First there was the command line
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First there was the command line

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Command line tutorial to be presented at WordCamp Miami 2014

Command line tutorial to be presented at WordCamp Miami 2014

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First there was the command line First there was the command line Presentation Transcript

  • First There was the Command Line ...the first thing that Apple's hackers had done when they'd got the MacOS up and running--probably even before they'd gotten it up and running--was to re-create the Unix interface, so that they would be able to get some useful work done... -- In the Beginning was the Command Line Neal Stephenson http://slidesha.re/1nhg37s
  • Follow along... $>mkdir -p ~/www/wp_site/news && wget http://wordpress.org/latest.zip && unzip latest.zip -d ~/www/wp_site/news Chaining commands with & Make news directory under /var/www/wp_site, then download latest version of WordPress, then extract the contents of the archive to /var/www/wp_site/news
  • ● Developer at ServerGrove ● All around nerd ● Systems Administrator for 7 years ● @aramonc in all the places About Me
  • More than 60% of all web servers use *nix Why bother? Debian Ubuntu CentOS/RHEL SmartOS* Servers do not use graphical interfaces *Not really Linux, still Unix based
  • WordPress Powers ~19% of the web Why bother? Statistically more likely to be target of attack
  • ● Increased speed & flexibility ● Muscle memory ● Large pool of freely available utilities ● *nix Command Line utilities are mostly standard Why bother?
  • What if I mess up?
  • Getting to the Command Line Windows Localhost: Cygwin Webhost: SSH via PuTTY OSX, *nix Localhost: Terminal, xterm, etc Webhost: SSH via the above
  • Navigating Folders = Directory Tree
  • Where are you right now? $>pwd /var/www/wp_site Print Working Directory ● /var/www/wp_site = a path ● / not ● Starts with / (root) = absolute
  • What’s in here? $>ls index.php wp-includes license.txt wp-links-opml.php readme.html wp-load.php wp-activate.php wp-login.php wp-admin wp-mail.php wp-blog-header.php wp-settings.php wp-comments-post.php wp-signup.php wp-config-sample.php wp-trackback.php LiSt
  • What’s in here? $>ls -la total 320 drwxr-xr-x 21 adrian_sg wheel 714 Feb 28 22:07 . drwxr-xr-x 3 root wheel 102 Feb 28 21:57 .. -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 640 Mar 05 20:14 .htaccess -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 418 Sep 24 20:18 index.php -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 19929 Jan 18 2013 license.txt -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 7185 Jan 13 13:16 readme.html drwxr-xr-x@ 88 adrian_sg wheel 2992 Jan 23 15:17 wp-admin drwxr-xr-x@ 5 adrian_sg wheel 170 Jan 23 15:17 wp-content -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 2932 Sep 24 20:18 wp-cron.php LiSt
  • Moving around... $>cd wp-admin $>pwd /var/www/wp_site/wp-admin $>cd /var/www/wp_site $>pwd /var/www/wp_site $>cd wp-content/themes/twentyfourteen $>pwd /var/www/wp_site/wp- content/themes/twentyfourteen Change Directory
  • Moving around... $>cd .. $>pwd /var/www/wp_site $>cd ~/ $>pwd /Users/adrian_sg $>cd - $>pwd /var/www/wp_site Change Directory
  • Where is this thing? $>find . -iname xml* /var/www/wp_site/xmlrpc.php $>find . -mtime 3 Find . (dot) means current directory -mtime in 24 hour increments of modified date
  • Where is this thing? $>grep theme ./* ./index.php: * wp-blog-header.php...the theme. grep: ./wp-admin: Is a directory ./wp-settings.php:require(ABSPATH.WPINC.'/theme.php'); ./wp-settings.php:do_action( 'setup_theme' ); Globally search a Regular Expression and Print
  • Where is this thing? $>grep -R theme ./* ./wp-admin/update.php: $parent_file='themes.php'; ./wp-admin/update.php: $submenu_file='themes.php'; ./wp-admin/update.php: $nonce='install-theme_'.$theme; Globally search a Regular Expression and Print
  • Can I change things? $>ls -l total 320 -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 418 Sep 24 20:18 index.php -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 19929 Jan 18 2013 license.txt -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 7185 Jan 13 13:16 readme.html drwxr-xr-x@ 88 adrian_sg wheel 2992 Jan 23 15:17 wp-admin drwxr-xr-x@ 5 adrian_sg wheel 170 Jan 23 15:17 wp-content -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 2932 Sep 24 20:18 wp-cron.php drwxr-xr-x@ 122 adrian_sg wheel 4148 Jan 23 15:17 wp-includes -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 2359 Oct 24 18:58 wp-load.php Owners, Groups, & Permissions
  • Can I change things? Permissions r = Read w = Write x = Execute (run a script or open a directory) Three levels of permissions: Owner, Group, Everyone else
  • Can I change things? Owner = User ● Sometimes your user ● Sometimes root ● Sometimes www-data (Apache user)
