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Using Feedback Control Engineering for Analyzing and Designing an Effective Lecturing Model   M Abdulwahed 1,2  and  Z K N...
Overview <ul><li>Towards  Pedagogical Cybernetics . </li></ul><ul><li>Why dynamical modelling of educational processes. </...
Towards Pedagogical Cybernetics <ul><li>Why not viewing pedagogy as a SYSTEM? </li></ul><ul><li>Why not viewing learning a...
Why Dynamical Modelling of Educational Processes <ul><li>Most pedagogical models are conceptual or static </li></ul><ul><l...
Why Considering Feedback <ul><li>Feedback is omnipresent in everyday life (biology, economy, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Contr...
Modelling The Learning Process <ul><li>Modelling guidelines in control engineering: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximation to...
Learning Process Model Teacher Student Knowledge Forgetting
Learning Process Model
Open Loop Lecturing Model <ul><li>x  is internal state representing the learning level ( x 0  – prerequisites). </li></ul>...
Cascaded Open Loop Model of Lecture Series Forgetting Factor Lack of Feedback, Reflection, and Practice will Lead to Quick...
Closed Loop Constructivist Lecturing Model <ul><li>x  is internal state representing the learning level. </li></ul><ul><li...
Closed Loop Model of Constructivist Series of Lectures <ul><li>Break the complexity of the course into smaller cascaded lo...
Cascaded Closed Loop Model Mathematical Model
Robustness of Closed Loop Lecturing Model <ul><li>Students come with diverse learning abilities and learning styles. </li>...
Robustness of Closed Loop Lecturing Model Closed Loop Lecturing Model Leads to Close Learning Outcome of Average and Weak ...
Hybrid Control Model of Project Based Learning Pedagogy - +
Feedback via Technology Assisted Lecturing <ul><li>Left the students attention more to the lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Help...
Classroom Voting with Mobile Learning, The m-FAS - A model of The Mobile Formative Assessment System m-FAS has been propos...
<ul><li>Mathematical Modelling of Two Models for Conducting Lecturing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Loop Model (teacher  cen...
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FIE 2008 Pedagogy Cybernetics

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Using Feedback Control Engineering for Analyzing and Designing an Effective Lecturing Model

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Transcript of "FIE 2008 Pedagogy Cybernetics"

