Classical Conditioning A type of learning that occurs when individuals learn to produce involuntary emotional or physiological responses similar to instinctive or reflexive responses.
Unconditioned stimulus Object or event causing the instinctive or reflexive physiological or emotional response.
Unconditioned response Instinctive or reflexive physiological or emotional response caused by the unconditioned stimulus.
Neutral stimulus An object or event that does not initially impact behaviour one way or the other.
Conditioned stimulus Formerly neutral stimulus that becomes associated with the unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned response A learned physiological or emotional response that is similar to the unconditioned response.
Main idea for classical conditioning The conditioned and unconditioned stimuli must exist at the same time.
Using classical conditioning in the classroom Teachers or peers affect how you feel when you enter the class. When a teacher creates a friendly environment in the class, the pupils will generally feel comfortable entering the class.
Generalization Occurs when stimuli is similar- but not identical - to a conditioned stimulus elicit the conditioned response by themselves (N. Jones, Kemenes, & Benjamin, 2001)
Operant ConditioningLearning in terms of observable responses that change in frequency or duration as the result of consequences, events that occur following behaviours. (B.F. Skinner, 1953, 1954) In summary, behaviours are largely controlled by consequences rather that by stimuli preceding the behaviour. The consequence of an action results in the behaviour portrayed.
Reinforcements The process of applying reinforcers to increase behaviour
Positive reinforcements Process of increasing the frequency or duration of a behaviour as the result of presenting a reinforcer. Sometimes, reinforcing of undesirable behaviour may result.
Negative reinforcements Process of increasing behaviour by avoiding or removing an aversive stimulus (Baldwin & Baldwin, 2001; B.F. Skinner, 1953)
Explanation of Video Pavlov's experiment based on Operant Conditioning Negative Reinforcement because it is the removal of an adverse stimulus which is ‘rewarding’ to the animal. Negative reinforcement strengthens behaviour because it stops or removes an unpleasant experience.
Remove Withheld Desirable Weaken Type 2 punishment: time out Desirable Weaken
Explanation of diagram Learning is about the increased probability of a behaviour based on reinforcement which has taken place in the past, so that the antecedents of the new behaviour include the consequences of previous behaviour.