MODELLING OF THE
LAND RELIEF
The structure of the Earth
3 parts:
-CRUST (continental and oceanic)
-MANTLE (upper mantle and lower mantle)
-CORE (outer and inner)
THE CICLE OF ROCKS
What are the names of the rocks
which are on the Earth´s
surface?
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
What structure produces the action
of ...
GEOLOGICAL AGENTS
-Wind
-Glaciers
-Wild waters (streams, torrential
fluvial)
-Fluvial waters (rivers)
-Groundwater
-Sea
Modelling of the relief phase:
1. METEORISATION
2. EROSION
3. TRANSPORT
4. SEDIMENTATION
SEDIMENTARY PROCESS
1. METEORISATION
Destruction of preexisting rocks by the action from ATMOSPHERIC
AGENTS (temperature, rainfall, action of ...
2. Chemical meteorisation: structure and components are decomposed.
3. Biological meteorisation: living beings break up th...
2. EROSION
Destruction of preexisting rocks by the action from GEOLOGICAL
AGENTS which move the fragments towards other di...
What are the differences between
Meteorisation and Erosion?
3. TRANSPORT
The transport of rock fragments from the place which produce the
meteorisation and erosion to other different...
4. SEDIMENTATION
It´s a process of accumulation of rock fragments transported.
- This acumulation forms SEDIMENTS.
- When ...
Explain what conditioning factors ( or
atmospheric agents ) influence in the action of
the external agents in the next pic...
Fungi rock
THE SOIL
The soil is not simple accumulation of
sediments.
It is formed very slowly under the influence of
fhese factors:
MOTHER ROCK: the original matter
over which soils are formed.
Sometimes is originated by the
compactation of sediments (gr...
GEOLOGICAL AGENTS:
WIND
• The wind or aeolian processes can
produce erosion, transport and
sedimentation.
• The action of wind is very active in H...
DEFLATION: is the normal process of
erosion by the wind, that is, the selective
movement of particles which fall on the
gr...
A desert formed by stone field : REGS
A desert formed by dunes: ERG
And the thinnest particles can travel long distances and when the
wind loses its force the p...
AEOLIC ABRASION: is the wearing
away of rocks caused by the repeated
impact of the particles carried by the wind.
Fungi rock
AEOLIC EROSION:
AEOLIC SEDIMENTATION:
-By traction: when the particles are carried without
losing contact with the Earth´s...
INDIVIDUAL DUNES
BRANCHAN DUNE
PARABOLIC DUNE
Moving crescent-shaped
dune whose arms extend
in the same direction as
the w...
EXTERNAL AGENT:
FLUVIAL PROCESSES
- Stream
- Torrent
A. WILD WATERS
Surface waters from rainfall that flow with no
fixed course. When the water flow through...
- ADVANTAGES:
This erosion produce nice landscapes:
-BADLANDS: are abrupt areas where there are “V” shapes of
varying dept...
EROSION OF WILD WATERS: this erosive capacity of the water depends on
the effect of friction caused by sediments, the geol...
• Rivers
B. FLUVIAL WATERS
Surface waters that flow with fixed course
The high, medium, and low courses of a river produce...
FLUVIAL EROSION: this erosive capacity of the water depends on the speed
of the water, the effect of friction caused by th...
MEANDER: curves in the middle of the
river that erod on the concave edge.
DELTA: accumulations of sediments
that appear in...
Meanders
Alluvial plain
Delta
Estuary
IES TORREÓN DEL ALCÁZAR
MARTA SÁNCHEZ REINO
SCIENCE
Modelling of the land relief
Modelling of the land relief
Modelling of the land relief
Modelling of the land relief
Modelling of the land relief
Modelling of the land relief
Modelling of the land relief
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Modelling of the land relief

1,603

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,603
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Modelling of the land relief

