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Windows Server Virtualization - Hyper-V 2008 R2


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  • 1. Virtualization in Windows Server 2008 R2 Arlindo Alves Microsoft
  • 2. Sponsors
  • 3. Agenda • Hyper-V V2 • Cluster Shared Volumes • Live Migration • Hosted Desktops
  • 4. Architecture
  • 5. Hyper-V Architecture Parent Partition User Mode Kernel Mode Ring -1
  • 6. Hyper-V Architecture
  • 7. Hyper-V Capabilities • 32-bit (x86) & 64-bit (x64) VMs • Large memory support (64 GB) per VM • SMP VMs (up to 4 cores) • Integrated cluster support for HA & Quick Migration • BitLocker: Seamless, secure data encryption • Live Backup: Volume Shadow Service integration • Pass-through disk access for VMs • Virtual Machine snapshots • New hardware sharing architecture (VSP/VSC/VMBus) • Disk, networking, input, video • Robust networking: VLANs and NLB • DMTF standard for WMI management interface • Support for Full or Server Core installations
  • 8. Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V • Building on the rock-solid architecture of Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V • Integration with new technologies • Enabling new dynamic scenarios: • Increased Server Consolidation • Dynamic Data Center • Virtualized Centralized Desktop • Customer Driven
  • 9. Live Migration
  • 10. Live Migration • #1 Customer Request • Moving a virtual machine from one server to another without loss of service • Workload is unaware of the migration • Maintain TCP connections of the guest OS • Enables new dynamic scenarios • No downtime host servicing • Maintenance Mode with SCVMM R2 • Load Balancing with SCVMM R2 & PRO
  • 11. Live Migration • Live Migration via Cluster Manager • In box UI • Live Migration via Virtual Machine Manager • Orchestrate migrations via policy • Moving from Quick to Live Migration: • Guest OS limitations?: No • Changes to VMs needed?: No • Changes to storage infrastructure: No • Changes to network infrastructure: No • Update to Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V: Yes
  • 12. Live Migration Initiate Migration I want to Migrate this VM to another physical machine Client accessing VM SAN • IT Admin initiates a Live Migration to move a VM from one VHD host to another
  • 13. Live Migration Memory Copy: Full Copy Memory content is copied to new server VM pre-staged SAN • First initial copy is of all in memory content VHD
  • 14. Live Migration Memory Copy: Dirty Pages Client continues accessing VM Pages are being dirtied SAN • Client continues to access VM, which results in memory being modified VHD
  • 15. Live Migration Memory Copy: Incremental Copy Recopy of changes Smaller set of changes • Hyper-V tracks changed SAN data, and re-copies over incremental changes • Subsequent passes get faster as data set is smaller VHD
  • 16. Live Migration Final Transition Partition State copied VM Paused SAN • Window is very small and within TCP connection timeout VHD
  • 17. Live Migration Post-Transition: Clean-up Client directed to new host Old VM deleted once migration is verified successful • ARP issued to have routing SAN devices update their tables • Since session state is maintained, no reconnections necessary VHD
  • 18. DEMO • Live Migration Demo
  • 19. Migration & Storage • Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V • NEW Cluster Shared Volume (CSV) • CSV provides a single consistent file name space; • All Windows Server 2008 R2 servers see the same storage • Easy setup; Uses NTFS • No reformatting SANs • Create one big data store • No more drive letter problems • Existing tools just work
  • 20. Cluster Shared Volumes • All servers “see” the same storage
  • 21. Clustering VMs with CSV 1. Install Failover Clustering, Hyper-V from 2008 R2 2. Create & Validate your cluster 3. Enable CSV 4. Add storage to CSV 5. Copy VHD file to CSV storage C:ClusterStorage... 6. Create VM, select CSV Path for VM and files 7. Add the VM to the cluster making it HA 8. Within the VM, configure your application
  • 22. Individual VM Failover on a LUN Disk Resource Disk Resource SAN Same LUN Solution Today VHD 1 VHD 2 VHD 3
  • 23. Individual VM Failover on a LUN VMs running on Node 1 are unaffected SAN Coordinator Node Same LUN The Solution (R2) VHD 1 VHD 2 VHD 3
  • 24. Optimized Capacity Planning • In the past (2008) - 1 LUN for 1 VM • LUN smallest unit of failover • Run out of storage space Free Space • Wasted storage space VHD Used VHD • Storage management challenging Space Wasted Out of Space Space VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD Many LUNs to Manage
  • 25. Optimized Capacity Planning • The Solution (R2): 1 LUN for many VMs • VM smallest unit of failover • VMs share the pool of unused space • Flexible utilization and easy Free Space management Used VHD VHD Space VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD Free Space VHD VHD VHD VHD
  • 26. DEMO • Clustered Shared Volumes
  • 27. Live Migration Best Practices • Cluster Shared Volumes • Not required but, highly recommended • Network Adapters • Cluster Heartbeat/Management • CSV • Virtual Switches • iSCSI • MPIO: Add another • Live Migration & IPSEC • Will impact migration performance
  • 28. New Processor Feature Support Microsoft Confidential
  • 29. VM Memory Management • Today, processors provide one level of address translation, but hypervisor needs to manage two Guest Virtual Guest Virtual Guest OS Address Address Shadow page defines GVA-to- tables combine GPA mappings these mappings Guest Physical because the Address processor knows Hypervisor how to perform defines GPA-to- only one level of SPA mappings System System translation Physical Physical Address Address
