Screening ppt


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Screening ppt

  2. 2.  Selection is picking up right people for right jobs  Selection is the process by which an organization chooses the person(s) who best meets the selection criteria for the position available  Selection programs try to identify applicants with the best chance of meeting or exceeding the organization’s standards of performance  Selection is significant because  it determines work performance  heavy costs are incurred Introduction
  3. 3. Selection: “An exercise in prediction”  Selection Process  The process of screening job applicants to ensure that the most appropriate candidates are hired.  What is Selection?  An exercise in predicting which applicants, if hired, will be (or will not be) successful in performing well on the criteria the organization uses to evaluate performance.  Selection errors:  Reject errors for potentially successful applicants  Accept errors for ultimately poor performers
  4. 4. Recruitment Vs Selection • Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization WHEREAS selection involves the series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts. • The basic purpose of recruitments is to create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organization, by attracting more and more employees to apply in the organization WHEREAS the basic purpose of selection process is to choose the right candidate to fill the various positions in the organization.
  5. 5. Recruitment Vs Selection  Recruitment is a positive process i.e. encouraging more and more employees to apply WHEREAS selection is a negative process as it involves rejection of the unsuitable candidates.  Recruitment is concerned with tapping the sources of human resources WHEREAS selection is concerned with selecting the most suitable candidate through various interviews and tests.  There is no contract of recruitment established in recruitment WHEREAS selection results in a contract of service between the employer and the selected employee.
  6. 6. Selection Criteria  Understanding the characteristics essential for high performance  The characteristics are identified during job analysis  They must be reflected in the job specification  The goal of any selection system is to:  Determine which applicants possess the knowledge, skills, abilities, and KSAOs dictated by the job  The system must distinguish between characteristics that are:  Needed at the time of hiring, acquired during training, and developed on the job
  7. 7. Categories of Criteria  Criteria for making selection decisions fall into these broad categories:  Education  Experience  Physical characteristics  Other personal characteristics
  9. 9. Step 1: Preliminary Screening  The first step in most selection processes involves completing an application form  Application blanks vary in length and sophistication  Nearly all ask for enough information to determine minimal qualifications  The application eliminates the need for interviewers to gather basic information  Application blanks are subject to the same legal standards as any other selection method  They generally limit questions that imply something about the applicant’s physical health
  10. 10. Sample Application Blank Name: _________________________________________________________________________ Address: _______________________________________________________________________ Phone Number (Res): _______________________ Education College/University Attended: ____________ Highest Degree (a) BA/BSc/MA/MSc/MBA/MCom (b) BE/BTech/ MTech (c) Any other High School Attended: _____________________________ Work Experience (List most recent jobs first) Name of the Organisation: Gross Salary: ______________ (annual; be sure to include any bonuses or commission earned) Job Title: ________________________________________________________ Name of Last Supervisor: __________________________________________ May we contact this supervisor? Yes / No Reason(s) for Leaving: ____________________________________________________________ Name of Organisation: ____________________ Date of Employment: _______ from to ____ Gross Salary: ___________ (annual; be sure to include any bonuses or commission earned) Job Title: ________________________________________________________ Name of Last Supervisor: __________________________________________ May we contact this supervisor? Yes / No Reason(s) for Leaving: ____________________________________________________________ Name of Organisation: ____________________ Date of Employment: _______ from to ____ Gross Salary: ___________ (annual; be sure to include any bonuses or commission earned) Job Title: ________________________________________________________ Name of Last Supervisor: __________________________________________ May we contact this supervisor? Yes / No Reason(s) for Leaving: ____________________________________________________________ Work skills 1. List any job-related languages you are able to speak or write: _________________________ 2. List any job-related clerical (e.g., typing) or technical skills (e.g., computer programming) that you have: A . ___________________________________ B. ___________________________________ C. ___________________________________ Additional Information In case of an emergency, please contact. Name: __________________________________________ Address: _______________________________________ Telephone: ______________________________________ I understand that falsification of information is grounds for dismissal. I understand that my employment at the company may be discontinued at any time for any reason either by myself or by the company. I agree to submit to a drug and/or alcohol test as a condition of employment. Signature Date
  11. 11. Weighted application blank(WAB) • It is a printed form completed by candidate wherein each item is weighted and scored based on its importance as a determinant of job success • It helps a company to cross-compare candidates having more or less similar qualifications and reject those not meeting the job criteria strictly • On the negative side, it is difficult to develop an appropriate WAB, the exercise could be quite costly, and it needs frequent updating so as to be in line with changing job requirements.