  • Can I change things? Group ● Permissions for a set of users ● Users have own group ● Most users only belong to own group
  • Can I change things? Permissions Owner Group EveryoneIs Dir.? rwx r-x r-xd $>ls -l drwxr-xr-x@ 88 adrian_sg wheel 2992 Jan 23 15:17 wp-admin adrian_sg wheel
  • How do I change this thing? $>mkdir -p useless/stuff $>ls -l -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 418 Sep 24 20:18 index.php -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 19929 Jan 18 2013 license.txt -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 7185 Jan 13 13:16 readme.html drwxr-xr-x 2 adrian_sg wheel 68 Mar 3 22:04 useless -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 4892 Oct 4 10:12 wp-activate.php MaKe DIRectory
  • How do I change this thing? $>mv readme.html useless/stuff/readme $>ls -l -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 418 Sep 24 20:18 index.php -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 19929 Jan 18 2013 license.txt drwxr-xr-x 2 adrian_sg wheel 68 Mar 3 22:04 useless -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 4892 Oct 4 10:12 wp-activate.php MoVe
  • How do I change this thing? $>cp wp-config-sample.php wp-config.php $>ls -l -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 4795 Sep 5 21:38 wp-comments-post.php -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 3087 Oct 24 18:58 wp-config-sample.php -rw-r--r--@ 1 adrian_sg wheel 3087 Mar 3 21:59 wp-config.php drwxr-xr-x@ 5 adrian_sg wheel 170 Jan 23 15:17 wp-content CoPy ● cp -a keeps same permissions as original
  • When everything goes wrong... $>less /var/log/apache2/error_log Read the log file
  • When everything goes wrong... Read the log file ● (up arrow) to scroll towards the top ● (down arrow) to scroll towards the bottom ● (space) next page ● p previous page ● q(uit) to exit ● / <expression> to search for <expression> ● n to search again
  • But I only care about the last error... $>tail -n 5 /var/log/apache2/error_log [Mon Mar 03 10:28:01 2014] [notice] Digest: generating secret for digest authentication ... [Mon Mar 03 10:28:01 2014] [notice] Digest: done [Mon Mar 03 10:28:01 2014] [notice] Apache/2.2.26 (Unix) DAV/2 PHP/5.5.4 mod_ssl/2.2.26 OpenSSL/0.9.8y configured -- resuming normal operations [Mon Mar 03 13:40:08 2014] [notice] child pid 8870 exit signal Bus error (10) [Mon Mar 03 18:02:20 2014] [notice] caught SIGTERM, shutting down Read the last few lines of the log file
  • I only care about the current error... $>tail -f /var/log/apache2/error_log [Mon Mar 03 10:28:01 2014] [notice] Digest: generating secret for digest authentication ... [Mon Mar 03 10:28:01 2014] [notice] Digest: done [Mon Mar 03 10:28:01 2014] [notice] Apache/2.2.26 (Unix) DAV/2 PHP/5.5.4 mod_ssl/2.2.26 OpenSSL/0.9.8y configured -- resuming normal operations [Mon Mar 03 13:40:08 2014] [notice] child pid 8870 exit signal Bus error (10) [Mon Mar 03 18:02:20 2014] [notice] caught SIGTERM, shutting down [Mon Mar 03 20:18:01 2014] [notice] Apache/2.2.26 (Unix) DAV/2 PHP/5.5.4 mod_ssl/2.2.26 OpenSSL/0.9.8y configured -- resuming normal operations Read the log file as it happens ● -f is interactive ● Ctrl+C to exit interactive
  • Who is currently on my site? $>tail -f /var/log/apache2/*access_log ::1 - - [26/Dec/2013:09:35:23 -0500] "OPTIONS * HTTP/1.0" 200 - 127.0.0.1 - - [26/Dec/2013:09:35:34 -0500] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 44 127.0.0.1 - - [26/Dec/2013:09:35:34 -0500] "GET /favicon.ico HTTP/1.1" 404 209 127.0.0.1 - - [26/Dec/2013:09:36:40 -0500] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 304 - 127.0.0.1 - - [26/Dec/2013:09:36:42 -0500] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 304 - Read the access log as it happens
  • How do I change this thing $>nano wp-config.php Nano text editor
  • How do I change this thing $>nano wp-config.php ^G Get Help ^O WriteOut ^R Read File ^Y Prev Page ^K Cut Text ^C Cur Pos ^X Exit ^J Justify ^W Where Is ^V Next Page ^U UnCut Text ^T To Spell Nano text editor
  • Putting it all together $>tail -n 10000 /var/log/apache2/error_log | grep “Mar 01” | less Deep filtering with the pipe statement Look for any log entry that occurred on March 1st within the last ten thousand lines of the error log and display it in a way I can easily navigate
  • Putting it all together $>mkdir -p wp-content/uploads && echo - e "RemoveHandler .php .phtml .php3 php4nRemoveType .php .phtml .php3 php4" > wp-content/uploads/.htaccess Creating files without a text editor Make a new uploads directory in wp-content, then create a .htaccess file in uploads with the contents of “RemoveHandler .php .phtml .php3 php4 RemoveType .php .phtml .php3 php4”
  • Resources ● Usage Share of Server OSes ● 162,000 WP Sites Used as Bot Net ● In The Beginning Was the Command Line ● linuxcommand.org ● Command Line Mystery ● 5-Minute Essential Shell Tutorial ● PuTTY ● Cygwin
  • Questions?
  • Thank you! http://slidesha.re/1nhg37s