  • 30. Shadow Page Tables • Hypervisor maintains a Shadow Page Table • Combines two layers of translation into a single page table • Demand-filled when Child OS touches a page • Flushed any time the Child OS modifies its page tables • Shadow Page Table overhead • Fills and flushes invoke the hypervisor • Can account for up to 10% of total CPU time • Consumes roughly 1MB of memory per VM
  • 31. Second Level Address Translation (SLAT) • Goes by several names • Intel: Extended Page Tables (EPT) • AMD: Nested Page Tables (NPT)/Rapid Virtualization Indexing (RVI) • Processor provides two levels of translation • Walks the guest OS page tables directly • No need to maintain Shadow Page Table • No hypervisor code for demand-fill or flush operations • Resource savings • Hypervisor CPU time drops to 2% • Roughly 1MB of memory saved per VM • Benefits Large Memory Workloads • Exchange, SQL, Terminal Services
  • 32. Windows Server 2008 R2 Core Parking • Overview • Scheduling virtual machines on a single server for density as opposed to dispersion • This allows “park/sleep” cores by putting them in deep C states • Benefits • Enhances Green IT by reducing CPU power consumption
  • 33. Windows Server 2008 16 LP Server
  • 34. Windows Server 2008 R2 Core Parking 16 LP Server
  • 35. Hyper-V Virtual Storage
  • 36. Hot Add/Remove Storage • Overview • Add and remove VHD and pass-through disks to a running VM without requiring a reboot. • Hot-add/remove disk applies to VHDs and pass-through disks attached to the virtual SCSI controller • Benefits • Enables storage growth in VMs without downtime • Enables additional datacenter backup scenarios • Enables new SQL/Exchange scenarios
  • 37. Performance • Major Performance Improvements • Dynamic Virtual Hard Disks • 64k Sequential Writes: 3x Faster • 4k Random Writes • 15x Faster • 85% of Native • Fixed Disks • Hyper-V R1: 94% of native • Hyper-V R2: Almost Equal to native
  • 38. Hyper-V Networking
  • 39. TCP Offload Support • Overview • TCP/IP traffic in a VM can be offloaded to a physical NIC on the host computer. • Benefits • Reduce CPU burden • Networking offload to improve performance • Live Migration is supported with Full TCP Offload • Major performance improvement on 10 Gb/E
  • 40. Virtual Machine Queue (VMQ) • Overview • NIC can DMA packets directly into VM memory • VM Device buffer gets assigned to one of the queues • Avoids packet copies in the VSP • Avoids route lookup in the virtual switch (VMQ Queue ID) • Allows the NIC to essentially appear as multiple NICs on the physical host (queues) • Benefits • Host no longer has device DMA data in its own buffer resulting in a shorter path length for I/O (performance gain)
  • 41. Jumbo Frames • Jumbo Frame Support • Ethernet frames >1,500 bytes • Ad hoc standard is ~9k • Overview • Enables 6x larger payload per packet • Benefits • Reduce CPU utilization of large file transfers • Reduces TCP/IP overhead by up to 84%
  • 42. Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 Microsoft Confidential
  • 43. Microsoft Hyper-V Server V2 New Features • Live Migration • High Availability • New Processor Support • Second Level Address Translation • Core Parking • Networking Enhancements • TCP/IP Offload Support • VMQ & Jumbo Frame Support • Hot Add/Remove virtual storage • Enhanced scalability • Enhancements to SCONFIG
  • 44. Hyper-V Server R1 vs. R2 Microsoft Hyper-V Server Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 Processor Support Up to 4 processors Up to 8 processors up to 24 LPs Up to 32 LPs Physical Memory Support Up to 32 GB Up to 1 TB Virtual Machine Memory Up to 32 GB total 64 GB of memory per VM Support (e.g. 31 1 GB VMs or 5 6 GB VMs) Live Migration No Yes High Availability No Yes Management Options Free Hyper-V Manager Free Hyper-V Manager MMC MMC SCVMM SCVMM R2
  • 45. Hosted Desktops
  • 46. Terminal Services Virtualization • Overview • TSV - Virtualized “Centralized Desktop” provisioning, access and management solution on top of Hyper-V • Unified user and admin experience for traditional TS (session per user) and TSV (VM per user). • Deployment Scenarios • Temporary (until Logoff) VM per user Assignment • Permanent VM per user assignment • Built-in solution for low complexity deployments • Features and management are tuned for Entry Level deployments. Example: 4 TS/TSVM Servers with few apps.
  • 47. Connection Broker Infrastructure TS Gateway TS Session Broker TS Users Remote TS Farm Storage Hosted Desktop Users (Remote) Hyper-V Farm Hosted Desktop Users TS Users
  • 48. Virtualization Management “Virtualization without good management is more dangerous than not using virtualization in the first place.” – TOM BITTMAN, GARTNER VP AND ANALYST, 9 MAY, 2007 Virtualization Will Drive Major Change in IT Infrastructure and Operations in the Next Three Years, Tom Bittman, May 8, 2007
  • 49. Managing The Server Lifecycle
  • 50. Virtual Machine Manager 2008 A centralized, heterogeneous management solution for the virtual datacenter • Centralized virtual machine deployment and management for Hyper-V, Virtual Server, and VMware ESX servers • Intelligent placement of Virtual Machines • Fast and reliable P2V and V2V conversion • Comprehensive application and service-level monitoring with Operations Manager • Integrated Performance and Resource Optmization (PRO) • Increase Agility • Rapid provisioning of new and virtual machines with templates
  • 51. OPATIJA | 20 – 24.4. 2009. Thank you!