  12. 12. Step 2: Employment Tests  An employment test attempts to measure certain characteristics, such as:  Aptitudes  Manual dexterity  Intelligence  Personality  It can be expensive to develop an employment test, so many employers purchase existing tests
  13. 13. Selection Tests: • Intelligence test • Aptitude test • Personality test • Projective test • Interest test • Achievement test • Simulation test • Graphology test
  14. 14. Validity and Reliability  Validity (of Prediction)  A proven relationship between the selection device used and some relevant criterion for successful performance in an organization.  High tests scores equate to high job performance; low scores to poor performance.  Reliability (of Prediction)  The degree of consistency with which a selection device measures the same thing.  Individual test scores obtained with a selection device are consistent over multiple testing instances.
  15. 15. Standards For Selection Tests • Reliability: the ability of a selection tool to measure an attribute consistently; When a test is administered to the same individual repeatedly, he should get Approximately identical scores. • Validity: the extent to which an instrument measures what it intends to measure; In a typing test, validity measures a typist’s speed and accuracy. • Standardization: norms for finalizing test scores should be established Qualified people: tests demand a high level of professional skills
  16. 16. Job Sample Performance Tests  This test requires the applicant to do a sample of the work that the job involves in a controlled situation  Programming for computer programmers  Auditions at an orchestra or ballet company  Applicants are often asked to run the machines they would run on the job  The quantity and quality of their work is compared with the work of other applicants
  17. 17. Step 3: Employment Interview • Formal , in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate applicant’s acceptability for the job in consideration. • an important source of information about job applicants. • Several types of interviews are used , depending on the nature and importance of the position to be filled within an organization.
  18. 18. Types of Interviews  Interviews vary along two important dimensions:  How structured it is  Whether it focuses on historical information or hypothetical situations  An unstructured interview has no predetermined script or protocol  Structured interviews are more reliable and valid than unstructured interviews  Standardization lowers the possibility that biases have been introduced by the interviewer
  19. 19. Types Of Selection Interviews • The nondirective interview: the recruiter asks questions as they come to mind • The directive or structured interview: the recruiter uses a predetermined set of Questions that are clearly job-related • The situational interview: the recruiter presents a hypothetical incident and asks The candidate to respond • The behavioral interview: the focus here is on actual work related incidents and The applicant is supposed to reveal what he or she did in a given situation • Stress interview: the recruiter attempts to find how applicants would respond to aggressive, embarrassing, rule and insulting (at times) questions • The panel interview: three or four interviewers pose questions to the applicant and Examine the suitability of the candidate
  20. 20. Effective Interviewing  Conducting an Effective Interview  Planning the interview  Controlling the interview  Using proper questioning techniques  Question types to avoid in interviews  Yes/No questions  Obvious questions  Questions that rarely produce a true answer  Leading questions  Illegal questions  Questions that are not job related
  21. 21. Step 4: Reference Checks  When applying for a job, you may be asked for a list of references  Rarely does someone knowingly include the name of a reference who will give a negative impression  This built-in bias is why references are criticized  Equally important are concerns over the legality of asking for, and providing, such information  Giving out confidential information could be a violation of the employee’s right to privacy  Giving a negative recommendation opens the reference up to a defamation lawsuit
  22. 22. Step 5: Physical Examinations • After the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. • A job offer is contingent upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination.
  23. 23. Step 6 :Making the Job Offer • Offer Guidelines – Formalize the offer with a letter to the applicant clearly stating the terms and conditions of employment. – Avoid vague, general statements and promises. – Require return of a signed acceptance of the offer.