  1. 1. MODELLING OF THE LAND RELIEF
  2. 2. The structure of the Earth
  3. 3. 3 parts: -CRUST (continental and oceanic) -MANTLE (upper mantle and lower mantle) -CORE (outer and inner)
  4. 4. THE CICLE OF ROCKS
  5. 5. What are the names of the rocks which are on the Earth´s surface? SEDIMENTARY ROCKS What structure produces the action of geological agents on sedimentary rocks? THE LANDSCAPE
  6. 6. GEOLOGICAL AGENTS -Wind -Glaciers -Wild waters (streams, torrential fluvial) -Fluvial waters (rivers) -Groundwater -Sea
  7. 7. Modelling of the relief phase: 1. METEORISATION 2. EROSION 3. TRANSPORT 4. SEDIMENTATION SEDIMENTARY PROCESS
  8. 8. 1. METEORISATION Destruction of preexisting rocks by the action from ATMOSPHERIC AGENTS (temperature, rainfall, action of gases), without displacing the fragments. 3 Types of meteorisation: 1. Mechanical o physical meteorisation: it doesn´t change the chemical composition.
  9. 9. 2. Chemical meteorisation: structure and components are decomposed. 3. Biological meteorisation: living beings break up the rocks.
  10. 10. 2. EROSION Destruction of preexisting rocks by the action from GEOLOGICAL AGENTS which move the fragments towards other different place.
  11. 11. What are the differences between Meteorisation and Erosion?
  12. 12. 3. TRANSPORT The transport of rock fragments from the place which produce the meteorisation and erosion to other different. This transport depend on: -Size of fragment rocks. -Force of external agent (wind, water …)
  13. 13. 4. SEDIMENTATION It´s a process of accumulation of rock fragments transported. - This acumulation forms SEDIMENTS. - When sediments are compacted form SEDIMENTARY ROCKS.
  14. 14. Explain what conditioning factors ( or atmospheric agents ) influence in the action of the external agents in the next pictures
  15. 15. Fungi rock
  16. 16. THE SOIL The soil is not simple accumulation of sediments. It is formed very slowly under the influence of fhese factors:
  17. 17. MOTHER ROCK: the original matter over which soils are formed. Sometimes is originated by the compactation of sediments (gravel , sand or clay), and it gives to the soil several mineral components. The different composition of materials and the accumulation of substances form different layers known as HORIZONS. HUMUS: is decomposed organic matter that comes from the remains of animals and plants, Humus give to the soil a huge productivity. LIVING BEINGS: the animals of the soil (worms, for example) and the roots of plants help to mix the materials to air it. CLIMATE: temperature and rainfall for example, produce alteration of rocks (by leaching, for example)
  18. 18. GEOLOGICAL AGENTS: WIND
  19. 19. • The wind or aeolian processes can produce erosion, transport and sedimentation. • The action of wind is very active in HOT and COLD arid zones. • There are two kinds of erosive action: DEFLATION AEOLIC ABRASION
  20. 20. DEFLATION: is the normal process of erosion by the wind, that is, the selective movement of particles which fall on the ground and it forms different landscapes.
  21. 21. A desert formed by stone field : REGS
  22. 22. A desert formed by dunes: ERG And the thinnest particles can travel long distances and when the wind loses its force the particles fall down in humid zones and it forms LOESS. Its the origin of the mud and clay
  23. 23. AEOLIC ABRASION: is the wearing away of rocks caused by the repeated impact of the particles carried by the wind.
  24. 24. Fungi rock
  25. 25. AEOLIC EROSION: AEOLIC SEDIMENTATION: -By traction: when the particles are carried without losing contact with the Earth´s surface. - By saltation: when they are lifted slightly and they touch the Earth´s surface from time to time. -By suspension: when small particles are in the air without touching the Earth for a long time. -Deflation -Aeolic abrasion AEOLIC TRANSPORT: the particles carried by the wind are transported: -A desert of stone: REG. -A desert of dunes: ERG. -Individual Dunes. -Loess deposit: it is the origin of clay and mud. LIMOS (de poco grano, entre arenas finas y arcillas, es transportado por viento y agua. También zonas inundadas sedimenta y da mucha fertilidad a los suelos)
