Understanding ADHD and Other Behavioral Problems in Children


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ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), ODD (oppositional defiant disorder), CD (conduct disorder) and Autism are some of the most common behavioral problems in many children and understanding these behaviors is critical to being able to deal with them.

This presentation was done five years ago while I was the National Christian Education Association President at my church and I just thought that there might be many of you out there (teachers, parents, caregivers, peers, etc) who would find this research intructive. Enjoy and share!

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Understanding ADHD and Other Behavioral Problems in Children

  1. 1. <ul><li>The National Christian Education Association Seminar/Workshop: </li></ul><ul><li>Training of Children With Varying Behavioural Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Thursday, July 12, 2007 </li></ul>Welcome! Presenter: Evang. Michael Roache NCEA President
  2. 2. <ul><li>Psa 111:10 The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom: a good understanding have all they that do his commandments: his praise endureth for ever. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro 22:6 Train up a child in the way he should go: and when he is old, he will not depart from it. </li></ul><ul><li>Psa 34:11 Come, ye children , hearken unto me: I will teach you the fear of the LORD. </li></ul><ul><li>Psa 132:12 If thy children will keep my covenant and my testimony that I shall teach them, their children shall also sit upon thy throne for evermore. </li></ul>The Fear of The Lord-The Genesis of Learning
  3. 3. Early Signs of Behavioural Changes - 0-18 Months <ul><li>This is a time of fast growth and development. Children need to explore in order to learn about things, people, sounds, smells, and what happens when they do something. Most importantly, at this age children learn who they can trust to meet their needs. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Early Signs (Cont’d) <ul><li>Feeding, diapering, and comforting must be done when they demand it. As they grow you can look for infants to be making messes, and exploring everything in their environment. As they approach 18 months of age, children begin expressing frustration and anger. They are also likely to ignore a parent's commands. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Between 18 Months to 3 years <ul><li>Children at this age are becoming their own people, separate and independent from their parents. They need to explore everything in their environment, to help them learn about the people and places in their life. At the same time, they are improving their walking, running, and climbing skills and learning to talk. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>As a toddler, it is likely that the child won't always hold your hand, will refuse to come when called, and say &quot;NO.&quot; It is common for toddlers to insist on having things a certain way, to have temper tantrums, and refuse to share or take turns. The best method of discipline for children of this age is distraction </li></ul>
  7. 7. The first three years of life are critical to a baby's brain development. During these years the brain triples its weight and establishes thousands of billions of nerve connections, in fact almost twice as many as adults have!
  8. 9. How Many Brains Do You Have? <ul><li>The human brain weighs only three pounds but is estimated to have about 100 billion cells! </li></ul><ul><li>We have two eyes, two hands, and two legs, and two… </li></ul><ul><li>Halves of a brain , divided into a right and left hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>The right hemisphere is the center of visual, rhythm, &quot;artistic&quot; abilities </li></ul><ul><li>The left hemisphere is concerned with logical and analytical skills </li></ul>
  9. 10. Not all children of a certain age act the same way .
  10. 11. Biological factors such as visual impairments, tactile sensitivities, auditory and speech disorders, or motor disabilities may affect a child’s behaviour.
  11. 12. Use a communication system suitable for a child's needs to inform them of what is happening Examples: <ul><li>An alphabet book </li></ul><ul><li>An alphabet chart </li></ul><ul><li>An easy reader </li></ul><ul><li>A flash card </li></ul><ul><li>A flip chart </li></ul><ul><li>A poster </li></ul><ul><li>Coloured pens/chalks </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence building cards </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence building grid </li></ul><ul><li>Syllable wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Word building cards </li></ul><ul><li>A word slide </li></ul><ul><li>Comics </li></ul>
  12. 13. Recognizing the cause of anxieties which may trigger behaviours is a skill that is an ongoing learning experience.
  13. 14. <ul><li>If the child does start to display behaviour which indicates a rise in anxiety, try to work out the cause and address it. Examples include: </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Does the child understand what is being asked? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the task too difficult? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the child familiar with the person working with him/her? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the child hungry? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the child thirsty? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the child in pain? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the child tired? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it too noisy in the room? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it too hot or too cold in the room? </li></ul>
  15. 16. The most common disruptive behaviour disorders include oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  16. 17. Oppositional Defiant Disorder <ul><li>Around one in ten children under the age of 12 years are thought to have oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), with boys outnumbering girls by two to one. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Oppositional Defiant Disorder - Characteristics <ul><li>Easily angered, annoyed or irritated </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent temper tantrums </li></ul><ul><li>Argues frequently with adults, particularly the most familiar adults in their lives, such as parents </li></ul><ul><li>Refuses to obey rules </li></ul><ul><li>Seems to deliberately try to annoy or aggravate others </li></ul><ul><li>Low self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Low frustration threshold </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to blame others for any misfortunes or misdeeds. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Conduct Disorder <ul><li>Children with conduct disorder (CD) are often judged as ‘bad kids’ because of their delinquent behaviour and refusal to accept rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Around five per cent of 10 year olds are thought to have CD, with boys outnumbering girls by four to one. Around one-third of children with CD also have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). </li></ul>
  19. 20. Conduct Disorder - Characteristics <ul><li>Frequent refusal to obey parents or other authority figures </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated truancy (absence from class) </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to use drugs, including cigarettes and alcohol, at a very early age </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of empathy for others </li></ul><ul><li>Being aggressive to animals and other people or showing sadistic (extremely cruel) behaviours including bullying and physical or sexual abuse </li></ul>
