Cities

826 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
826
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
149
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • http://www.conservationtech.com/x-MILLTOWNS/RL-Photographs-4x5/England-4x5s.htm
  • http://www.edu.dudley.gov.uk/teachandlearnresources/dudleycd/strbrdge/
    http://gallery.virtualbrum.co.uk/slideshow.php?set_albumName=aerial
  • Cities

    1. 1. First cities appear in different parts of the world, but those that will exert a deeper influence in Europe are located in the Middle East, more specifically in Mesopotamia, and a little later, in Egypt.
    2. 2. CITY IN CRETE CITY IN GREECE
    3. 3. CITY IN ROME
    4. 4. MEDIEVAL CHRISTIAN CITY
    5. 5. MEDIEVAL ISLAMIC CITY
    6. 6. CITY IN THE RENAISSANCE There is an increase interest in urbanization which results in: • projecting the ideal layout of a city which would solve all needs of sanitation, defense, communications … •Restructuring and enhance existing cities by opening up new squares , buildings, fountains, parks, etc
    7. 7. HISTORIC CENTRE
    8. 8. The dominant city in this moment (preindustrial city ) becomes too small • City walls will be demolished • Wide roads are opened up • Around it new neigbourhoods emerge The middle-class residential areas (ensanches) HISTORIC CENTRE With the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION The workers residential areas, next to the factories (low-quality housing)
    9. 9. An example: MADRID Up to 1850: • Preindustrial city or historic city
    10. 10. Up to 1850: • Preindustrial city or historic city Up to 1915: • Ensanche An example: MADRID
    11. 11. Up to 1850: • Preindustrial city or historic city Up to 1915: • Ensanche • Workers neighbourhoods An example: MADRID
    12. 12. Growth of cities in the XX century has sped up exponentially, adding new elements to the periphery such as: NON- RESIDENTIAL AREAS Commercial and leisure areas Industrial areas RESIDENTIAL AREAS High-class neighbourhoods Workers neighbourhoods Shacks Equipment areas (universities, sport facilities, hospitals, …) Current development has shaped all cities today in a similar way and we can find more or less in almost all of them a typical structure.
    13. 13. CENTRAL ZONE •Historic centre •C.B.D. •Ensanche PERIPHERY • Residential areas: - high-class neighbourhoods - Workers neighbourhoods • Non-residental areas:- Industrial areas - Commercial and leisure areas - Equipment areas (hospitals, sport facilities, universities …) - Shacks
    14. 14. Public Buildings eg. Town Hall (Plaza de la Villa) What typical characteristics of a Historic Centre are shown here? Busy – lots of pedestrians Markets
    15. 15. Most commercial stores– why? Lots of tourists What typical characteristics of a Historic Centre are shown here?
    16. 16. Museums What typical characteristics of a Historic Centre are shown here? Some of the oldest buildings (Palacio Real) Historic/ old street pattern – often some narrow streets Very accessible – public transport & traffic management required due to congestion.
    17. 17. What typical characteristics of a Historic Centre are shown here? Housing Low-quality, old and in bad condition High-quality Three-four storey buildings High density
    18. 18. Entertainment – e.g. restaurants Entertainment e.g. pubs What typical characteristics of a Historic Centre are shown here? Entertainment e.g. cinemas (although increasingly these are moving further out of town)
    19. 19. Good accessibility Few residential areas What typical characteristics of a CBD are shown here? The Tallest Buildings Why?
    20. 20. A CASE STUDY OF URBAN TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT MADRID
    21. 21. CAUSES OF TRAFFIC PROBLEMS IN MADRID • CBD (historic centre) – oldest part of city – road network originally built for horse-drawn traffic – not able to cope with high traffic flows (many narrow roads) • Increased card ownership over the last 50 years with increasing wealth • Last 20 years – increase metropolitan area & more people on the road • Commuter traffic increasingly a problem (people travelling into the city to work) • More people travelling in for shopping / entertainment