  26. 26. INDIVIDUAL DUNES BRANCHAN DUNE PARABOLIC DUNE Moving crescent-shaped dune whose arms extend in the same direction as the wind Moving crescent-shaped dune whose arms extend in the opposite direction to the wind LONGITUDINAL DUNE When the dunes are parallel to the directon of the wind
  27. 27. EXTERNAL AGENT: FLUVIAL PROCESSES
  28. 28. - Stream - Torrent A. WILD WATERS Surface waters from rainfall that flow with no fixed course. When the water flow through small channels are known as streams. The action of these geological agents is especially important in steep hillsides which are unprotected by a layer of vegetation. This erosion is very important because these geological factors can wear away the soil and it produces a lost of productivity. - DISADVANTAGES:
  29. 29. - ADVANTAGES: This erosion produce nice landscapes: -BADLANDS: are abrupt areas where there are “V” shapes of varying depths. Badlands is formed by the rainfall that wear away the soft rocks but not the hard rocks, and by channels of streams which produce erosion too (CÁRCAVAS) -FAIRY CHIMNEYS: are conical shapes in the rocks where the upper part is composed by harder rocks than rocks located down. They are produced by a strong rainfall, surface waters and the wind. (CHIMENEAS DE HADAS)
  30. 30. EROSION OF WILD WATERS: this erosive capacity of the water depends on the effect of friction caused by sediments, the geological characteristics of the land ( such as steep slope ) and how long that wild waters are in land. Produce landscapes such as: SEDIMENTATION OF WILD WATERS: the most common forms are: -Bad-lands -Fairy chimneys TRANSPORT OF WILD WATERS: it´s very variable. It depends on the intensity of water. -Alluvial plains CONO DE DEYECCIÓN (in Spanish language)
  31. 31. • Rivers B. FLUVIAL WATERS Surface waters that flow with fixed course The high, medium, and low courses of a river produce erosion, transport and sedimentation in any point along the river´s course. The erosion, transport and sedimentation depend on the speed of the water.
  32. 32. FLUVIAL EROSION: this erosive capacity of the water depends on the speed of the water, the effect of friction caused by the sediments and the geological characteristics of the land ( such as steep slope ). FLUVIAL SEDIMENTATION: the most common forms are: -By dilution in the water. -Floating on the surface. -Suspended in water. -Jumping and rolling. -The own course of the river -Waterfalls (factor of erosion and landscape) -Meanders (factor of erosion and landscape) -Bad-Land (landscape) -Fairy chimneys (landscape) FLUVIAL TRANSPORT: the particles carried by the water are transported: -Alluvial plains -Fluvial terraces -Deltas -Estuary water water FLUVIAL EROSION PRODUCES VALLEYS TOO
  33. 33. MEANDER: curves in the middle of the river that erod on the concave edge. DELTA: accumulations of sediments that appear in some river. It occurs in shallow, calm waters. ESTUARY: accumulations of sediments that appear in some river, but its influenced by the force of the sea (the sea goes towards the land and the sediments are dispersed) FLUVIAL TERRACES: are layers of river deposits situated at higher level than the actual river bed. ALLUVIAL PLAINS: smooth land where extensive deposits of materials are deposited by decrease of the river or stream speed after crossing a steep relief.
  34. 34. Meanders
  35. 35. Alluvial plain
  36. 36. Delta
  37. 37. Estuary
  38. 38. IES TORREÓN DEL ALCÁZAR MARTA SÁNCHEZ REINO SCIENCE
  1. ¿Le ha llamado la atención una diapositiva en particular?

    Recortar diapositivas es una manera útil de recopilar información importante para consultarla más tarde.

×