Network Models Peer-to-peer Networking Model A peer-to-peer network is a decentralized network model offering no centralized storage of data or centralized control over the sharing of files or resources. All systems on a peer-to-peer network can share the resources on their local computer as well as use resources of other systems. Client/Server Networking Model The client/server networking model is, without question, the most widely implemented model and the one you are most likely to encounter when working in real-world environments. The advantages of the client/server system stem from the fact that it is a centralized model. It allows for centralized network management of all network services, including user management, security, and backup procedures.
Network Topologies A topology refers to both the physical and logical layout of a network. The physical topology of a network refers to the actual layout of the computer cables and other network devices. The logical topology of a network, on the other hand, refers to the way in which the network appears to the devices that use it.
Bus Topology A bus network uses a trunk or backbone to which all of the computers on the network connect.
Ring Topology The ring topology is actually a logical ring, meaning that the data travels in circular fashion from one computer to another on the network.
Star Topology In the star topology, all computers and other network devices connect to a central device called a hub or switch.
Mesh Topology The mesh topology incorporates a unique network design in which each computer on the network connects to every other, creating a point-to-point connection between every device on the network.
IEEE and Networking Standards The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) developed a series of networking standards to ensure that networking technologies developed by respective manufacturers are compatible.