  24. 24. Selection of Managers • The employment tests used vary with the type of employee being hired – Organizations frequently spend more time, effort, and money hiring middle- to upper-level executives • Uses a variety of testing methods, including: – Interviews – Work samples and simulations – Paper-and-pencil tests of abilities and attitudes
  25. 25. Organization Strategy HR and Staffing Strategy Staffing Policies and Programs Staffing System and Retention Management Support Activities Legal compliance Planning Job analysis Core Staffing Activities Recruitment: External, internal Selection: Measurement, external, internal Employment: Decision making, final match Organization Vision and Mission Goals and Objectives Staffing Organizations Model
  26. 26. Logic of Prediction: Past Performance Predicts Future Performance Previous job(s) Current job Nonjob Past Situations Attraction Performance Satisfaction Retention Attendance HR Outcomes New Situation (job) Person KSAOs Motivation Sample Predict
  27. 27. Nature of Predictors • Content – Sign: A predisposition thought to relate to performance (e.g., personality) – Sample: Observing behavior thought to relate to performance – Criterion: Actual measure of prior performance • Form – Speed vs. power: How many versus what level – Paper / pencil vs. performance: Test in writing or in behavior – Objective vs. essay: Much like multiple-choice vs. essay course exam questions – Oral vs. written vs. computer: How data are obtained
  28. 28. Development of the Selection Plan: Steps Involved 1. Develop list of KSAOs required for job – KSAOs are provided by job requirements matrix 2. For each KSAO, decide if it needs to be assessed in the selection process 3. Determine method(s) of assessment to be used for each KSAO
  29. 29. Selection Sequence Applicant Flow Stage Applicants Candidates Finalists Offer Receivers New Hires Initial Assessment Method Substantive Discretionary Contingent
  30. 30. Biographical Information / Biodata • Personal history information of applicant’s background and interests – “Best predictor of future behavior is past behavior” – Past behaviors may reflect ability or motivation • Development of a biodata survey – Choose the criterion – Identify criterion groups – Select items to be analyzed – Specify item response alternatives – Weight items – Cross-validation – Develop cutoff scores
  31. 31. Biographical Information: Accomplishment Records • Survey past accomplishments of candidates as they relate to dimensions of work that are part of effective performance • Includes written statement of accomplishment, when it took place, any recognition, and verification • Emphasis on achievements rather than activities • Scoring Key Excerpt for an Accomplishment Record
  32. 32. Evaluation: Biographical Information / Biodata • Test-retest reliability can be high: .77 to .90 • Predictive validity moderate: .32 to .37 • Issues – Generalizability beyond first group? – Although predictive validity exists, it is not clear what these inventories assess – Falsification can be a big problem Suggestions to reduce faking? Applicant reactions?
  33. 33. Reference Reports: Letters of Recommendation • Problems – Inability to discern more-qualified from less-qualified applicants – Lack of standardization Why are these of such limited use? • Suggestions to improve credibility – Use a structured form – Use a standardized scoring key Other suggestions?
  34. 34. Reference Reports: Reference Checks • Approach involves verifying applicant’s background via contact with – Prior immediate supervisor(s) or – HR department of current of previous companies • Roughly 8 of 10 companies conduct reference checks • Problems – Same as problems with letters of recommendation – Reluctance of companies to provide requested information due to legal concerns • Sample Reference Check
  35. 35. Reference Reports: Background Testing • Method involves assessing reliability of applicants’ behavior, integrity, and personal adjustment • Type of information requested – Criminal history – Credit information – Educational history – Employment verification – Driver license histories – Workers’ compensation claims • Key issues – Limited validity evidence – Legal constraints on pre-employment inquiries
  36. 36. Evaluation of Reference Reports • Predictive validity limited: .16 to .26 • Validity depends on source providing information – HR department, coworker, or relative – Supervisors – What sources do you think work best? • Cost vs. benefit of approach must be considered
  37. 37. Initial Assessment Methods • Handwriting analysis • Literacy testing • Genetic screening Discuss the value & limits of these methods
  38. 38. Initial Interview • Characteristics – Begins process of necessary differentiation -- “rough cut” – Purpose -- Screen out most obvious cases of person / job mismatches – Limitation -- Most expensive method of initial assessment • Video and computer interviews – Offers cost savings
  39. 39. Evaluation of Initial Interview • Minimal evidence exists regarding usefulness • Guidelines to enhance usefulness – Ask questions assessing most basic KSAOs – Stick to basic, fundamental questions suitable for making rough cuts rather than subjective questions – Keep interviews brief – Ask same questions of all applicants
  40. 40. Choice of Initial Assessment Methods • Criteria – Use – Cost – Reliability – Validity – Utility – Applicant reactions – Adverse impact Evaluate the following •Education level •GPA •Quality of school •Major field •Extracurricular activity •Training & experience •Licensing/certification •Weighted app. Blanks •Biodata •Letters of recommendation •Reference checks •Background testing •Resumes, cover letters •Initial interviews
  41. 41. Ethical Issues/Skill based/Discussion • Issue 1 – Do you think employer have a right to check into applicants’ backgrounds? Even if there is no suspicion of misbehavior? Even if the job poses no security or sensitive risks? Even if the background check includes driving offenses and credit histories?
