multiple clouds 63
  64. 64. Interoperability According to Author of [3], interoperability means: “In cloud computing, interoperability typically refers to the ability to easily move workloads and data from one cloud provider to another or between private and public clouds. A common tactic for enabling interoperability is the use of open standards, and many cloud standardization projects are developing standards for the cloud.”  A common tactic for enabling interoperability is the use of open standards [ITU 2005].  According to Microsoft [4] – 1. Data portability 2. Standards 3. Ease of migrations and deployment 4. Developer choice are the basic elementary points for ensuring interoperability in the cloud Figure 64
  65. 65. 65
  66. 66. Cloud Ecosystem According to [5], Cloud ecosystem is a term used to describe the complex system of interdependent components that work together to enable cloud services. Merriam-Webster defines an ecosystem as the complex of a community of organisms and its environment functioning as an ecological unit.  In terms of cloud computing, that complex includes not only traditional elements of cloud computing such as software and infrastructure but also consultants, integrators, partners, third parties and anything in their environments that has a bearing on the other components.  According to Microsoft [6], cloud ecosystem includes all the things as shown in the figure 66
  67. 67. 67
  68. 68. Cloud Business Process Management •According to [wiki], “Cloud computing business process management is the use of (BPM) tools that are delivered as software services (SaaS) over a network. Cloud BPM business logic is deployed on an application server and the business data resides in cloud storage.” • According to [7], “Business Process Management Software in the cloud enables strategic process improvement, reduced technology cost, and better alignment of IT with business goals. The new IT paradigm and business model can drive new growth opportunities, increase profit margins for the private sector, and achieve more efficient and effective missions for federal agencies. ” 68
  69. 69. BPM by Oracle [8] Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 69
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  71. 71. Cloud Analytics Testing Under Control Virtual Desktop Infrastructure 71
  72. 72. 72
  73. 73. Cloud Analytics Needs •According to [9], “Few decades back , the problem was the shortage of information or data. In modern era, this problem is overcome by the advent of the Internet and reduced storage cost. ” •But the new challenge is to how to analyze data? •Data is getting generated as much faster pace than the speed at which it can be processed with the current infrastructures. •Huge and dedicated server were designed and developed for the same, but problem is the cost of such infrastructure which is not affordable for such companies. • • • • • Such seeking companies seeking towards cloud computing for this purpose. Also termed as utility computing [9]. In general, business Intelligence application such as image processing, web searches, understanding buying and selling needs, supply chain and ranking and bio informatics (gene structure prediction) are data intensive applications. Cloud can be the perfect match for such analytics services. For example , Google MapReduce do the same by splitting data into small chunk and distributed into computing sources for analyzing. 73
  74. 74. Cloud Analytics •Cerri et al,gives the new name to this service “Knowledge in the cloud ” rather than “data in the cloud” to support collaborative task which are computationally intensive and facilitate distributed, heterogeneous knowledge . •According to Talia, knowledge service in the cloud can be classified into 4Single Steps – Compose of KDD process Preprocessing, visualization. such filtering as and  Single Data Mining Task – Like classification, Clustering Association rule discovery. and  Distributed Data Mining Pattern- Such as Collective learning, Meta Learning Models and Parallel Classification.  Data Mining Applications or KDD Processes – Including all f services previously discussed. As shown in figure referred from [9]- 74
  75. 75. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 75
  76. 76. 76
  77. 77. What is Desktop Virtualization? According to [wiki] – “Desktop virtualization is software technology that separates the desktop environment and associated application software from the physical client device that is used to access it.” Desktop virtualization can be used in conjunction with application virtualization and (Windows) user profile management systems, now termed "user virtualization," to provide a comprehensive desktop environment management system. In this mode, all the components of the desktop are virtualized, which allows for a highly flexible and much more secure desktop delivery model. In addition, this approach supports a more complete desktop disaster recovery strategy as all components are essentially saved in the data center and backed up through traditional redundant maintenance systems.  If a user's device or hardware is lost, the restore is much more straightforward and simple, because basically all the components will be present at login from another device.  In addition, because no data is saved to the user's device, if that device is lost, there is much less chance that any critical data can be retrieved and compromised. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 77