    22. 22. What are the Traffic Problems in Madrid? • Heavy Traffic Congestion – particularly in rush hours – make deliveries / people going to/out of work • Movement of traffic slow in narrow streets • High volume of through traffic • High pollution levels from exhaust (particularly in hot summer conditions) • Lost work hours (workers increasingly late due to congestion) – costs employers • Shortage of Parking • Problems for emergency services trying to get through congested streets
    23. 23. What are the solutions to traffic problems in Madrid? More parking lots Campaigns to use public transport
    24. 24. CYCLE LANES And BUS LANES Why?
    25. 25. RISING BOLLARDS RESTRICTED AREAS FOR CARS
    26. 26. PEDESTRIANISED AREAS
    27. 27. Encouraging electric vehicles
    28. 28. Other Traffic Management Measures: • Increase Car Parking Fees (discourage traffic in centre – encourage use of public transport) Other possible solutions in the future?
    29. 29. URBAN PROJECTS DURING XIX CENTURY
    30. 30. ENSANCHE Orthogonal plan Outside the historic centre Open spaces and squares PLAN CASTRO 1860 Carlos María de Castro
    31. 31. Blocks of houses with straight corners (creates little squares in the crossing of streets) Inner courtyards Good communications Services (electricity, drainage system, hospitals )
    32. 32. WORKERS NEIGHBOURHOODS • Developed during the 19th century – due to rapid expansion of industry (led to the demand for workers) • As more moved to the cities – there was a demand for low cost houses for the workers • This resulted in high-density cheap housing (fitting as many houses as possible in a small area • People had to live close to work (close to the factory) due to lack of transport
    33. 33. These neighbourhoods spread southwards: Carabancheles, Puente de Toledo and Puente de Vallecas) and outside the ensanche (northwards, Tetuan; north-eastwards, Prosperidad and la Guindalera).
    34. 34. What types of land-use are found in these areas? 19th Century workers houses Railways Industry – large factories built during the industrial revolution (now some knocked down / converted) Main Roads (often now ring roads taking traffic out of CBDs) M-30
    35. 35. Typical Characteristics of Inner City Areas • High Density Housing • Mainly one-storey houses (some enlarged to 3-4 stories) • Few Amenities (little or no sanitation) • Today, some mainly occupied by ethnic minorities, with low incomes, high unemployment rates
    36. 36. Problems in XIX industrial Areas today 1. Industrial Decline 6. Overcrowding 2. Abandoned Warehouses – eyesore and led to vandalism 7. High crime rate 3. Poor Quality Housing 4. Lack of Open Space 5. Unemployment 8. Lack of Parking Spaces 9. Atmospheric Pollution (factories / traffic) 10. Lots of heavy traffic (for industry)
    37. 37. LOCATION: Proyecto Plan Especial Río Manzanares A Case Study of Urban Redevelopment / Renewal MADRID RIO
    38. 38. GARDEN CITY MOVEMENT Ebenezer Howard´s "Garden Cities of To-morrow" •Cheap rural land •32,000 person population cap •Public parks and private lawns •Wide roads (Grand Avenue) •Radial layout •Commercial, industrial, residential, and public uses are clearly differentiated from each other spatially
    39. 39. Arturo Soria y Mata - Ciudad Lineal Creation in 1894 Compañía Madrileña de Urbanización
    40. 40. •Cheap land •Different types of houses, proces and qualities (with garden and sanitary services) •Lineal layout •Street train to connect the new city with the periphery towns and the capital.
    41. 41. 1955 Ciudad Lineal crossed by new airport highway
    42. 42. Today Calle Arturo Soria
    43. 43. PERIPHERY From 1960s onwards
    44. 44. Residential areas High- quality for middle classes (Mirasierra ) Low-quality for workers (San Blas) Shacks From the 90s
    45. 45. Non- Residential areas Industrial areas Business and service areas Equipment areas
    46. 46. Universities Hospitals Shopping Centres
    47. 47. Madrid Metropolitan area •Cities around the urban area that depend on it economically. •Commuters move everyday to the city to work. • Similar residential areas as in the periphery (some luxury neighbourhoods: La Moraleja) .

    ×