  42. 42. TESTS
  43. 43. Testing. Meaning, definition, purpose, advantages and disadvantages. Ability tests • clerical ability test, mechanical ability test, mental ability test, physical ability test, • personality assessment test, typing test, shorthand test, computer proficiency test
  44. 44. Mental or intelligence tests : They measure the overall intellectual ability of a person and enable to know whether the person has the mental ability to deal with certain problems. 2. Mechanical aptitude tests : They measure the ability of a person to learn a particular type of mechanical work. These tests helps to measure specialized technical knowledge and problem solving abilities if the candidate. They are useful in selection of mechanics, maintenance workers, etc
  45. 45. Intelligence test : This test helps to evaluate traits of intelligence. Mental ability, presence of mind (alertness), numerical ability, memory and such other aspects can be measured. The intelligence is probably the most widely administered standardized test in industry. It is taken to judge numerical, skills, reasoning, memory and such other abilities
  46. 46. Ability tests : - Assist in determining how well an individual can perform tasks related to the job. An excellent illustration of this is the typing tests given to a prospective employer for secretarial job. Also called as ‘ACHEIVEMENT TESTS’. It is concerned with what one has accomplished. When applicant claims to know something, an achievement test is taken to measure how well they know it. Trade tests are the most common type of achievement test given. Questions have been prepared and tested for such trades as worker, punch-press operators, electricians and machinists..
  47. 47. Ability Tests • Measure what a person has learned up to that point in time (achievement) • Measure one’s innate potential capacity (aptitude) • Up to 50% of companies use some ability testing
  48. 48. Ability Tests • Mental (Cognitive) Ability Tests • Mechanical Ability Tests • Clerical Ability Tests • Physical Ability Tests
  49. 49. Cognitive Ability Tests - Main purpose: to determine one’s level of aptitudes depending on setting - Measure aptitudes relevant to the job - short, group administration - excellent predictor of job and training performance
  50. 50. – Rate the validity of the selection method: • Poor: validity coefficient = r ≈ .00 • Moderate: validity coefficient = r ≈ .25 • Good: validity coefficient = r ≈ .50 • Great: validity coefficient = r ≈ .75
  51. 51. Typical Cognitive Abilities • Memory Span • Numerical Fluency • Verbal Comprehension • Visualization • Figural Identification • Mechanical Ability • Conceptual Classification • General Reasoning • Intuitive Reasoning • Logical Evaluation • Ordering
  52. 52. Advantages of Cognitive Ability Tests • Efficient • Useful across all jobs • Excellent levels of reliability and validity (.40 - .50) – Highest levels than any other tests – Estimated validity: • .58 for professional/managerial jobs • .56 for technical jobs • .40 for semi-skilled jobs • .23 for unskilled jobs – More complex job = higher validity
  53. 53. Disadvantages of Cognitive Ability Tests • Lead to more adverse impact • May lack face validity –Questions aren’t necessarily related to job • May predict short-term performance better than long-term –can do vs. will do
  54. 54. Physical Ability Tests • Most measure muscular strength, cardiovascular endurance, and movement quality • Areas of concern: – Female applicants – Disabled applicants – Reduction of work-related injuries
  55. 55. Comparison of Mental Ability Tests and Other Selection Instruments Biodata, structured interviews, trainability tests, work samples, and assessment centers have equal validity, less adverse impact, and more fairness to the applicant, but cost more Mental ability tests have high validity and low costs compared to other methods
  56. 56. Clerical Ability Tests Predominately measures perceptual speed and accuracy in processing verbal and numerical data Examples: Minnesota Clerical Test Office Skills Test
  57. 57. Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test (BMCT) • Relationship between physical forces and mechanical issues • Pictures depicting mechanical situations with questions pertaining to mechanical issues • Has 68 multiple choice questions , with 30 mins or less