  1. 1. Using Feedback Control Engineering for Analyzing and Designing an Effective Lecturing Model M Abdulwahed 1,2 and Z K Nagy 2 1 Engineering Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning, Loughborough University, United Kingdom 2 Chemical Engineering Department, Loughborough University, United Kingdom October 24, 2008 FIE 2008, Saratoga Springs, New York
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Towards Pedagogical Cybernetics . </li></ul><ul><li>Why dynamical modelling of educational processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Why considering feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Modelling the learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>Considering the lecturing process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open loop lecturing model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cascaded open loop model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed loop lecturing model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cascaded closed loop model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robustness of closed loop lecturing model. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Towards Pedagogical Cybernetics <ul><li>Why not viewing pedagogy as a SYSTEM? </li></ul><ul><li>Why not viewing learning as a DYNAMICAL PROCESS? </li></ul><ul><li>Control systems methods have been successfully applied to part of social sciences such as economy and finance. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamical modelling and control systems are frequent engineering tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Why not to apply this knowledge to educational processes which we are involved with any way! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why Dynamical Modelling of Educational Processes <ul><li>Most pedagogical models are conceptual or static </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamical models are superior to conceptual and static models </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamical models allow investigating more comprehensively the power of feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamical models are useful for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction of future behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and Control! </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Why Considering Feedback <ul><li>Feedback is omnipresent in everyday life (biology, economy, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Control systems uses feedback as artificial tool for uncertainty management . </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback can make systems to behave well even by using imperfect components. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Modelling The Learning Process <ul><li>Modelling guidelines in control engineering: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximation to a linear system whenever possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the most important character for the analyzed issue and ignore/simplify other features. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constructivist Learning is considered as a process of knowledge construction (Kolb 1984). </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is a process of accumulating knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>How do we model an accumulating process? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Learning Process Model Teacher Student Knowledge Forgetting
  8. 8. Learning Process Model
  9. 9. Open Loop Lecturing Model <ul><li>x is internal state representing the learning level ( x 0 – prerequisites). </li></ul><ul><li>u is control variable (set by the teacher). </li></ul><ul><li>a is constant representing the average ability of students to learn. </li></ul>Lecturing Open Loop Lecturing. Teacher’s Input Assumed learning level Prerequisites
  10. 10. Cascaded Open Loop Model of Lecture Series Forgetting Factor Lack of Feedback, Reflection, and Practice will Lead to Quickly Forgetting The Taught Material in The Lecture. Hence, Close to ZERO Learning Outcome of Open Loop Lecturing. L(1) L(2) L(3) L(n-1) L (n) Block diagram of Open-loop lecturing model. Student prior Knowledge Module Outcome
  11. 11. Closed Loop Constructivist Lecturing Model <ul><li>x is internal state representing the learning level. </li></ul><ul><li>r is learning objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>a’ is constant representing the average ability of students to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback is achieved through formative assessment and reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher-in-the-loop versus constructivist lecturing approach </li></ul><ul><li>Stable System! </li></ul>Lecturing Actual learning - + Learning Objectives Closed Loop Lecturing. Feedback
  12. 12. Closed Loop Model of Constructivist Series of Lectures <ul><li>Break the complexity of the course into smaller cascaded loops. </li></ul><ul><li>Activate continuous formative assessment, reflection, and practical activities along each loop (e.g. each lecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Set clear learning objectives for each lecture. </li></ul>Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lecture N Block diagram of closed loop lecturing model. Prerequisites Lecture 2 Objectives Lecture N Objectives Final Module Outcome Lecture 1 Objectives
  13. 13. Cascaded Closed Loop Model Mathematical Model
  14. 14. Robustness of Closed Loop Lecturing Model <ul><li>Students come with diverse learning abilities and learning styles. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, model uncertainties. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback can inherently accommodate model uncertainties. </li></ul>Lecture Closed loop lecture with student’s uncertainty Prior Needed Knowledge Lecture Objectives Lecture Outcome Feedback Uncertainty
  15. 15. Robustness of Closed Loop Lecturing Model Closed Loop Lecturing Model Leads to Close Learning Outcome of Average and Weak Students in Case of Effective Feedback, Reflection, and Practical Activities Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lecture N Block diagram of closed loop lecturing model Prerequisites Lecture 2 Objectives Lecture N Objectives Final Module Outcome Lecture 1 Objectives Simulation of nominal vs. weak student performance
  16. 16. Hybrid Control Model of Project Based Learning Pedagogy - +
  17. 17. Feedback via Technology Assisted Lecturing <ul><li>Left the students attention more to the lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Help overcoming the shyness or linguistic factors preventing students from engagement. </li></ul><ul><li>Quick identification of students’ level of understanding of the lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Delivering automated formative assessment messages to the students in short time. </li></ul><ul><li>Using voting systems and SMS and email messaging to achieve the previous objectives. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Classroom Voting with Mobile Learning, The m-FAS - A model of The Mobile Formative Assessment System m-FAS has been proposed and pilot study was done with messages delivered through SMS and emails. - Students have appreciated the messages they got directly after the lecture, they wanted more details. Identification (Questions) Process (Student Learning) Actuator (Teacher) Automatic Feedback DAQ (e-Voting) Monitoring (Parents)
  19. 19. <ul><li>Mathematical Modelling of Two Models for Conducting Lecturing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Loop Model (teacher centered approach). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed Loop Model (student centered). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In case of open loop model, the forgetting factor plays significant role in the low retention of information. </li></ul><ul><li>With closed loop models, the forgetting factor is eliminated. </li></ul><ul><li>Closed loop lecturing is stable, hence achieving the learning objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Closed loop lecturing is robust, hence accommodating the learning uncertainties in the students’ model and bringing the weak students’ performance close to the that of the average students. </li></ul><ul><li>Its NOVEL to use control engineering for modelling educational processes. </li></ul><ul><li>From the engineering PEDAGOGY towards ENGINEERING the pedagogy!. </li></ul>Conclusion
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