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  • 1. RIG-NITC WORKSHOP ON BASIC ROBOTICS AND EMBEDDED SYSTEMS SIMULATION
  • 2. Doubts?  You are free to ask your doubts!!
  • 3. Microcontrollers  abbreviated µC, uC or MCU  single integrated circuit ◦ processor core ◦ memory ◦ programmable input/output peripherals.  A computer system optimized for hardware control in a single piece of silicon..
  • 4. See what a uC can do.!!
  • 5. Microcontrollers  Most popular microcontrollers. ◦ AVR ◦ ARM ◦ PIC ◦ 8051 E.g. AVR ATmega8,ATmega16,Cortex A8,A10
  • 6. Atmega 16
  • 7.  8-bit high performance uC  1 MIPS speed at 1 MHz  16 Kb FLASH Memory  Static RAM of 1 Kb  0.5 Kb EEPROM  40 PIN design  32 I/O ports.  3 timers  SPI, TWI, serial interfacing  ADC converters  Internal 1 MHz oscillator
  • 8. Extra Information: • General purpose register :  Stores local variables  I/O registers:  Configures the I/O peripherals  FLASH:  Stores our program code and bootloader  Starts with memory address 0x00  EEPROM:  It can be used to store those values to be stored even when switched off  Slow to access
  • 9. I/O ports • 4 i/o ports namely PORT A, PORT B, PORT C and PORT D • PORT A has ADC • Any PIN can be configured both for input or output. • BUT how to configure??
  • 10. AVR REGISTERS  Stores some important values  Windows registry..?  Contains address of pins in hexadecimal values  Stores the configuration settings
  • 11. Registers   Data Direction Register(DDR) ◦ 0 means INPUT PIN ◦ 1 means OUTPUT PIN  PORT Register ◦ Configures output  0 means 0v  1 means 5v  PIN register ◦ Stores the input at any PIN  1if input is a 5v signal  0 if input is 0v
  • 12. Binary to HexaDecimal Conversion  Easy to express.  Binary contains 0 and 1  Hexadecimal s/m contain 0 to 9 and A to F  Binary to hex  Hex to binary
  • 13. Use of TTL logic.?  What is TTL logic  0’s and 1’s  what is its meaning??  0GND….but what is GND  1VCC…what is VCC
  • 14. DDR  DDRx where x=A,B,C,D  8-BIT binary/hexadecimal value  Example: ◦ DDRA=0B01110101;
  • 15. PORT  To configure the output settings  8-BIT binary/hexadecimal value
  • 16. PULL UP RESISTOR  Reduce noise..what is noise??  PORTx bits set 1…ut DDRx is set 0  Resistor comes in series.
  • 17. Input monitoring??  Have you ever thought.?  How?
  • 18. PIN  Stores the input that the microcontroller detects…  Example of input s/m  8-bit binary/hexadecimal value  Example: ◦ If PINA==0b00101111do something
  • 19. But how to write the code??
  • 20. Embedded C • Most powerful programming Language • Fast execution • Reduced Instructions • Similar to simple C coding
  • 21. Essential Software and Hardware  Softwares:(will be provided: open source) ◦ Winavr ◦ HIDbootFlash ◦ Proteus ISIS  Hardwares:(will be provided) ◦ RigDev Board  Low cost than corporate development boards  Based on Atmega 16  In built USB interfacing
  • 22. Getting Started  Install Winavr  Install HIDbootFlash  Check the RigDev Board ◦ Programmers notepad ◦ mfile
  • 23. General Structure of a code #include<avr/io.h> int main() { } This is the general format of any embedded C code that we write for ATmega uCs. #include<avr/io.h> includes the details about the PIN configurations of ATmega series of uCs. Our code is written inside the main() function.
  • 24. Programmers Notepad
  • 25. Programmers Notepad  Save code as main.c  Create “ makefile ”  Tools  make all
  • 26. Makefile  Written in mfile  Change mcu name  Change frequency
  • 27. Lets do something   LED Lighting  CathodeGND  ANODE5v
  • 28. More about it  Made up mostly using GaAs.  Light emitted due to electrical excitation  How to identify cathode ◦ Leg method ◦ Edge method  NEVER CONNECT LED DIRECTLY TO SUPPLY  Resistor in series.
  • 29. Lets Do Something   LED Blinking ◦ #include<util/delay.h>  _delay_ms();  _delay_us();  #include<avr/io.h> #include<util/delay.h> main() { DDRA=0X01; While(1) { PORTA=0X01; _delay_ms(1000); PORTA=0X00; _delay_ms(1000); } }
  • 30. Pulse Width Modulation(PWM)  What is a PWM signal.  DAC
  • 31. Duty Cycle How is it usefull.??
  • 32. DAC examples  LED contrast control  RMS voltage is exploited
  • 33. LED Contrast Control  #include “pwm.h” includes the header file for speed control  pwminit(int freq) initializes pwm at required frequency  pwm(int a,int b) sets pwm on PD4 and PD5  a and b are duty cycles  a controls PD4 and b controls PD5
  • 34. coding  #include <avr/io.h>  #include<util/delay.h>  #include “pwm.h”  int main() ◦ { ◦ While(1) ◦ { ◦ DDRB=0x30; ◦ pwminit(50); ◦ pwm(0,50); ◦ _delay_ms(2000); ◦ pwm(50,0); ◦ _delay_ms(2000); ◦ pwm(100,100); ◦ _delay_ms(2000); ◦ } ◦ }
  • 35. Motor Speed Control  #include “pwm.h” includes the header file for speed control  pwminit(int freq) initializes pwm at required frequency  pwm(int a,int b) sets pwm on PD4 and PD5  a and b are duty cycles  a controls PD4 and b controls PD5
  • 36. Motor speed control  #include <avr/io.h>  #include<util/delay.h>  #include “pwm.h”  int main() ◦ { ◦ While(1) ◦ { ◦ DDRB=0x30; ◦ pwminit(50); ◦ pwm(0,50); ◦ _delay_ms(2000); ◦ pwm(50,0); ◦ _delay_ms(2000); ◦ pwm(100,100); ◦ _delay_ms(2000); ◦ } ◦ }
  • 37. Have fun..!!