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  • 1. Water Quality Impacts of Poultry Manure Headland Stacks Impact on Groundwater Study
    Paul T. Kivlin Dennis R. Frame
    Nutrient Management Specialist Director – Professor
    Nutrient and Pest Mgmt. Program UW - Discovery Farms
    University of Wisconsin – Extension
  • 2.
  • 3. Goal of the study
    Investigate the potential for nutrients to move from headland stacked poultry manure into groundwater.
  • 4. Study design
    Approximately one hundred tons of poultry litter (manure and bedding) were piled and shaped in a manner that resembled a “typical” headland stack and left in place for one year.
  • 5. Study design
    To evaluate this objective, two sites that comply with the WDNR requirements for soil type, soil particle size distribution, and depth to groundwater were selected (RM and MM).
  • 6. Study design
    Both study sites were located on Rosholt silt loam soils.
    It is also the most susceptible soil to leaching among those used for stacking.
  • 7. Two sites in Barron County were chosen that represented the “risky” soil characteristics allowed by the WDNR for headland stack siting.
    MM Site: Rosholt soil
    12 ft. to groundwater
    RM Site: Rosholt soil
    24 ft. to groundwater
    Rosholt soil: 18 to 24 inches of silt loam leading to sand and gravel.
  • 8. Study design and protocols
    The design for this groundwater monitoring study utilized an array of six well nests at each location
  • 9. Study design and protocols
    Monitoring Well Nest Well Placement
    (one shallow well, one deep well)
    Well Nest
    Soil surface
    Manure Pile 100 ft
    Groundwater level
    10 ft
    Groundwater flow direction
  • 10. Study design and protocols
    The manure stack was positioned perpendicular to the direction of groundwater flow (determined by drilling additional water table wells).
  • 11. Study design and protocols
    The three nests “up gradient” of the manure pile represent water samples not influenced by the stack, while the three nests “down gradient” represent wells that may be influenced by the headland stack.
  • 12. Study design and protocols
    Wells were sampled weekly for three weeks before the manure was put in place.
    Wells were sampled monthly for one year after the stack was removed, then quarterly for another year (two years total).
  • 13. Constituents Tested:
    Nitrate / Nitrite
    Total Dissolved Solids
    Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
    Organic Nitrogen
  • 14.
  • 15. The manure stack was in place for one year. Wells were sampled monthly for three years.
  • 16. Included a 10.5 inch storm
    25 yr/24 hr storm = 4.6 inches
    100 yr/24 hr storm = 5.8 inches
    25% of ’07 precip.
  • 17. Averages:
    Beginning 10/04 = 8.6 ppm
    Ending 12/07 = 5.9 ppm
    Beginning 10/04 = 12.9 ppm
    Ending 12/07 = 18.7 ppm
  • 18. Included a 4.2 inch storm
  • 19. Averages:
    Beginning 10/04 = 13.9 ppm
    Ending 12/07 = 15.9 ppm
    Beginning 10/04 = 13.3 ppm
    Ending 12/07 = 14.7 ppm
  • 20. Conclusions:
    The poultry manure stack caused increased nitrate levels at the MM site.
    This site received an atypical 10.5 inch / 24 hour storm event.
  • 21. Conclusions:
    The poultry manure stack did not appear to cause increased nitrate levels at the RM site.
    This site received a 4.2 inch / 24 hour storm event.
  • 22. Conclusions:
    Current design specs for a 25 year /24 hour event (4.6 inch event) appear to be effective.
  • 23. Conclusions:
    The difference in results between the sites seems to be attributable to the abnormally large, 10.5 inch storm event. Other factors could include: depth to groundwater, soil profile variations, or groundwater flow rates (MM – 0.72 ft/day, RM – 1.53 ft/day), etc.
  • 24. Information Available
    Briefs / Articles –summarization of factsheets
    Factsheets - six page factsheets that provide much of the information and data gathered through each phase of the study.
    Presentations – this is the fifth in a five part series on headland stacking of poultry manure
  • 25. For Additional Information
    UW Discovery Farms
    40195 Winsand Drive
    PO Box 429
    Pigeon Falls, WI 54760
    jgoplin@wisc.eduor drframe@wisc.edu