  78. 78. Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) is a desktop-centric service that hosts user desktop environments on remote servers and/or blade PCs, which are accessed over a network using a remote display protocol. A connection brokering service is used to connect users to their assigned desktop sessions. For users, this means they can access their desktop from any location, without being tied to a single client device.  In other words [10]“Virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) is the practice of hosting a desktop operating system within a virtual machine (VM) running on a centralized server. VDI is a variation on the client/server computing model, sometimes referred to as serverbased computing. The term was coined by VMware Inc.” Since the resources are centralized, users moving between work locations can still access the same desktop environment with their applications and data. For IT administrators, this means a more centralized, efficient client environment that is easier to maintain and able to respond more quickly to the changing needs of the user and business 78
  79. 79. VDI According to Microsoft [11] – 1. Microsoft VDI: allows users to seamlessly access their rich and full fidelity Windows environment running in the datacenter, from any device. Microsoft VDI is powered by upcoming Windows Server 2012. 2. Experience: RemoteFX provides a consistently rich user experience, irrespective of what type of virtual desktop is being accessed, or where the users are accessing their desktops from. With Remote Desktop Services (RDS) and Hyper-V in Windows Server 2012, organizations get the following benefits- 3. Platform: Windows Server 2012 provides a single platform to deliver any type of hosted desktop, making it simple to deploy and easy to manage. deployment choices: RDS can host either Session based desktops, pooled VMs or personal VMs. So customers have the flexibility to deploy the right type of VDI desktop for their users, all from a single platform. 79
  80. 80. MicrosoftVDI Model Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 80
  81. 81. AnotherVDIApplication Model Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 81
  82. 82. MicrosoftVDI use case Model Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 82
  83. 83. VDI •Desktop computing is ubiquitous represents a growing cost for IT. and •Updating operating systems and applications has become very time consuming and costly while securing access to data has become more complex. •Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) offers a solution. VDI separates the desktop operating system and application configuration from the physical device. •Instead of managing individual desktop devices in a distributed manner, the software stacks (operating system plus applications and configuration settings) are hosted in the data center using a master catalog of prebuilt and tested configurations. • Users are assigned to a particular standard configuration that supports their role. • When they connect to the VDI environment, applications run on virtual servers with screen updates pushed over the network (campus LAN or WAN) to the user’s display. Users can use a less expensive device, such as “thin” or “zero” clients, to attach to the network while accessing the familiar desktop environment and applications they have when using a traditional desktop or laptop PC, or they can use their PC with images pushed to them upon login 83
  84. 84. Using cloud computing {Testing as a Service (ToS)} 84
  85. 85. What is Testing in the Cloud? According to Wikipedia, "cloud testing is a form of software testing in which Web applications that leverage Cloud computing environments ("cloud") seek to simulate real-world user traffic as a means of load testing and stress testing web sites [12]. The ability and costs to simulate Web traffic for software testing purposes has been an inhibitor to overall Web reliability.“ According of survey of [12], cloud testing is a – ““Cloud testing basically aligns with the concept of cloud and SaaS. It provides the ability to test by leveraging the cloud, thereby bringing the same benefits that the cloud brings to Customers.” (by Vinita Ananth, Director - APJ Region, HP Softwareas-aService). ” 85
  86. 86. Objectives of the Cloud Testing It has four major objectives [12]1. To assure the quality of cloud-based applications deployed in a cloud, including their functional services, business processes, and system performance as well as scalability based on a set of application-based system requirements in a cloud. 3. To check the provided automatic cloud-based functional services, for example auto-provisioned functions. 4. To test cloud compatibility and interoperation capability between SaaS and applications in a cloud infrastructure, for example, checking the APIs of SaaS and their cloud connectivity to others. 2. To validate software as a service (SaaS) in a cloud environment, including software performance, scalability, security and measurement based on certain economic scales and pre-defined SLAs. 86
  87. 87. Advantages of Cloud Based Testing Reduce costs by leveraging with computing resources in clouds – This refers to effectively using virtualized resources and shared cloud infrastructure to eliminate required computer resources and licensed software costs in a test laboratory. Take the advantage of on-demand test services (by a third-party) to conduct large-scale and effective real-time online validation for internet based software in clouds.  Easily leverage scalable cloud system infrastructure to test and evaluate system (SaaS/Cloud/Application) performance and scalability Workflow of Testing 87
  88. 88. Scope ofCloud Based SoftwareTesting From [12] Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 88
  89. 89. Prepared by: Jitendra S Rathore 89
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