Har 2 emission and odor

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Har 2 emission and odor

  1. 1. Understanding Nutrient s, Emissions & Odor at Harrison Farms - 2<br />Swine Facility Emission & Odor Monitoring<br />Paul Kivlin – UW Extension/NPM/Discovery Farms<br />Kevan Klingberg, Dennis Frame and Amber Radatz - UW Extension/Discovery Farms<br />
  2. 2. Emission and Odor Introduction<br />Air quality and odor control are pressing environmental issues facing animal agriculture across Wisconsin and the United States.<br />Producers will soon be faced with increasing pressure to comply with air quality standards.<br />For the past several years, pork producers have been at the forefront of these issues and they understand the importance of emission and odor control.<br />As leaders in their industry, Lynn and Patricia Harrison (E & L Harrison Enterprises, Inc.) participated in an emission/odor monitoring project with the Discovery Farms Program and Baumgartner Environics.<br />This study evaluated their hog finishing facilities against current WI Ambient Air Quality Standards. <br />
  3. 3. Emission and Odor Introduction<br />Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and odor from livestock facilities can all have adverse impacts on air quality.<br />May affect health and wellbeing of people and livestock living and working in these areas.<br />The WI livestock industry has limited quantitative data to document actual on-farm emissions from livestock facilities.<br />To improve the information available, the livestock industry requested that monitoring be conducted to identify baseline levels of loss for ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and odor generated from a variety of livestock facilities.<br />
  4. 4. Emission and Odor Introduction<br />Ammonia<br />A nitrogen gas emitted from housing facilities, manure storage areas, and from applications of manure / nitrogen fertilizer to fields.<br />Lost ammonia compounds can remain in the air as particulate haze and/or be re-deposited to the land.<br />Concerns about ammonia emissions include: <br />Atmospheric (ammonia compound) particulates cause haze and stimulate human respiratory health issues,<br />Additions of “extra” nitrogen to the ecosystem results in soil acidification, changes in plant species and water quality concerns (hypoxia).<br />
  5. 5. Emission and Odor Introduction<br />Hydrogen sulfide<br />A product of the anaerobic decomposition of manure (or other organic matter).<br />Exposure to hydrogen sulfide at 50 parts per million (ppm) can cause dizziness, headache and nausea.<br />Workers in areas where exposed to levels of 1,000 ppm or more of hydrogen sulfide can become ill and/or die:<br />respiratory paralysis,<br />manure pits, transfer stations, poorly ventilated buildings. <br />
  6. 6. Emission and Odor Introduction<br />Odors from livestock facilities arise from a wide variety of gases and compounds.<br />Many exist at very low concentrations. <br />The actual odor can be from any combination of manure, dust, decaying feed and other organic material.<br />Odors evoke a wide range of physical and emotional reactions, both positive and negative – depending on the person.<br />Apple pie, fresh tilled soil,<br />paper company, livestock manure.<br />
  7. 7. Project Methods<br />This project was conducted by Baumgartner Environics and Discovery Farms staff at five swine finishing barns operated by E & L Harrison Enterprises, Inc.<br />Animal management within these barns is “all in – all out”, where feeder pigs are brought in at 50 lbs. and finished to 250 lbs. within 16 weeks.<br />
  8. 8. Project Methods<br />Single-day emission rates for ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and odor were determined for each barn. <br />Baumgartner Environics used the U.S. Environmental Protections Agency’s CALPUFF air quality model to estimate odorous gas concentrations present at property lines and nearest neighbor residences.<br />
  9. 9. Project Methods<br />On the day that air quality monitoring was conducted, <br />each barn had the following hog populations:<br />
  10. 10. Project Methods<br />Ammonia was measured directly from barn<br />exhaust fans, as well as manure pit exhaust <br />fans using gas detection colorimetric tubes.<br />
  11. 11. Project Methods<br />Hydrogen sulfide was measured at exhaust fans and property lines using a Jerome 631-X Hydrogen Sulfide Analyzer.<br />
  12. 12. Project Methods<br />Odor was measured two ways:<br />Collected a bag of air from barn exhaust fans for lab analysis by dynamic olfactometry (right),<br />Measured on-site using a Nasal Ranger Field Olfactometer (above).<br />
  13. 13. Project Results<br />Emissions of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and odor are measured as the amount of gas emitted per square meter of barn floor per time unit.<br />Referred to as gas flux rates.<br />For the purpose of comparison, the following 3 graphs also show the average emission flux rates from a number of Minnesota swine finishing barns:<br />Wood, S. L. et al. 2001. Odor and Gas Emissions From Animal Production Systems. 2001 ASAE Annual Meeting Paper No. 01-4043. St. Joseph, MI.<br />
  14. 14. Project Results<br />High correlation to the number of animal units present in each barn.<br />On the study date, site 2 was the most densely populated barn (184 AU).<br />Site 2 had the highest emission and odor values measured at the exhaust fans.<br />Emission rates of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from all the buildings on the project farm were below the Minnesota average. <br />
  15. 15. Project Results<br />High correlation to the number of animal units present in each barn.<br />On the study date, site 2 was the most densely populated barn (184 AU).<br />Site 2 had the highest emission and odor values measured at the exhaust fans.<br />Emission rates of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from all the buildings on the project farm were below the Minnesota average. <br />
  16. 16. Project Results<br />High correlation to the number of animal units present in each barn.<br />On the study date, site 2 was the most densely populated barn (184 AU).<br />Site 2 had the highest emission and odor values measured at the exhaust fans.<br />The levels of odor were slightly above the Minnesota odor average. <br />
  17. 17. Project Summary<br />Air quality sampling and modeling indicate that E & L Harrison Enterprises, Inc. hog finishing facilities are not a significant public health concern with regard to ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions.<br />Odor is primarily confined to the immediate vicinity of the barns but could be detected (at non-annoying levels) at the property lines for some barns.<br />A full report for this project, “Air Quality Impacts at Three Hog Feedlots”, was prepared by Baumgartner Environics,<br />Available on the UW-Discovery Farms Program website: http://www.uwdiscoveryfarms.org/pdf/pubsnewsres/other/harrisonBErpt.pdf<br />
  18. 18. Information Available<br />This presentation is the second in a series of four developed to provide the data and information collected at E & L Harrison Enterprises, Inc.<br />There are 4 factsheets, 4 briefs and 4 presentations associated with this project.<br />All factsheets, briefs and presentations are available on the UW - Discovery Farms website.<br />http://www.uwdiscoveryfarms.org<br />
  19. 19. Acknowledgement<br />Thank you to the Wisconsin Pork Association for their interest and support of this project.<br />
  20. 20. For Additional Information<br />http://www.uwdiscoveryfarms.org<br />UW Discovery Farms<br />40195 Winsand Drive<br />PO Box 429<br />Pigeon Falls, WI 54760<br /> 1-715-983-5668<br />jgoplin@wisc.edukevan.klingberg@ces.uwex.edu<br />

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