  20. 21. Conduct disorder <ul><li>Keenness to start physical fights </li></ul><ul><li>Using weapons in physical fights </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent lying </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal behaviour such as stealing, deliberately lighting fires, breaking into houses and vandalism </li></ul><ul><li>A tendency to run away from home </li></ul><ul><li>Suicidal tendencies – although these are more rare. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Atnteoitn Hyeprcaivtyit Deifcti Dsodirer <ul><li>Around two to five per cent of children are thought to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with boys outnumbering girls by three to one. The characteristics of ADHD can include: </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Inattention: Has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity: Often fidgets with hands/feet or squirms in seat (in adolescents, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness). Has difficulty remaining seated when required to do so. </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsivity: Often shifts from one uncompleted activity to another </li></ul><ul><li>The flip side: </li></ul><ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic </li></ul><ul><li>Intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>Empathetic </li></ul><ul><li>Visionary </li></ul><ul><li>Inventive </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>Original </li></ul><ul><li>Loving </li></ul><ul><li>Exuberant </li></ul>
  23. 24. Autism is a complex disorder which affects a child's ability to interact with the world around them. Signs of autism include poor speech and a lack of interest in other people.
  24. 25. Behavioural Risk Factors - Gender <ul><li>Boys are much more likely than girls to suffer from behavioral disorders. It is unclear if the cause is genetic or linked to socialization experiences. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Behavioural Risk Factors (Cont’d) <ul><li>Gestation and birth – difficult pregnancies, premature birth and low birth weight may contribute in some cases to the child’s anti-social behaviour later in life. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Behavioural Risk Factors (Cont’d) <ul><li>Temperament – children who are difficult to manage, temperamental or aggressive from an early age are more likely to develop behavioural disorders later in life. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Behavioural Risk Factors (Cont’d) <ul><li>Family life – Behavioural disorders are more likely in dysfunctional families. For example, a child is at increased risk in families where domestic violence, poverty, poor parenting skills or substance abuse are a problem. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Behavioural Risk Factors (Cont’d) <ul><li>Learning difficulties – such as problems with reading and writing. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Behavioural Risk Factors (Cont’d) <ul><li>Intellectual disabilities – children with intellectual disabilities are twice as likely to have behavioural disorders. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Behavioural Risk Factors (Cont’d) <ul><li>Brain activity – studies have shown that areas of the brain that control attention appear to be less active in children with ADHD. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Treatment for Behavioural Disorder <ul><li>Untreated children with behavioural disorders may grow up to be dysfunctional adults. Generally, the earlier the intervention, the better the outcome is likely to be. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment is usually multi-faceted and depends on the particular disorder and factors contributing to it, but may include: </li></ul>
  32. 33. Treatment for Behavioural Disorder <ul><li>Parental education – for example, teaching parents how to communicate with and manage their children. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Treatment for Behavioural Disorder <ul><li>Functional family therapy – the entire family is helped to improve communication and problem-solving skills. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Treatment for Behavioural Disorder <ul><li>Cognitive Behavioural Therapy – to help the child to control their thoughts and behaviour and commonly include keeping a diary of significant events and associated feelings, thoughts and behaviors; questioning and testing assumptions or habits of thoughts that might be unhelpful and unrealistic; gradually facing activities which may have been avoided; and trying out new ways of behaving and reacting. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Treatment for Behavioural Disorder <ul><li>Social training – the child is taught important social skills, such as how to have a conversation or play cooperatively with others. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Treatment for Behavioural Disorder <ul><li>Anger Management – the child is taught how to recognize the signs of their growing frustration and given a range of coping skills designed to defuse their anger and aggressive behaviour. Relaxation techniques and stress management skills are also taught. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Treatment for Behavioural Disorder <ul><li>Support for associated problems – For example, a child with a learning difficulty will benefit from professional support. Patience and repeating the message </li></ul><ul><li>over and over again are necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Children rarely learn or master a desired </li></ul><ul><li>response on the first try. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Treatment for Behavioural Disorder <ul><li>Encouragement – Many children with behavioural disorders experience repeated failures at school and in their interactions with others. Encouraging the child to excel in their particular talents (such as sport) can help to build self-esteem. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Treatment for Behavioural Disorder <ul><li>Medication – to help control impulsive behaviours . </li></ul>
  40. 41. Video Game Addiction and Video Game Violence
  41. 42. Children Learn More Actively Than Passively <ul><li>Research on violent media reveals unequivocal evidence that viewing violent films and TV shows increase the likelihood of aggressive behavior . </li></ul><ul><li>But video and computer games can have the most profound influence on the behavior of children, simply because children retain a lot more information if they learn actively, rather than passively. </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>A UK study done by Teachers Evaluating Educational Multimedia (Teem) concluded that simulation and adventure games - such as Sim City and RollerCoaster Tycoon, where players create societies or build theme parks, developed children's strategic thinking and planning skills. (BBC news) </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>Parents and teachers also thought their children's mathematics, reading and spelling improved! </li></ul>
  44. 45. Titles Used In The Research <ul><li>Age of Empires II </li></ul><ul><li>Bob the Builder </li></ul><ul><li>Championship Manager </li></ul><ul><li>City Traders </li></ul><ul><li>F1 Championship Racing </li></ul><ul><li>Freddi Fish </li></ul><ul><li>Lego Alpha Team </li></ul><ul><li>Legoland </li></ul><ul><li>Micro Racers </li></ul><ul><li>Pajama Sam </li></ul><ul><li>Putt-Putt Enters the Race </li></ul><ul><li>RollerCoaster Tycoon </li></ul><ul><li>Sim City 3000 </li></ul><ul><li>The Sims </li></ul><ul><li>The Tweenies </li></ul><ul><li>The Settlers </li></ul><ul><li>Uno </li></ul><ul><li>Worms United </li></ul>
  45. 46. That’s My Two Cents! Thanks a Billion for your Time!