  58. 58. - Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test - 68 items - 30 minutes - Principles of physics & mechanics - Operations of common machines, tools, & vehicles - High internal consistency - Good criterion validity w/ job proficiency & training
  59. 59. Minnesota Clerical • First published under title Minnesota vocational test, in 1933 for clerical workers • 15 mins test • 200 items to check mental and verbal ability • Reliability 0.9 or 0.85
  60. 60. Clerical Tests - Minnesota Clerical Test - 2 subtests: number comparison & name comparison - Long lists of pairs of numbers/names (decide if same) - Strict time limit - Reliable & valid for perceptual speed & accuracy - Good face validity
  61. 61. • Personality Test : The importance of personality to job success is undeniable (patent). Often an individual who possesses the intelligence, aptitude and experience for certain has failed because of inability to get along with and motivate other people. It is conducted to judge maturity, social or interpersonal skills, behavior under stress and strain, etc. this test is very much essential on case of selection of sales force, public relation staff, etc. where personality plays an important role. Personality tests are similar to interest tests in that they, also, involve a serious problem of obtaining an honest answer.
  62. 62. Work Sample Tests • How do you perform job-relevant tasks? • 2 characteristics: –Puts applicant in a situation similar to a work situation – measures performance on tasks similar to real job tasks. –Is it a test of maximal vs. typical performance? • Range from simple to complex
  63. 63. Work Sample Tests –Examples: •For telephone sales job, have applicants make simulated cold calls •For a construction job, have applicants locate errors in blueprints
  64. 64. Work Sample Tests • Advantages: – Highest validity levels (r = .50s) – High face validity – Easy to demonstrate job-relatedness • Disadvantages: – Not appropriate for all jobs – Time-consuming to set up and administer – More predictive in short-term – Cannot use if applicant is not expected to know job before being hired
  65. 65. Measuring Personality - Early research showed no validity - Recent research: 3 of Big 5 are predictive - Criterion validity: .15 - .25 - Susceptible to faking – does not affect validity in predicting - Useful when dependability, integrity, responsibility are determinants of job success
  66. 66. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) • Dimensions of personality: • Introversion  Extroversion: source of energy • Intuition  Sensation: innovation vs. practical • Thinking  Feeling: impersonal principles vs. personal relationships • Judging  Perceiving: closure vs. open options –Validity: poor for selection; might be okay, if carefully used, to help a team work better together
  67. 67. The Big 5 Personality Dimensions – Validity: typically moderate for selection (r ≈ .25 with measures of overall job performance) – But, validity of personality inventories is hard to generalize • Some dimensions of personality may correlate more strongly with particular aspects of a particular job • Extraversion → success in sales • High conscientiousness & high openness to experience → success in job training • Low agreeableness, low conscientiousness, & low adjustment → more likely to engage in counterproductive work behaviors (e.g., abuse sick leave, break rules, drug abuse, workplace violence)
  68. 68. Advantages of Personality Inventories • Intuitively appealing to managers (e.g., MBTI) • No adverse impact –Don’t show rates of differential selection • Efficient • Moderate reliability and validity –Validity = .20 - .30
  69. 69. Disadvantages of Personality Inventories • Response sets –Lie or socially desirable responding • All traits not equally valid for all jobs
  70. 70. Integrity Testing • Why do it? – Employee theft estimated between $15 and $50 billion in 1990’s – Employee theft rate by industry: 5 to 58% – 2% to 5% of each sales dollar charged to customers to offset theft losses
  71. 71. Integrity Testing – Purpose: - theft is expensive - also want to avoid laziness, violence, gossip - Honesty may not be a stable trait - Honesty testing is controversial - May depend on the situation (perceived unfairness) - Viewed as coercive and inaccurate - Honesty is a strong value in our society